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Encyclopedia > Bonsai
Maple Bonsai in Heidelberg, Germany
Maple Bonsai in Heidelberg, Germany
Bonsai displayed at a garden show in Tatton Park in Cheshire, England
Bonsai displayed at a garden show in Tatton Park in Cheshire, England

Bonsai listen  (Japanese: 盆栽, literally "potted plant") is the art of aesthetic miniaturization of trees by growing them in containers. Originating in Chinese penjing (Chinese: 盆景, "tray scenery"), Japanese bonsai developed its localization of techniques and aesthetics after its introduction to Japan by imperial embassies returning from China in the ninth century. In Western culture, the word "bonsai" is commonly used as an umbrella term for all miniature trees. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (775x938, 165 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bonsai Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (775x938, 165 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bonsai Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (986x694, 129 KB) Summary I took this photo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (986x694, 129 KB) Summary I took this photo. ... We dont have an article called Tatton Park Start this article Search for Tatton Park in. ... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Bonsai. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tree (disambiguation). ... Penjing in the US National Bonsai and Penjing Museum Penjing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally tray scenery), also known as tray landscape, potted scenery, potted landscape, and miniature trees and rockery is the ancient Chinese art of growing trees and plants, kept small by skilled pruning and formed to create an aesthetic... Imperial embassies to China were missions to China for importing the technologies and culture of China to Japan. ...

Contents

History

The history of bonsai is cloaked in the mist of the past, but it is now widely believed to have started during the Han Dynasty in China. It was the Chinese who first created the miniature landscapes and trees that we now know as bonsai or penjing. Since originating in China many centuries ago, it has developed into many new forms in various parts of China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Penjing in the US National Bonsai and Penjing Museum Penjing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally tray scenery), also known as tray landscape, potted scenery, potted landscape, and miniature trees and rockery is the ancient Chinese art of growing trees and plants, kept small by skilled pruning and formed to create an aesthetic...


At first, the Japanese used miniaturized container-grown trees for decorating their homes and gardens. [1]


During the Tokugawa period, landscape gardening attained new importance. Cultivation of plants such as azalea and maples became a pastime of the wealthy. Growing dwarf plants in containers was also popular, but by modern bonsai standards the container plants of this period were inappropriately large.[2] The then-term for dwarf potted trees was "a tree in a pot" (鉢の木 hachi-no-ki?). History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Edo period (江戸時代) is a... Azaleas are flowering shrubs making up part of the genus Rhododendron. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ...


Cultivation

Bamboo bonsai in Chengdu, China
Bamboo bonsai in Chengdu, China

Bonsai are not genetically dwarfed plants. They are created from nearly any tree or shrub species and remain small through pot confinement and crown and root pruning. Some specific species are more sought after for use as bonsai material. This is because they have characteristics that make them appropriate for the smaller design arrangements of bonsai. [citation needed] There are many different ways to acquire, cultivate and grow bonsai. Several of the most common include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1116 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bamboo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1116 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bamboo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create...

Plant cuttings are a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... Layering is a technique for plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem is encouraged to grow roots while still attached to the parent plant, and then removed and planted as a new plant. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ...

Common styles

Bonsai Garden at the pagoda Yunyan Ta (Cloud Rock Pagoda; Suzhou, China)
Bonsai Garden at the pagoda Yunyan Ta (Cloud Rock Pagoda; Suzhou, China)
Bonsai Trees showing a variety of different styles in Sydney, Australia.
Bonsai Trees showing a variety of different styles in Sydney, Australia.
A Pine bonsai in the informal upright style. This tree is more than 30 years old, in the Hidden Lake Gardens Collection
A Pine bonsai in the informal upright style. This tree is more than 30 years old, in the Hidden Lake Gardens Collection

