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Encyclopedia > Bonobo
Bonobo[1]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Pan
Species: P. paniscus
Binomial name
Pan paniscus
Schwarz, 1929
Bonobo distribution
Bonobo distribution

The Bonobo (IPA: /bəˈnoʊboʊ/, Pan paniscus), until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee (and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee),[3] is one of the two species making up the chimpanzee genus, Pan. The other species in genus Pan is Pan troglodytes, or the Common Chimpanzee. Although the name "chimpanzee" is sometimes used to refer to both species together, it is usually understood as referring to the Common Chimpanzee. The Bonobo is endangered, and is found in the wild only in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Along with the Common Chimpanzee, the Bonobo is the closest relative to Humans. Bonobo can refer to: Bonobo, one of the two species of chimpanzees, also known as the Pygmy Chimpanzee Bonobo (computing), the component model used in the GNOME desktop environment Bonobo (music), the composer and DJ Bonobos (J-Pop), a J-pop music group This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Image File history File links A Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Source License  [1]: Unless a copyright is indicated, information on this Web site is in the public domain and may be reproduced, published or otherwise used without USAIDs permission. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Ernst Schwarz (1889-1962) was a German zoologist. ... Image File history File links Bonobo_distribution. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ...


German anatomist Ernst Schwarz is credited with having discovered the Bonobo in 1928, based on his analysis of a skull in the Tervuren museum in Belgium that had been thought to have belonged to a juvenile chimpanzee. Schwarz published his findings in 1929. In 1933, American anatomist Harold Coolidge offered a more detailed description of the Bonobo, and elevated it to species status. The species is distinguished by relatively long legs, a matriarchal culture, and the prominent role of sexual activity in its society. Ernst Schwarz (1889-1962) was a German zoologist. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 32. ... Matriarchy is a term, which is applied to gynocentric form of society, in which the leading role is by the female and especially by the mothers of a community. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ...


This primate is mainly frugivorous, but supplements its diet with leaves and sometimes small vertebrates (such as flying squirrels and infant duikers[4]) and invertebrates.[5] Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds on fruit. ... Two groups of rodents are referred to as flying squirrels. ... Genera Cephalophus Sylvicapra A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species native to sub-Saharan Africa. ...

Contents

Name

Common name

The name Bonobo first appeared in 1954, when Edward Tratz and Heinz Heck proposed it as a new and separate generic term for pygmy chimpanzees. The term has been variously reported[citation needed] as being a word for "chimpanzee" or "ancestor" in a Bantu language. Another suggestion is that the name is a misspelling of the name of the town of Bolobo on the Congo River, which has been associated with the collection of chimps in the 1920s.[6] The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


Taxonomy

The scientific name for the Bonobo is Pan paniscus. Initial genetic studies have characterised their DNA as more than 98% identical to that of Homo sapiens.[7] More recent studies have shown that chimps are more closely related to humans than to gorillas.[8] The most recent genetic analyses of chimpanzee and human genetic similarity come from whole genome comparisons and have shown that the differences between the two are more complex both in extent and character than the historical 98% figure suggests. In the seminal Nature paper reporting on initial genome comparisons, researchers identified thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and a number of chromosomal rearrangements which constituted the genetic differences between chimps and humans, covering ~5% of both genomes.[9] While many of these analyses have been performed on the Common Chimpanzee rather than the Bonobo, the differences between the two chimpanzee species are unlikely to be substantial enough to affect the Pan-Homo comparative data significantly. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ... Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome. ...


But there is still controversy. Scientists such as Morris Goodman[10] of Wayne State University in Detroit argue that the Bonobo and Common Chimpanzee are so closely related to humans, their genus name should also be classified with the Human genus Homo: Homo paniscus, Homo sylvestris, or Homo arboreus. An alternative philosophy suggests that the term Homo sapiens is actually the misnomer, and that humanity should be reclassified as Pan sapiens. In either case, a name change of the genus is problematic because it complicates the taxonomy of other species closely related to humans, including Australopithecus. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ...


