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Encyclopedia > Bomb disposal
The Long Walk - A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland.
The Long Walk - A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland.

Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. "Bomb disposal" is an all encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the following fields: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 758 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1484 × 1174 pixel, file size: 437 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Long Walk, an ATO in Northern Ireland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 758 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1484 × 1174 pixel, file size: 437 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Long Walk, an ATO in Northern Ireland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... An Ammunition Technical Officer (ATO) is an officer of the British Army involved in bomb disposal. ... Suburban Legends is a seven piece third wave ska band from Orange County, California. ...

  • military – Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)
  • public safety – Public Safety Bomb Disposal (PSBD), Bomb Squad
  • civilian – Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

Contents

UXO redirects here. ...

History

World War I and the interwar period

Bomb Disposal became a formalised practise in the first World War. The swift mass production of munitions led to many manufacturing defects, and a large proportion of shells fired by both sides were found to be "duds".[1] These were hazardous to attacker and defender alike. In response, the British dedicated a section of Ordnance Examiners from the Royal Army Service Corps (latterly the RAOC) to handle the growing problem. The Royal Logistic Corps is a British Army corps that provides the logistical support for the Army. ...


In 1918, the Germans developed a delayed-action fuse that would later develop into more sophisticated weaponry during the 1930s, as Nazi Germany began its secret course of arms development. These tests led to the development of UXBs (unexploded bombs), pioneered by Herbert Ruehlemann of Rheinmetall, and first employed during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-37. Such delayed-action bombs provoked terror because of the uncertainty of time. The Germans saw that unexploded bombs caused far more chaos and disruption than bombs that exploded immediately. This caused them to increase their use of delayed-action bombs later in World War II. The Germans were also the first to develop and use proximity sensitive fusing on air dropped bombs. Allied UXO specialists, unaware that movement on or around the fuse caused detonation, took a number of casualties. They believed these fuses were set at varying time increments in order to cause unpredictable destruction. Allies began calling these proximity devices Variable Time or VT fuses.[citation needed] This label is still used on many proximity fuses today. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Bomb disposal staff would soon face munitions designed to kill civilians and ultimately, themselves. Initially there were no specialised tools, training, or core knowledge available, and as Ammunition Technicians learned how to safely neutralize one variant of munition, the enemy would add or change parts to make neutralization efforts more hazardous. This trend of cat-and-mouse extends even to the present day, and the techniques used to defuse munitions are held to high standards of secrecy.


World War II

Modern EOD Technicians across the world can trace their heritage to the Blitz, when the United Kingdom's cities were subjected to extensive bombing raids by Nazi Germany. In addition to conventional air raids, unexploded bombs (UXBs) also took their toll on population and morale, paralyzing vital services and communications. These delayed-action explosives provoked terror and uncertainty, with complex fuses equipped with anti-tampering devices. Troops responded on the ground by devising methods to inert and remove deadly bombs and anti-personnel mines. ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... Italian Valmara 69 bounding type of Anti-personnel. ...


United States EOD history

The United States War Department felt the British Bomb Disposal experience could be a valuable asset, based on reports from U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps observers at Melksham Royal Air Force Base at Wiltshire, England in 1940. The next year, the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) and War Department both sponsored a Bomb Disposal program, which gradually fell under military governance due to security and technical reasons. OCD personnel continued to train in UXB reconnaissance throughout the war. After Pearl Harbor, the British sent instructors to Aberdeen Proving Ground, where the U.S. Army would inaugurate a formal Bomb Disposal school under the Ordnance Corps. The United States Department of War was the military department of the United States governments executive branch from 1789 until 1949, when it became part of the United States Department of Defense. ... A bridge over the river Avon at Bradford-on-Avon in Wiltshire Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army facility located at Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford county). ...


Lt. Col. Geoffrey Yates (RE) and his British colleagues also helped establish the USN Mine Disposal School at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, DC. Not to be outdone, the US Navy, under the command of Lieutenant Commander Draper L. Kauffman (who would go on to found the Underwater Demolition Teams -- better known as UDTs or the U.S. Navy Frogmen), created the USN Bomb Disposal School at University Campus, Washington, D.C. U.S. Ordnance and British Royal Engineers would forge a partnership that worked quite effectively in war -- a friendship persisting to this day. Rear Admiral Draper Laurence Kauffman (1911-1979) was a pioneering underwater demolition expert and a renowned Navy educator, who served during the 1960s as 44th Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy. ... Underwater Demolition Teams (UDT) were a precursor to the current United States Navy SEALs. ...


1942 was a banner year for the fledgling EOD program. U.S. Army Lt. Col. Thomas Kane, who began in 1940 as a Bomb Disposal Instructor in the School of Civilian Defense, traveled with eight other troops to the UK for initial EOD training. Kane took over the US Army Bomb Disposal School at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Three members of Kane's training mission later served as Bomb Disposal squad commanders in the battlefield: Ronald L. Felton (12th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in Italy, Joseph C. Pilcher (17th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in France and Germany, and Richard Metress (209th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in the Philippines Islands. Captain Metress and most of his squad were killed in 1945 while dismantling a Japanese IED. Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...


