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Encyclopedia > Bonaire
Boneiru
Bonaire
Flag of Bonaire
Flag
Anthem: Tera di Solo y suave biento
Capital
(and largest city)
Kralendijk
12°15′N 68°28′W
Official languages Dutch
Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles
 - Bonaire Administrator
 - Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag
Constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles 
Area
 - Total 288 km²
111 sq mi 
Population
 - 2001 census 10,791
 - Density 35/km² (ranked as part of N. A.)
99/sq mi
Currency Netherlands Antillean gulden (ANG)
Time zone -4 (UTC-4)
Internet TLD .an
Calling code +599

Bonaire is an island in the Netherlands Antilles, and as such, is a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Together with Aruba and Curaçao it forms a group referred to as the ABC islands of the Leeward Antilles, the southern island chain of the Lesser Antilles. While Papiamento, Spanish and English are commonly spoken, the official language is Dutch. Image File history File links Flag_of_Bonaire. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 Flag Ratio: 2:3 The flag of Bonaire ( ) is a large blue triangle in the lower right corner and a smaller yellow triangle in the upper left corner. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Tera di Solo y suave biento is the national anthem of the Caribbean island of Bonaire. ... Image File history File links Bonaire_Location. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Kralendijk is a city located in the island of Bonaire, in the Netherlands Antilles. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles local long form: none local short form: Nederlandse Antillen Data code: NT Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954 Government type: parliamentary Capital: Willemstad Administrative divisions: none (part of... Frits Martinus de los Santos Goedgedrag (born 1 November 1951 in Aruba) is the current Governor of the Netherlands Antilles. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes de facto sovereign states and dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The gulden is the unit of currency in the Netherlands Antilles. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC - see below for explanation) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Anthem: Himno di Kòrsou Capital Willemstad Area  - Total  - % water (Not ranked) 450 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 173,400 (2006) 391/km² For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... The ABC islands are Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, the western islands of the Leeward Antilles; the last two are in the Netherlands Antilles, all are part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... The Leeward Antilles are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Bonaire has a land area of 288 km² (111 sq. miles). At the 2001 Netherlands Antilles census, the population was 10,791 inhabitants, which means a population density of 37 inh. per km². In 2004 the population was estimated at 10,185 inhabitants. Uninhabited Klein Bonaire, nestled in the western crescent of the main island, is 6 km² (2.3 sq. miles). Bonaire is served by Flamingo International Airport. All of Klein Bonaire is visible from the leeward side of Bonaire. ... Flamingo International Airport (IATA: BON, ICAO: TNCB) is an international airport located at Kralendijk, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. ...


The structure of the relationship between Bonaire and the Kingdom is being considered for change under proposed legislation. The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) is a federacy established in 1954, currently consisting of three constituent parts: the Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen) and Aruba. ...

Contents

Diving and Other Natural Features

Bonaire is a popular tourist destination for both shore diving and shore snorkeling.
Bonaire is a popular tourist destination for both shore diving and shore snorkeling.
The Old Malmok lighthouse - in Washington Slagbaai National Park.
The Old Malmok lighthouse - in Washington Slagbaai National Park.

Bonaire is world renowned for its excellent scuba diving and is consistently rated among the top shore diving and Caribbean diving locations in the world. Bonaire's license plates carry the logo Diver's Paradise (in English). The island is ringed by a coral reef which is easily accessible from the shore along the Western and Southern sides. Furthermore, the entire coastline of the island has been declared a marine sanctuary, preserving local fish life. Bonaire is also consistently recognised as one of the best destinations for snorkeling. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x800, 174 KB)1000 Steps beach and dive site on Bonaire. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (690x800, 174 KB)1000 Steps beach and dive site on Bonaire. ... This article identifies popular recreational diving sites around the world and describes the features of a dive site. ... This article identifies popular recreational snorkeling sites around the world and describes the features of those sites. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 2526 KB)The Old Malmok lighthouse Template:PD Self File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 2526 KB)The Old Malmok lighthouse Template:PD Self File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scuba divers exploring fish and coral. ... It has been suggested that Marine reserve be merged into this article or section. ... A snorkeler amid corals on a coral reef near Fiji. ...


The coral reef around uninhabited Klein Bonaire is particularly well conserved, and it draws divers, snorkelers, and boaters. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... All of Klein Bonaire is visible from the leeward side of Bonaire. ...


Bonaire is also famed for its flamingo populations and its donkey sanctuary. Flamingos are drawn to the brackish water, which harbours shrimp they feed on. Starting in the 1500s, the Dutch raised sheep, goats, pigs, horses and donkeys on Bonaire, and the descendants of the goats and donkeys roam the island today. Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 The donkey or jackass, Equus asinus, is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ...