Recent DNA evidence suggests the Bonobo and Common Chimpanzee species effectively separated from each other less than one million years ago.[11][12] The chimpanzee line split from the last common ancestor with the Human approximately four to six million years ago. Because no species other than Homo sapiens has survived from the human line of that branching, both Pan species are the closest living relatives of humans, and cladistically exactly equally close to humans. For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article is about modern humans. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ...


Physical characteristics

Bonobo
Bonobo

The Bonobo is more gracile (slight in form) than the Common Chimpanzee. Its head is smaller than that of the Common Chimpanzee with less prominent eyebrow ridges. It has a black face with pink lips, small ears, wide nostrils, and long hair on its head. Females have slightly more prominent breasts in contrast to the flat breasts of other female apes, though not as prominent as those of humans. The Bonobo also has a slim upper body, narrow shoulders, thin neck, and long legs compared with the Common Chimpanzee. The Bonobo walks upright about 25% of the time during ground locomotion. These characteristics, and its posture, gives the Bonobo a more human-like appearance than that of the Common Chimpanzee (see: bipedal Bonobos). Moreover, the Bonobo has highly individuated facial features, as humans do, so that one individual can look significantly different from another, adapted for visual recognition in social interaction. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1855x1484, 2554 KB) Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo May 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Bonobo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1855x1484, 2554 KB) Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo May 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Bonobo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create...


Psychological characteristics

Frans de Waal, one of the world's leading primatologists, states that the Bonobo is often capable of altruism, compassion, empathy, kindness, patience and sensitivity. Frans B.M. de Waal, PhD (b. ... Primatology is the study of primates. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Recent observations in the wild indicate that the males among the Common Chimpanzee communities are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the community. Parties of males 'patrol' for the unfortunate neighbouring males who might be traveling alone, and attack those single males, often killing them. (Some researchers have suggested, however, that this behaviour has been caused by a combination of human contact and interference and massive environmental stress caused by deforestation and a corresponding range reduction.[13]) This does not appear to be the behavior of the Bonobo males or females, both of which seem to prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation with outsiders. The Bonobo lives in different areas from the more aggressive Common Chimpanzee. Neither of the species swims, and they sometimes inhabit ranges on opposite sides of the great Congo River. It has been hypothesized that Bonobos are able to live a more peaceful lifestyle in part because of an abundance of nutritious vegetation in their natural habitat, allowing them to travel and forage in large parties.


The popular image of the Bonobo as a "peaceful ape" has come under fire. Accounts exist of Bonobos in zoos mutilating one another and engaging in bullying. These incidents may be due to the practice in zoos of separating mothers and sons. Bonobo society is dominated by females, and severing the lifelong alliance between mothers and their male offspring may make them vulnerable to female aggression. De Waal has warned of the danger of romanticizing Bonobos: "All animals are competitive by nature and cooperative only under specific circumstances" as well as writing that "When first writing about their behavior, I spoke of 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos had plenty of conflicts. There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony". In marked contrast to the Common Chimpanzee there are no confirmed reports of lethal aggression between Bonobos, either in the wild or in captivity. The immature state of Bonobo research in the wild compared to that of the Common Chimpanzee, however, means that lethal aggression may yet be discovered.


Sexual social behavior

Sexual intercourse plays a major role in Bonobo society, being used as a greeting, a means of conflict resolution and post-conflict reconciliation, and as favors traded by the females in exchange for food. With the exception of a pair of Congoese gorillas caught in the act[14], Bonobos were thought to be the only non-human apes to have been observed engaging in all of the following sexual activities: face-to-face genital sex (most frequently female-female, then male-female and male-male), tongue kissing, and oral sex.[15] In scientific literature, the female-female sex is often referred to as GG rubbing or genital-genital rubbing. It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Greeting is a way for human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) to intentionally communicate awareness of each others presence, to show attention to, and/or to affirm or suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in... For the episode of the television series The Office, see Conflict Resolution (The Office episode) As you know, wikipedia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Whore redirects here. ... Genital sex or genital intercourse involves mutual contact between the genitals of two partners (sometimes more). ... Tribadism Tribadism or tribbing is a form of mutual masturbation, sometimes called frottage, in which a woman rubs her vulva against her partners body for sexual stimulation. ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... Frot Frot is male-male non-penetrative sex, where male partners engage in the rubbing of erect penis on erect penis, typically while in full-frontal embrace. ... Further information: kiss This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ...