Many different styles of bonsai exist. In English, the most common styles include: formal upright, slant, informal upright, cascade, semi-cascade, raft, literati, and group/forest. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 798 KB) Bonsai forest at the gardens of pagoda Yunyan Ta (Cloud Rock Pagoda), also known as leaning pagoda (Suzhou, China) Author: Miguel A. Monjas Date: 07/27, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Suzhou Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1520, 798 KB) Bonsai forest at the gardens of pagoda Yunyan Ta (Cloud Rock Pagoda), also known as leaning pagoda (Suzhou, China) Author: Miguel A. Monjas Date: 07/27, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Suzhou Metadata... This article is about the city in Jiangsu. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 231 KB) Summary Bonsai trees at a display in the Chinese Garden of Sydney, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 231 KB) Summary Bonsai trees at a display in the Chinese Garden of Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1216x1800, 261 KB) I took this photo in the summer of 2004, at Hiden Lake Gardens Collection. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1216x1800, 261 KB) I took this photo in the summer of 2004, at Hiden Lake Gardens Collection. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Hidden Lake Gardens 755 acres (3. ...

  • The formal upright style, or Chokkan, is characterized by a straight, upright, tapering trunk. The trunk and branches of the informal upright style, or Moyogi, may incorporate pronounced bends and curves, but the apex of the informal upright is always located directly over where the trunk begins at the soil line.
  • Slant-style, or Shakan, bonsai possess straight trunks like those of bonsai grown in the formal upright style. However, the slant style trunk emerges from the soil at an angle, and the apex of the bonsai will be located to the left or right of the root base.
  • Cascade-style, or Kengai, bonsai are modeled after trees which grow over water or on the sides of mountains. The apex, or tip of the tree in the Semi-cascade-style, or Han Kengai, bonsai extend just at or beneath the lip of the bonsai pot; the apex of a (full) cascade style falls below the base of the pot.
  • Raft-style, or Netsunari, bonsai mimic a natural phenomenon that occurs when a tree topples onto its side (typically due to erosion or another natural force) and branches along the exposed side of the trunk, growing as if they are a group of new trunks. Sometimes, roots will develop from buried portions of the trunk. Raft-style bonsai can have sinuous, straight-line, or slanting trunks, all giving the illusion that they are a group of separate trees -- while actually being the branches of a tree planted on its side.
  • The literati style is characterized by a generally bare trunk line, with branches reduced to a minimum, and typically placed higher up on a long, often contorted trunk. This style derives its name from the Chinese literati, who were often artists, and some of whom painted Chinese brush paintings, like those found in the ancient text, The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting, depicting pine trees that grew in harsh climates, struggling to reach sunlight. In Japan, the literati style is known as bunjin-gi (文人木?). (Bunjin is a translation of the Chinese phrase wenren meaning "scholars practiced in the arts" and gi is a derivative of the Japanese word, ki, for "tree").
  • The group or forest style, or Yose Ue, comprises a planting of more than one tree (typically an odd number if there are three or more trees, and essentially never 4 because of its significance in Japan) in a bonsai pot. The trees are usually the same species, with a variety of heights employed to add visual interest and to reflect the age differences encountered in mature forests.
  • The root-over-rock style, or Sekijoju, is a style in which the roots of a tree (typically a fig tree) are wrapped around a rock. The rock is at the base of the trunk, with the roots exposed to varying degrees.
  • The broom style, or Hokidachi is employed for trees with extensive, fine branching, often with species like elms. The trunk is straight and upright. It branches out in all directions about 1/3 of the way up the entire height of the tree. The branches and leaves form a ball-shaped crown which can also be very beautiful during the winter months.
  • The multi-trunk style, or Ikadabuki has all the trunks growing out of one root system, and it actually is one single tree. All the trunks form one crown of leaves, in which the thickest and most developed trunk forms the top.
  • The growing-in-a-rock, or Ishizuke style means the roots of the tree are growing in the cracks and holes of the rock. There is not much room for the roots to develop and take up nutrients. These trees are designed to visually represent that the tree has to struggle to survive.

An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... The first English translation of an historic Chinese handbook on brush painting called, Chieh Tzu Yuan Hua Chua, published circa 1679-1701 A.D. under the title The Tao of Painting, Volume 2. ... This article discusses the number Four. ...