Washington Slagbaai National Park, located at the north side of the island, is an ecological preserve. The highest point of Bonaire, Brandaris, located within this preserve has a complete view of the island.


Lac Bay, (also known as Lac Cai or Lac Cay) on the eastern side of the island, is a windsurfer's paradise. Locals Taty and Tonky Frans in 2004 were ranked in the top five of the world's freestyle windsurfing professionals. A windsurfer with modern gear tilts the rig and carves the board to perform a planing gybe (downwind turn) close to shore in Maui, Hawaii, one of the popular destinations for windsurfing. ...


Cities/Towns

The only generally recognized towns on the island are Kralendijk and Rincon. Kralendijk has many suburbs/neighbourhoods (on an island with such a small population, the distinction is not always clearcut). Kralendijk's suburbs/neighbourhoods include: Kralendijk is a city located in the island of Bonaire, in the Netherlands Antilles. ...

  • Antriol
  • Belnem
  • Hato
  • Lagoen
  • Lima
  • Noord Salina
  • Nikiboko
  • Republiek
  • Sabadeco
  • Sabana
  • Santa Barbara
  • Tera Cora

Several smaller towns had existed in the national park, but are now abandoned. They were: Labra, Ishiri, Kokorobi, Jan Doran, Vlijt, Rigot, Porto Spano, and Kunchi.


Salt

Bonaire Island and Klein Bonaire, from space, March 1996. The white and flat red areas in the south are salt flats.
Bonaire Island and Klein Bonaire, from space, March 1996. The white and flat red areas in the south are salt flats.

Bonaire was originally settled by the Dutch in the late 15th century as a source of salt, exploiting its natural topography, using evaporative methods through the flooding of flat-lands with sea water. Much of the early population of the island was in the form of slaves used to work the salt ponds. Today the slave huts remain as a historical site, and are the names of two popular dive sites "Red Slave Huts" and "White Slave Huts." Image File history File links Bonaire_island. ... Image File history File links Bonaire_island. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... It has been suggested that Geomorphometry be merged into this article or section. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Salt production today is on a larger scale and covers much of the southern half of the island, and is run by the industrial giant Cargill. The USA is a major buyer. The southern end of the island, on maps, is often referred to as Solar Salt Works. Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ...


Schunck's Kledingindustrie Bonaire

In 1948, Pierre Schunck (1906-1993), stemming from a family of weavers and son of the builder of the famous Glaspaleis in Heerlen, the Netherlands (see Schunck), arrived to set up a clothing industry, which would become Bonaire's first real industry, providing employment (and health care) for a large part of the (young) women who were left behind because many men had left as sailors or to work for the oil companies on Curaçao and Aruba. Preparations for the operation of this company would also result in better electricity and water supplies and eventually it would account for half the export of the island. The Glaspaleis as seen from the market square (Bongerd) The mezzanine and ground floor The pillars and ventilation system The Glaspaleis (in English: Glass Palace or Crystal Palace) is the name of former fashion house and department store Schunck in Heerlen, The Netherlands, built in 1935, which is now the... Heerlen is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands and the second biggest city in the province of Limburg. ... Schunck (pronounced Shoonk with a short oo, //) is the name of former fashion house and department store Firma Schunck in Heerlen, the Netherlands. ... Men and women wearing suits, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing (from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog) Clothing is defined, in its broadest sense, as coverings for the torso and limbs as well as coverings for the hands (gloves), feet (socks, shoes, sandals, boots...


Schunck had previously visited Curaçao and Aruba, but the conditions of employment were less favourable there. The government for the ABC islands had planned large scale industry, trade and tourism for the two larger islands, and smaller industries for Bonaire, especially for the women. So Bonaire appeared to be a better choice. Since the already present salt winning and ship manufacturing were small scale, this was to be the first real industry in Bonaire. As a result, there were no facilities or expertise to exploit and workers had to be educated first. Schunck asked the goverment the same perks that the industries, including the rich oil companies, on the other islands received (no import tax for 25 years), but he received no help there. So he turned to governor P. Kasteel, asking him to provide the basic necessities, most importantly water and electricity. This was granted, but supply of electricity remained dodgy for the next few years. Another problem was that everything had to be imported, from machines and building material down to the simplest srews. And all products had to be exported because there was barely a local market for them. This was problematic due to the long supply lines and the then obligation to let all shipping go through Curaçao. After half a year of trial production (in the later Zeebad), the new buildings (400 m2 in Kralendijk, which would grow to 900 m2 during the first expansion) were finished on 17 August 1948. For this, Bonaire's first waterpipe had been constructed, from Pos Calbas to the airport, passing by the factory, with a hydrant in Rincon. For the people of Bonaire, the new electricity grid meant that refrigerators became an option. But to save diesel, the generator wasn't kept running after midnight. As a warning, the lights started blinking at 23.30 h. Anthem: Himno di Kòrsou Capital Willemstad Area  - Total  - % water (Not ranked) 450 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 173,400 (2006) 391/km² For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ...