Sexual activity happens within the immediate family as well as outside it, and often involves adults and children, even infants.[16] Bonobos do not form permanent relationships with individual partners. They also do not seem to discriminate in their sexual behavior by gender or age, with the possible exception of sexual intercourse between mothers and their adult sons; some observers believe these pairings are taboo. When Bonobos come upon a new food source or feeding ground, the increased excitement will usually lead to communal sexual activity, presumably decreasing tension and allowing for peaceful feeding.[17] Faithfulness redirects here. ...


Bonobo males frequently engage in various forms of male-male genital sex (frot).[18][19] One form has two males hang from a tree limb face-to-face while "penis fencing"[20][21]. Frot may also occur where two males rub their penises together while in missionary position. A special form of frot called "rump rubbing" occurs to express reconciliation between two males after a conflict, where they stand back-to-back and rub their scrotal sacs together. Frot Frot is male-male non-penetrative sex, where male partners engage in the rubbing of erect penis on erect penis, typically while in full-frontal embrace. ...


Bonobo females also engage in female-female genital sex (tribadism) to socially bond with each other, thus forming a female nucleus of Bonobo society. The bonding between females allows them to dominate Bonobo society - although male Bonobos are individually stronger, they cannot stand alone against a united group of females.[21] Adolescent females often leave their native community to join another community. Sexual bonding with other females establishes the new females as members of the group. This migration mixes the Bonobo gene pools, providing genetic diversity. Tribadism Tribadism or tribbing is a form of mutual masturbation, sometimes called frottage, in which a woman rubs her vulva against her partners body for sexual stimulation. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


Bonobo reproductive rates are not any higher than that of the Common Chimpanzee. Female Bonobos carry and nurse their young for five years and can give birth every five to six years. Compared with Common Chimpanzees, Bonobo females resume the genital swelling cycle much sooner after giving birth, allowing them to rejoin the sexual activities of their society. Also, Bonobo females who are either sterile or too young to reproduce still engage in sexual activity.


Craig Stanford, an American primatologist, has challenged the claim that Bonobos are more sexually active than Common Chimpanzees. Stanford compared existing data on Common Chimpanzees and Bonobos in the natural habitat and found that female Common Chimpanzees copulated at least as often as female Bonobos, while male chimpanzees actually copulated more than male Bonobos.[22] His comparison excluded same-sex sexual contacts, however, which are very common in Bonobos. De Waal's book on Bonobos includes interviews with field workers and relies on the studies by Takayoshi Kano, the only scientist to have worked for two decades with wild Bonobos.[23] New studies in Africa by Gottfried Hohmann, a research associate at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology of Leipzig, Germany, believes to have seen significant violence, but fact remains that there are thus far no documented cases of lethal aggression among Bonobos, in sharp contrast to the evidence for Common Chimpanzees.[24]


Other social behavior

Females are somewhat smaller than males but can be considered to have a higher social status. Strong female bonding allows groups of female Bonobos to dominate the community. Aggressive encounters between males and females are rare, and males are tolerant of infants and juveniles. The male's status reflects the status of his mother, and the son-mother bond often stays strong and continues throughout life. While social hierarchies do exist, rank does not play as prominent a role as it does in other primate societies.


Bonobo party size tends to be variable since the groups exhibit a fission-fusion pattern. A tribe of about a hundred will split into small groups during the day while looking for food, and then come back together to sleep. They sleep on trees in nests they construct. Unlike Common Chimpanzees, who are known to hunt monkeys, Bonobos are primarily frugivores, although they do eat insects and have been observed occasionally catching small mammals such as squirrels and duikers. In primatology, a fission-fusion society is one in which the social group, e. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds primarily or less commonly exclusively on fruit. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera Cephalophus Sylvicapra A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species native to sub-Saharan Africa. ...