Size classifications

Additionally, bonsai are classed by size. Sizes of bonsai include:

Class Size
cm in
tiny Mame Keshi-tsubu up to 2.5 up to 1
Shito 2.5 – 7.5 1–3
small Shohin Gafu 13 – 20 5–8
Komono up to 18 up to 7.2
Myabi 15–25 6–10
medium Kifu Katade-mochi up to 40 16
medium to large Chu/Chuhin 40–60 16–24
large Dai/Daiza Omono up to 120 up to 48
Bonju over 100 over 40

*Note: Not all sources agree on exact range of size ranges. A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


There are a number of specific techniques and styles associated with mame and shito sizes, the smallest bonsai. These are often small enough to be grown in thimble-sized pots,[citation needed] and due to their minuscule size, require special care and adhere to different design conventions. A thimble A thimble is a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb. ...


Techniques

Bonsai at the "Foire du Valais" (Martigny, Switzerland, oct 2005)
Bonsai at the "Foire du Valais" (Martigny, Switzerland, oct 2005)

Shaping and dwarfing are accomplished through a few basic but precise techniques. The small size of the tree and the dwarfing of foliage are maintained through a consistent regimen of pruning of both the leaves and the roots. Various methods must be employed, as each species of tree exhibits different budding behavior. Additionally, some pruning must be done seasonally, as most trees require a dormancy period and do not grow roots or leaves at that time; improper pruning can weaken or kill the tree.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 1152 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bonsai at the Foire du Valais (Martigny, Switzerland, oct 2005) by Dake. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 1152 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bonsai at the Foire du Valais (Martigny, Switzerland, oct 2005) by Dake. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ...


Most species suitable for bonsai can be shaped by wiring. Copper or aluminum wire is wrapped around branches and trunks, holding the branch in place until it eventually lignifies (converts into wood) and maintains the desired shape (at which point the wire should be removed). Some species do not lignify strongly, or are already too stiff/brittle to be shaped and are not conducive to wiring, in which case shaping must be accomplished primarily through pruning.[3] For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Back in the mid 1950s, utility companies began using aluminum wire for transmission of electricity within their power grids. ...


To simulate age and maturity in a bonsai, deadwood features called "jin" and "shari" can be used to good effect with coniferous bonsai, especially. "Jin" are created by removing the bark from an entire branch to create a snag of deadwood, while "shari" involves stripping bark from areas of the trunk, simulating natural scarring by limbs being torn free. Care must be taken when employing these techniques, because these areas are prone to infection, and removal of too much bark will result in losing all growth above that area. Bark must never be removed in a complete ring around the trunk as it contains the phloem and will cut off all nutrient flow above that ring. Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ...


Watering

Because of limited space in the confines of a bonsai pot, bonsai care can be quite difficult. The shallow containers limit the expanse of the root system and makes proper watering somewhat difficult. Watering techniques vary, from watering with a fine hose on a watering can or hosepipe, to using automated watering systems or simply immersing in water. While some species can handle periods of relative dryness, others require near-constant moisture. Watering too frequently, or allowing the soil to remain soggy, can promote fungal infections and "root rot". Sun, heat and wind exposure can quickly dry a bonsai tree to the point of drought, so the soil moisture should be monitored daily and water given when needed. The soil should not be allowed to become totally dry, even for brief periods. Deciduous trees are more at risk and wilt quickly giving obvious signs, evergreen trees, which tend to cope with dry conditions better, do not display signs of this problem untill long after the damage is done, and may even appear green and healthy despite having badly damaged or dead root system for quite some time after damage occures. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...


Repotting

An uprooted bonsai, ready for repotting
An uprooted bonsai, ready for repotting

Bonsai are repotted and root-pruned at intervals dictated by the vigour and age of each tree, with deciduous this is done as the tree is leaving its dormant period generally around spring time. Bonsai are often repotted while in development, and less often as they become more mature. This prevents them from becoming pot-bound and encourages the growth of new feeder roots, allowing the tree to absorb moisture more efficiently. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 404 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (703 × 1044 pixel, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 404 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (703 × 1044 pixel, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Pre-bonsai material are often placed in "growing boxes" which are made from scraps of fenceboard or wood slats. These large boxes allow the roots to grow more freely and increase the vigor of the tree. The second stage after using a grow box is to plant the tree in a "training box;" this is often smaller and helps to create a smaller dense root mass which can be more easily moved into a final presentation pot.