Production focused on company clothing for large companies like Shell (a major employer on Curaçao) and uniforms for police and customs officials and the initial production capacity was 700 overalls, 300 trousers and 400 shirts, with a 45 hour work week. Work was organised by the bundle-progress specialisation system, which the women favoured because (unlike Dutch workers) they preferred not to rotate work. Look up shell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Because of the former relative lack of electricity, few knew how to work electric machinery, so 2 qualified men were hired to teach (initially) 10 women. By january 1951, there were 72 employees, 27 of whom experienced. The education had cost 70 000 gulden over that 2 year period. Another year later, there were 110 employees. All overhead staff were male and all workers were female, but the former numbered only 5 and remained the same, while the latter grew in numbers, providing a major source of employment for the women on this small island. Export of the company's produce was on average just over 200 000 gulden, which constituted about half the total export of Bonaire. The gulden is the unit of currency in the Netherlands Antilles. ...

Mortality rate for women
age group 1942 1955
0-19 8.7 2.3
19-50 3.7 2.3
> 50 27.3 36.7

But productivity was only 30% of that of European workers, due to Bonairians traditionally not being industrially-minded, the climate and resulting lifestyle, and the poverty and resulting malnutrition (worse than on surrounding islands). To combat the latter problem, Schunck introduced factory-paid meals and health care, with additional care at home for the employee's families by the white-yellow cross, assisted by Pierre Schunck's wife Gerda Schunck-Cremers. As a result the mortality rate for young women dropped considerably, as the table shows. Mortality rate (the word mortality comes from mortal, which originates from Latin mors, death) is the number of deaths (from a disease or in general) per 1000 people and typically reported on an annual basis. ...


As a result of the high cost of education and health care, and lack of support from the Antillian government, the company had to be liquidated in 1954. But because closing of the factory would cause serious unemployment, the Dutch government took over the company and from 1955 to 1960 it operated under the name Bocofa (Bonaire Confectie Fabriek) N.V. Despite the fact that this company did receive government support it couldn't cope either and by 1961 it started operating under yet another name, Cambes Textiles N.V. (the first letters of the six Dutch Antilles), of which all shares, worth 400 000 gulden, were in government hands. By 1975, there were 175 employees and the yearly turnover was over 1 million gulden. In the early 1980's the company had recieved a blow from the closing of the Shell and Lago refineries on Curaçao and Aruba, two important customers, and the number of emplyees had dropped to just 74. the Antillian government sold the company to Texport/Unitex, for only a quarter of the estimated value of 1 250 000 gulden, to ensure a continued employment for the women. But the new company was only interested in profit and not in the welbeing of the Bonairean population and closed the factory on 20 december 1991, sacking all 85 employees. Liquidation, or winding up, refers to a business whose assets are converted to money in order to pay off debt. ...


Ultimately, Bonaire turned out to be a bad location for a clothes factory. But for the women of Bonaire, who consituted a large part of the population, it was a blessing because it made them economically independent and socially emancipated. It had also laid a basis for other industries, with a better water and power infrastructure now in place. The new hope for Bonaire's economy is tourism, in which watersports play an important part.


Gallery

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Maps of Bonaire 12.16° N -68.23° E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Mapquest zoom level 7 only has the Kralendijk region; this region is also available in zoom level 8, 9, and 10.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bonaire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (670 words)
Bonaire is an island in the Netherlands Antilles, and as such, is a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Bonaire was originally settled by the Dutch in the late 15th century as a source of salt, using the same evaporative methods used today, albeit on a small scale.
Bonaire is world renowned for its excellent scuba diving and is consistently rated among the top shore diving and Caribbean diving locations in the world.
Bonaire - definition of Bonaire in Encyclopedia (193 words)
Exploiting its natural topography, Bonaire has been a major supplier of salt to the USA for many years, and continues to do so through the flooding of flat-lands with sea water.
Bonaire is world renowned for its excellent scuba diving.
Bonaire is also a place in the state of Georgia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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