Bonobo fishing for termites
Bonobo fishing for termites

Closeness to humanity

Bonobos are capable of passing the mirror-recognition test for self-awareness. They communicate through primarily vocal means, although the meanings of their vocalizations are not currently known. However, humans do understand their facial expressions[7] and some of their natural hand gestures, such as their invitation to play. Two Bonobos at the Great Ape Trust, Kanzi and Panbanisha, have been taught a vocabulary of over 3,000 words which they can type using a special keyboard of lexigrams (geometric symbols), and they can respond to spoken sentences. Some, such as philosopher and bioethicist Peter Singer, argue that these results qualify them for the "rights to survival and life," rights that humans theoretically accord to all persons. The mirror-recognition test for self-awareness tests an animals ability to recognize itself as itself when looking in a mirror. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Kanzi (born October 23, 1980), a bonobo, is one of the most most famous and accomplished linguistic apes, in research led by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. ... Panzee and Panbanisha are two apes with whom research is being carried out in the United States. ... Symbol A lexigram is a symbol that represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of the word by itself. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ...


Habitat

Around 10,000 Bonobos are found only south of the Congo River and north of the Kasai River (a tributary of the Congo),[16] in the humid forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo of central Africa. They are an endangered species, due to both habitat loss and hunting for bushmeat, the latter activity having increased dramatically during the current civil war due to the presence of heavily armed militias even in remote "protected" areas such as Salonga National Park. Today, at most several thousand Bonobos remain. This is part of a more general trend of ape extinction. The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... The Kasai River is a river in central Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Salonga National Park is a national park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ...


Conservation efforts

Since the 1990s, war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has had a major impact on both the Bonobo and human population. The people of the DRC now, more than ever, have a desire to protect their interests. Bonobos are in danger of being hunted to extinction. The key to Bonobo conservation efforts is balancing these issues. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ...


As the Bonobo's habitat is shared with people, the ultimate success of conservation efforts will rely on local and community involvement. The issue of parks vs. people[25] is very cogent in the Cuvette Centrale, the Bonobo's range. There is strong local and broad-based Congolese resistance to establishing national parks, as indigenous communities have often been driven from their forest homes by the establishment of parks. In Salonga, the only existing national park in the Bonobo habitat, there is no local involvement, and recent surveys indicate that the Bonobo, the African Forest Elephant, and other species have been severely devastated by poachers and the thriving bushmeat trade. In contrast to this, there are areas where the Bonobo and biodiversity still thrive without any established parks, due to the indigenous beliefs and taboos against killing Bonobos. Binomial name Matschie, 1900 The green white orange African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) was until recently considered a subspecies of the African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana); however, DNA testing has now shown that there possibly are three extant elephant species: the two African types, typically considered to be different populations... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1995, concern over declining numbers of Bonobos in the wild led the Zoological Society of Milwaukee in Milwaukee, Wis., with contributions from Bonobo scientists around the world, to publish the Action Plan for Pan paniscus: A Report on Free Ranging Populations and Proposals for their Preservation. The Action Plan compiles population data on Bonobos from 20 years of research conducted at various sites throughout the Bonobo's range. The plan identifies priority actions for Bonobo conservation and serves as a reference for developing conservation programs for researchers, government officials and donor agencies.


Acting on Action Plan recommendations, the ZSM developed the Bonobo and Congo Biodiversity Initiative (BCBI). This program includes habitat and rain-forest preservation, training for Congolese nationals and conservation institutions, wildlife population assessment and monitoring, and education. The Zoological Society has conducted regional surveys within the range of the Bonobo in conjunction with training Congolese researchers in survey methodology and biodiversity monitoring. The Zoological Society’s initial goal was to survey Salonga National Park to determine the conservation status of the Bonobo within the park and to provide financial and technical assistance to strengthen park protection. As the project has developed, the Zoological Society has become more involved in helping the Congolese living in Bonobo habitat. The Zoological Society has built schools, hired teachers, provided some medicines, and, as of 2007, started an agriculture project to help the Congolese learn to grow crops and depend less on hunting wild animals.