Wiring

Bonsai wiring is one of the most powerful tools to control the shape of the tree.[4] The best time to wire a tree is in spring or fall when there is not as much foliage and the tree will not be too stiff. (Trees become stiff in winter while dormant because the sap pressure of the trunk and branches is much lower.) Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...


One method of wiring the tree is to wrap the trunk. Then each branch is wrapped in spirals of bonsai wire so that the branch may be bent. The tree will then train the branch to grow in the desired direction. Another method of wiring involves attaching weights to the branches, causing them to sag and creating the impression of age.


Generally, wire is left on for one growing season. The tree should not be allowed to outgrow the wire, since this could cause the bark to become bound to the wire, making removal traumatic. When the time comes to remove the wire, it should be cut away in small pieces (rather than unwinding it), as this will cause less damage to the foliage.


The thickness of the wire used should be in proportion to the size of the branch — larger branches will require lower-gauge wire. Two pieces of thinner wire paired together can be used in lieu of heavier wire. It is bad form to let any wires cross; this is most readily accomplished by starting from the base of trunk and working up. Wire gauge is a measurement of how large a wire is, either in diameter or cross-sectional area. ...


When bending the branches, one should listen and feel for any sign of splitting. When bending a branch near the trunk extra caution should be used, as the branch is generally most brittle near the trunk. It is possible to gradually bend a branch little by little over the course of several months.


When working with the branches, consideration should be given to the style desired.


Tools

A set of bonsai tools, from left to right: leaf trimmer; rake with spatula; root hook; coir brush; concave cutter; knob cutter; wire cutter; small, medium, and large shears
A set of bonsai tools, from left to right: leaf trimmer; rake with spatula; root hook; coir brush; concave cutter; knob cutter; wire cutter; small, medium, and large shears

Special tools are available for the maintenance of bonsai. The most common tool is the concave cutter, a tool designed to prune flush, without leaving a stub. Other tools include branch bending jacks, wire pliers and shears of different proportions for performing detail and rough shaping. Anodized aluminum or copper wire is used to shape branches and hold them until they take a set. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 398 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1288 pixel, file size: 853 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 398 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1288 pixel, file size: 853 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ...


Fertilization and soil

Opinions about soil mixes and fertilization vary widely among practitioners. Some promote the use of organic fertilizers to augment an essentially inorganic soil mix, while others will use chemical fertilizers freely. Bonsai soils are constructed to optimize drainage [5]. Bonsai soil is primarily a loose, fast-draining mix of components, often a base mixture of coarse sand or gravel, fired clay pellets or expanded shale combined with an organic component such as peat or bark. In Japan, volcanic soils based on clay (akadama, or "red ball" soil, and kanuma, a type of yellow pumice) are preferred. Akadama Janpanese: AKA(red)+DAMA(ball). ...


Containers

Akadama

Every bonsai pot is equipped with drainage holes to enable the excess water to drain out. Each hole is typically covered with a plastic screen or mesh to prevent soil from escaping. Containers come in a variety of shapes and colors (glazed or unglazed). Containers with straight sides and sharp corners are generally better suited to formally presented plants, while oval or round containers might be used for plants with informal shapes. Most evergreen bonsai are placed in unglazed pots, while deciduous trees are planted in glazed pots. It is important in design that the color of the pot compliments the tree. Bonsai pots are produced all over the world, but some are higher quality than others. Some are highly collectible, such as ancient Chinese or Japanese pots made in highly-touted regions with experienced pot makers such as Tokoname, Japan. However, collectible pots are not confined to Asia; European Artists such as Byran Albright and Gordon Duffett produce unique pots which bonsai artists collect. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Tokoname (常滑市; -shi) is a city located in Aichi, Japan. ...


Location

The suitablity of any tree to or plant for that matter, to being kept indoors is totally dictated by the plants needs, an indoor Bonsai to a European would be a tropical or sub-tropical species for example, just as a deciduous tree in a tropical environment would have specific needs. So to refer to a bonsai as indoor simply means that it is in a location outside its normal growing habitat. Certain trees do grow better than others in these artificial environments but all have specific needs.


However, many successful entrepreneurs in indoor bonsai have grown many hardy trees inside. Japanese black pine and Buddhist pine are two examples of common outdoor bonsai that can survive inside, although the Buddhist pine can tolerate more variation in lighting and cold.[citation needed] Those who have successfully grown hardy specimens indoors have resorted to the use of multiple techniques, such as having a cold room designated for bonsai, and even using the refrigerator. With indoor hardy bonsai, having proper lighting and the ability to give a cooling season are both necessary tasks to ensuring survival. An open window will allow the full spectrum of light through, east-facing windows being the best. Apart from that, full spectrum grow lights become necessary, to mimic the sun, and the hardy plants require more of the spectrum.[citation needed] For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ...


While some claim there is no true indoor bonsai[citation needed], Buddhist pine and Chinese elms are common bonsai that will readily adapt to indoor climate, provided they are given acclimatization time.[citation needed] Both these plants have been and continue to be commonly used for outdoor bonsai as well. Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ...


Overwintering

Some trees require protection from the elements in winter and the techniques used will depend on how well the tree is adapted to the climate. During overwintering, temperate species are allowed to enter dormancy, but care must be taken with deciduous plants to prevent them from breaking dormancy too early. In-ground cold frames, unheated garages, porches, and the like are commonly used, or mulching the plant in its container up to the depth of the first branch or burying them with the root system below the frost line. In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ... The frost line is the level down to which the soil will normally freeze each winter in a given area. ...


Mallsai

The pejorative neologism "Mallsai" is a portmanteau of the words mall and bonsai. It refers to inexpensive bonsai trees often sold in chain stores and gift shops.[citation needed] They are usually weak or dead trees by the time they are sold.[citation needed] Often these bonsai are mass-produced and are rooted in thick clay.[citation needed] This clay is very detrimental to the bonsai, as it literally suffocates the roots and promotes root rot. Very little, if any, shaping is done on "mallsai", and often the foliage is crudely pruned with little finesse to resemble a tree.[citation needed] Due to the conditions under which they are transported and sold, they are often inadequately watered and are kept in poor soil - usually a clump of sphagnum moss or clay with a layer of gravel glued to the top.[citation needed] This leaves them susceptible to both drying and fungal infections. Some "mallsai" can be resuscitated with proper care and immediate repotting, although rarely. This top layer of glued-on gravel should be immediately removed once the bonsai is purchased, and the plant should be repotted in a well-draining bonsai soil. It has recently been made against the law to sell Bonsai in this imported clay "soil" and they should be repotted and their health checked before being resold.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... Look up Mall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ...


Collecting

Bonsai may be developed from material obtained at the local gardening center, or from suitable materials collected from the wild or urban landscape. Some regions have plant material that is known for its suitability in form - for example the California Juniper and Sierra Juniper found in the Sierra Mountains, and Bald Cypress found in the swamps of the Everglades. Binomial name Juniperus californica Carr. ... Binomial name Juniperus occidentalis Hook. ... Binomial name Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ...


Great care must be taken when collecting, as it is very easy to damage the tree's root system (often irreparably) by digging it up. Potential material must be analyzed carefully to determine whether it can be removed safely. Trees with a shallow or partially exposed root system are ideal candidates for extraction.


Bonsai tourism

A collection of bonsai at Florida's Melbourne Zoo.
A collection of bonsai at Florida's Melbourne Zoo.
John Naka's masterpiece, Goshin, is on display at the United States National Arboretum.
John Naka's masterpiece, Goshin, is on display at the United States National Arboretum.

Bonsai collections are open for public viewing in many cities around the world. For example: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 3343 KB) Summary Taken at the Melbourne, FL Zoo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 3343 KB) Summary Taken at the Melbourne, FL Zoo. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 606 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1681 × 1662 pixel, file size: 702 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 606 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1681 × 1662 pixel, file size: 702 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... John Naka (August 16, 1914 - May 19, 2004) was born John Yoshio Naka in Ft. ... John Nakas masterpiece, Goshin, is on display at the United States National Arboretum. ... The United States National Arboretum is an arboretum in Washington D.C., owned by the United States Department of Agriculture. ...