During the wars in the 1990s, researchers and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were driven out of the Bonobo habitat. In 2002, the Bonobo Conservation Initiative initiated the Bonobo Peace Forest Project in cooperation with national institutions, local NGOs and local communities. The Peace Forest Project works with local communities to establish a linked constellation of community-based reserves, managed by local and indigenous people. Although there has been only limited support from international organizations, this model, implemented mainly through DRC organizations and local communities, has helped bring about agreements to protect over 5,000 square miles (13,000 km²) of the Bonobo habitat. According to Dr. Amy Parish, the Bonobo Peace Forest "…is going to be a model for conservation in the 21st century."[26] NGO redirects here. ...


This initiative has been gaining momentum and greater international recognition and has recently gained greater support through Conservation International, the Global Conservation Fund, United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Great Ape Conservation Fund, and the United Nations' Great Apes Survival Project. Conservation International (CI) is a nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., that seeks to protect Earths biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity wilderness areas as well as important marine regions around the globe. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


With grants from the United Nations, USAID, the U.S. Embassy, the World Wildlife Fund and many other groups and individuals, the Zoological Society also has been working to:

  • survey the Bonobo population and its habitat in order to find ways to help protect these apes
  • develop anti-poaching measures to help save apes, forest elephants and other endangered animals in Congo's Salonga National Park, a U.N. World Heritage Site
  • Provide training, literacy education, agricultural techniques, schools, equipment and jobs for Congolese living near Bonobo habitats so that they will have a vested interest in protecting the great apes. As of as of 2007, the ZSM started an agriculture project to help the Congolese learn to grow crops and depend less on hunting wild animals.
  • model small-scale conservation methods that can be used throughout Congo

Starting in 2003, the U.S. government allocated $54 million to the Congo Basin Forest Partnership. This significant investment has triggered the involvement of international NGOs to establish bases in the region and work to develop Bonobo conservation programs. This initiative should improve the likelihood of Bonobo survival, but its success may still depend upon building greater involvement and capability in local and indigenous communities.[27]


The Congo is setting aside more than 11,000 square miles (28,000 km²) of rain forest to help protect the endangered Bonobo,in this Central African country. U.S. agencies, conservation groups and the Congolese government have come together to set aside 11,803 square miles (30,570 km²) of tropical rain forest, the U.S.-based Bonobo Conservation Initiative. The area amounts to just over 1 percent of vast Congo - but that means a park larger than the state of Massachusetts.


The Bonobo population is believed to have declined sharply in the last 30 years, though surveys have been hard to carry out in war-ravaged central Congo. Estimates range from 60,000 to fewer than 5,000 living, according to the World Wildlife Fund.


The Sankuru reserve also contains Okapi, closely related to the Giraffe, that is also native to Congo, elephants and at least 10 other primate species. Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal living in the Ituri Rainforest in the north east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in central Africa. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ...


In addition, concerned parties have addressed the crisis on several science and ecological websites. Organizations like the World Wide Fund for Nature, the African Wildlife Foundation, and others are trying to focus attention on the extreme risk to the species. Some have suggested that a reserve be established in a less unstable part of Africa, or on an island in a place like Indonesia. Non-invasive medical research could be conducted on relocated free Bonobos with little risk or discomfort.[citation needed] The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ...


See also

Mammals Portal

Download high resolution version (1707x1482, 613 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ...