  • Australia: Admission is free at the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, where the Bonsai House displays hundreds of trees, some 80 years old. [1].
  • Belgium: The Belgian Bonsai Museum hosted by the Bonsai Centre Gingko at Laarne organizes international competitions and workshops [2].
  • Canada: The Montreal Botanical Garden has a very extensive indoor collection of bonsai and penjing that can be viewed year round [3].
  • China: View the bonsai at the Classical and Botanical Gardens in Beijing [4], Shanghai [5] and Suzhou [6].
  • Germany: The Grugapark in Essen has a permanent bonsai exhibition [7].
  • Indonesia: Pluit Bonsai Centre in Jakarta is an enormous sales and trading centre for growers and collectors [8].
  • Italy: The firm Crespi Bonsai hosts an international competition, the Crespi Cup, every year at the Bonsai Museum in Milan [9].
  • Japan: Near Tokyo, the city of Omiya has an artisanal village of bonsai growers and stylists grow and maintain their stock. In Omiya Bonsai Village, more than a half dozen large bonsai nurseries allow visitors to view trees most days during growing season. By one estimate, more than 10,000 trees of world-class quality can be seen in a single day [10].
  • Singapore: Thousands on bonsai are on display at the Chinese and Japanese Gardens on two islands in Jurong Lake [11].
  • Spain: Visitors to Marbella can enjoy the collection at the Museo de Bonsai [12].
  • Taiwan: Bonsai from Taiwan look different from Japanese bonsai as well as the ones we see in Chinese penjing books.[13] [14] [15]
  • United Kingdom: The Birmingham Botanical Gardens and Glasshouses hosts a rotating collection of about 25 trees at a time, and occasionally gives bonsai care workshops [16]. Heron's Bonsai Nursery in Surrey amasses 7 acres of a wide range of bonsai trees. Also on show are examples from the owners personal collection alongside Japanese gardens. Regular bonsai classes are available, with a bonsai clinic on the first Sunday of every month [17]. Kew Gardens has small collection of around 60 Trees, and there is also a lovely Japanese Garden.
  • United States: The United States National Arboretum in Washington, DC contains the National Bonsai and Penjing Museum, an impressive collection of trees, some of them gifts from the Nation of Japan or foreign heads of state [18]. The Marjorie McNeely Conservatory in St. Paul, Minnesota's Como Park has a Bonsai Room [19] The Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts is home to the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. On the West Coast the Weyerhaeuser Corporation [20] maintains a collection open to the public at its headquarters near Seattle. In California, the Golden State Bonsai Federation [21] has two collections: the Collection North in Oakland, and the Collection South Huntington Library and Gardens in San Marino. Lastly, the North Carolina Arboretum in Asheville, NC also has an excellent display of Bonsai[22]. The C.V. Starr Bonsai Museum of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden houses a famous collection of indoor and temperate or outdoor bonsai plants and are exhibited in a Japanese-style architectural setting. The Brooklyn Botanic Garden's bonsai collection is considered one of the finest in the world and is the second largest on public display outside Japan, featuring as many as 100 specimens at any given time. Some of the trees in the collection are well over a century old. A stylized verandah complete with tokonoma, or alcove, looks out onto the entire exhibit. Text panels introduce the history of bonsai and explain culture and care.