References

  1. ^ Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 183. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Fruth, B., Benishay, J.M., Bila-Isia, I., Coxe, S., Dupain, J., Furuichi, T., Hart, J., Hart, T., Hashimoto, C., Hohmann, G., Hurley, M., Ilambu, O., Mulavwa, M., Ndunda, M., Omasombo, V., Reinartz, G., Scherlis, J., Steel, L. & Thompson, J. (2007). Pan paniscus. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. Listed as Endangered (EN A4cd v3.1)
  3. ^ Frans de Waal, Frans Lanting (1997) Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape, University of California Press.
  4. ^ Ihobe, H. (1992). "Observations on the meat-eating behavior of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Republic of Zaire," Primates, 33(2):247-250
  5. ^ Rafert, J. and E.O. Vineberg (1997). "Bonobo Nutrition – relation of captive diet to wild diet," Bonobo Husbandry Manual, American Association of Zoos and Aquariums
  6. ^ Sue Savage-Rumbaugh & Roger Lewin (1994). Kanzi: the ape at the brink of the human mind. John Wiley & Sons, 97. 
  7. ^ a b Colombus Zoo: Bonobo. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  8. ^ Takahata, N.; Satta, Y. & Klein, J. (1995). "Divergence time and population size in the lineage leading to modern humans". Theor Popul Biol 48 (2): 198-221. doi:10.1006/tpbi.1995.1026. 
  9. ^ The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (2005). "Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome". Nature 437: 69-87. doi:10.1038/nature04072. 
  10. ^ Hecht, Jeff (2003-05-19). "Chimps are human, gene study implies". New Scientist. Retrieved on 2006-10-18. 
  11. ^ Won, Yong-Jin et al. (2004-10-13). "Divergence Population Genetics of Chimpanzees". Molecular Biology & Evolution 22 (2): 297-307. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi017. 
  12. ^ Fischer, Anne et al. (2004-02-12). "Evidence for a Complex Demographic History of Chimpanzees". Molecular Biology & Evolution 21 (5): 799-808. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh083. 
  13. ^ Sussman R. (2004). The Demonic Ape [BBC Horizon programme].
  14. ^ Tuan C. Nguyen, "Gorillas Caught in Very Human Act" in Live Science (February 13, 2008)
  15. ^ Manson, J.H.; Perry, S.; Parish, A.R. (1997). "Nonconceptive Sexual Behavior in Bonobos and Capuchins". International Journal of Primatology 18 (5): 767-786. doi:10.1023/A:1026395829818. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  16. ^ a b Dawkins, Richard (2004). "Chimpanzees", The Ancestor's Tale. Houghton Mifflin. 
  17. ^ Frans B. M. de Waal (March 1995). Bonobo Sex and Society. Scientific American 82-88. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  18. ^ Frans de Waal, "Bonobo Sex and Society" in Scientific American (March 1995), p. 82ff
  19. ^ Courtney Laird, "Social Organization"
  20. ^ Frans B. M. de Waal. "Bonobos and Fig Leaves", The ape and the sushi master : cultural reflections by a primatologist. Basic Books. 
  21. ^ a b de Waal, Frans B.M. (March 1995). "Bonobo Sex and Society". Scientific American 272 (3). 
  22. ^ Stanford, C. B. (1998). "The social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos". Current Anthropology 39: 399–407. doi:10.1086/204757. 
  23. ^ Kano, Takayoshi (1992). The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology. Stanford University Press. 
  24. ^ Bonobos Left and Right. The Skeptic (2007).
  25. ^ Reid, John, Parks and people, not parks vs. people, San Francisco Chronicle, June 15, 2006
  26. ^ "The Make Love, Not War Species," Living on Earth, (July 2006), National Public Radio
  27. ^ Chapin, Mac, (November/December 2004), Vision for a Sustainable World, WORLDWATCH magazine

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Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932 – December 26, 1985) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Mythic humanoids are mythic creatures that are human-like, half-human, or fictional apes. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the book. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bonobo Society (5740 words)
Bonobos lubricate the gears of social harmony with sex, in all possible permutations and combinations: males with females, males with males, females with females, and even infants with adults.
Bonobo lips are reddish in a fl face, the ears small and the nostrils almost as wide as a gorilla's.
Bonobos are, however, more controlled in expressing their emotions-- whether it be joy, sorrow, excitement or anger--than are the extroverted chimpanzees.
Bonobo - Pan paniscus: More Information - ARKive (816 words)
Bonobos spend virtually all of their time in the trees, foraging for fruit and sleeping in nests constructed in the branches; on the ground they travel by 'knuckle walking' (2).
Bonobos are not as widespread as their chimpanzee cousins and are threatened by loss of habitat as large areas of rainforest are being cleared to make way for agriculture, for timber extraction and for development (1).
The main problem in terms of bonobo conservation is that they are only found in a single protected area (Salonga National Park), and even there they are intensively hunted both for their meat as well as for the making of charms (3).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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