There are two major botanic gardens in Brisbane, Australia: The Brisbane City Botanic Gardens are located in the south-east of the peninsula of the Brisbane River that contains the central business district of the city. ... Laarne is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. ... Some weeping willows at the Montreal Botanical Garden The Jardin botanique de Montréal or Montreal Botanical Garden is a large botanical garden in Montreal, Quebec. ... Beijing Botanical Garden is situated in the northwestern outskirts of the Beijing between Xiangshan Park and Jade Spring Mountain. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Jiangsu. ... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Omiya (大宮区; -ku) is a ward of Saitama. ... Omiya Bonsai Village (大宮盆栽村, Bonsai, Saitama city (さいたま市大宮区盆栽町)) Omiya Bonsai Village was established in 1925 by a group of professional bonsai gardeners who originally lived around Dango-Zaka (Hongo) area in Tokyo and emigrated from there due to the crucial damages caused by the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923. ... View of the southernmost part of Jurong Lake with Japanese Gardens and Jurong Golf Club in the background View of the northern-to-middle part of Jurong Lake View of the middle-to-southern part of Jurong Lake with the Chinese Gardens in the background View of the northernmost part... For the automobile, see SEAT Marbella. ... The United States National Arboretum is an arboretum in Washington D.C., owned by the United States Department of Agriculture. ... The Arnold Arboretum is one of the worlds finest research arboretums. ... Boston redirects here. ... The Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection at the Arnold Arboretum in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts is one of the premier collections of bonsai in the United States and includes a Hinoki Cypress over 250 years old. ... Huntington Library The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens (or The Huntington[1]) is an educational and research institution established by Henry E. Huntington in San Marino, California, USA. In addition to the library, the site houses a rarefied art collection and renowned botanical gardens. ... Cornelius Vander Starr (October 15, 1892 - December 20, 1968) was an American businessman. ... The Cranford Rose Garden in Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York City The Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BCG) is a botanical garden located next to Prospect Park near Grand Army Plaza in Brooklyn, New York, USA. Founded in 1910, the 52 acre (210,000 m²) garden includes a cherry tree esplanade, a... A tokonoma ( Japanese 床の間) is a small raised alcove where decorative scrolls are hung. ... Alcove (through the Spanish, alcova, from the Arabic, al-, the, and quobbah, a vault) is an architectural term for a recess in a room, usually screened off by pillars, balustrade or drapery. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/bonsai/intro.html Early American Bonsai: The Larz Anderson Collection of the Arnold Arboretum" by Peter Del Tredici, published in Arnoldia (Summer 1989) by Harvard University]
  2. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  3. ^ a b Lewis, Colin (2003). The Bonsai Handbook. Advanced Marketing Ltd.. ISBN 1-903938-30-9. 
  4. ^ Bonsai Master Class Craig Coussins (2006) Sterling Publishing Co.
  5. ^ It's All In The Soil by Mike Smith, published in Norfolk Bonsai (Spring 2007) by Norfolk Bonsai Association

External links

  • The Art of Bonsai Project
  • Bonsai Wiki
  • Bonsai Articles, Images and Guides and a comprehensive list of species guides
  • Bonsai Clubs International
  • Federation of British Bonsai Societies
  • Norfolk Bonsai Association - UK
  • Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York City, USA
  • Eurasia Bonsai Club, Turkey

See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... A bonsai trident maple. ... Penjing in the US National Bonsai and Penjing Museum Penjing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally tray scenery), also known as tray landscape, potted scenery, potted landscape, and miniature trees and rockery is the ancient Chinese art of growing trees and plants, kept small by skilled pruning and formed to create an aesthetic... Saikei literally translates as planted landscape or it is the art of the living landscape. ... Niwaki is the Japanese word for ‘garden trees’. The technique of niwaki is more about what you do to a tree than the tree itself. ... A Mambonsai, , is a pop culture twist on the traditional Japanese art of bonsai. ... A topiary dinosaur at Epcot Topiary is the art of creating sculptures in the medium of shrubbery, after the Latin word for an ornamental landscape gardener, toparius. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Organic gardening and Organic farming. ... Category: ... List of all (?) stamps with Bonsai // Angola 2000 A fraudulent set of stamps. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bonsai - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2945 words)
Japanese bonsai is derived from the Chinese artform, and was introduced to to Japan by imperial embassies in the Chinese Tang Dynasty (the C7th–9th).
Raft style bonsai are bonsai which mimic a natural phenomenon where a tree that has been toppled (typically due to erosion or another natural force) begins to grow a new root system out of the part of the trunk that is in contact with the ground.
Bonsai soil is primarily a loose, fast-draining mix of components, often a base mixture of coarse sand or gravel, fired clay pellets or expanded shale combined with an organic component such as peat or bark.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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