Graduates of the Aberdeen School formed the first Army Bomb Disposal companies, starting with the 231st Ordnance Bomb Disposal Company. The now-familiar shoulder emblem for Army EOD Technicians, a red bomb on an oval, black background was approved for them to wear. Following initial deployments in North Africa and Sicily, U.S. Army commanders registered their disapproval of these cumbersome units. In 1943, companies were phased out, to be replaced by mobile seven-man squads in the field. In 1944, Col. Thomas Kane oversaw all European Theater Bomb Disposal operations, starting with reconnaissance training for the U.S. forces engaging the Germans on D-Day. Unfortunately, the Pacific Theater lacked a similar administration.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


Late in 1942, the first US Navy EOD casualty was recorded. Ensign Howard, USNR, was performing a render-safe procedure against a German moored mine when it detonated. Only a few months later, the first two Army EOD fatalities occurred during the Aleutian Islands campaign. While conducting EOD operations on Attu Island, LT Rodger & T/SGT Rapp (Commander and NCOIC of 5th Ordnance Bomb Disposal Squad) were fatally injured by unexploded ordnance. Polish wz. ... Attu Island Attu is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, making it the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska and the United States. ...

US Navy explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) divers.
US Navy explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) divers.

Overall, about forty Americans were killed outright performing the specialized services of bomb and mine disposal in World War II. Scores more were maimed or injured during combat operations requiring ordnance support. At Schwammanuel Dam in Germany, two Bomb Disposal squads acting as a "T Force" were exposed to enemy mortar and small arms fire. Captain Marshall Crow (18th Squad) took serious wounds, even as his party drove German defenders from their positions.' Download high resolution version (1089x1421, 424 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1089x1421, 424 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Ironically, the only major ordnance attack against the continental U.S. would be handled by the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, who dealt with the Japanese Fu-Go balloon bomb menace in 1945. The all-black 555th "Smokejumpers" were trained by ordnance personnel to defuse these incendiary bombs before they could kill civilians or start forest fires. The 555th Parachute Infantry Company (called the Triple Nickel, later the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion) was an all-black airborne unit that began service during World War II. It was the first African_American airborne unit, marking a tremendous milestone. ... Shotdown fire balloon reinflated by Americans in California The term fire balloon can mean a small unmanned hot air balloon for festivities; this is also called a sky lantern. ... A smokejumper is a firefighter who parachutes into a remote area to combat wildfires. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ...


Following the war, U.S. Bomb Disposal Technicians continued to clear Nazi and Japanese stockpiles, remove UXO from battlefields, while training host nation (HN) troops to do these tasks. This established a tradition for U.S. EOD services to operate during peace as well as war.


Colonel Kane remained in contact with EOD until his retirement in 1955. He urged reforms in the Bomb Disposal organization and training policy. Wartime errors were rectified in 1947 when Army personnel started attending a new school at Indian Head, MD, under U.S. Navy direction. This course was named the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Course, governing training in all basic types of ammunition and projectiles.


1947 also saw the Army Air Corps separate and become the US Air Force, gaining their own EOD branch. That same year, the forerunner of the EOD Technology Center, the USN Bureau of Naval Weapons, charged with research, development, test, and evaluation of EOD tools, tactics and procedures was born. 1949 marked the official end of an era, as Army and Navy Bomb Disposal squads were reclassified into Explosive Ordnance Disposal units. The Army Air Corps is a component of the British Army. ... Seal of the Air Force. ...


In 1953, reflecting the trend in name changing, the EOD School formally became the Naval School, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (NAVSCOLEOD). Two years later, the Army Bomb Disposal School would close, making Indian Head the sole Joint Service EOD School in the US. That is, until 1985, when work began on the current EOD School at Eglin AF Base, Florida.


The current, most recognizable distinctive item of wear by EOD Technicians, affectionately referred to as the ‘crab’, began uniform wear as the Basic EOD Qualification Badge in 1957. The Master Badge would not appear until 1969. (See picture on the right)


On 31 March 2004, the U.S. Army EOD Headquarters at Fort Gillem, Georgia dedicated its new building to Col. Thomas J. Kane (1900-65). Whether Kane Hall remains after the Bush Administration's recent base closure announcement remains to be seen. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Gillem is a U.S. Army military base located in Forest Park, Georgia, on the southwest edge of Atlanta. ...


Northern Ireland 1969–present

The Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corps (formerly RAOC) have become the world's foremost experts in IED disposal, after many years of dealing with bombs planted by the IRA. The bombs the IRA employed ranged from simple pipe bombs to sophisticated victim-triggered devices. The roadside bomb was in use by the IRA from the early 1970's onwards, evolving over time with different types of explosives and triggers. An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... The Royal Logistic Corps is the British Army corps that provides the logistic support for the Army. ... The Royal Army Ordnance Corps (RAOC) was a former corps of the British Army. ...


A specialist Army unit 321 EOD (now 11 EOD Regiment RLC) was created to tackle increased IRA violence and willingness to use IEDs against both civilian and military targets. The unit's radio callsign was Felix in allusion to the cat with nine lives and led to the phrase "Fetch Felix" whenever a suspect device was encountered and became the title of the 1981 book "Fetch Felix" 321 EOD Sqn RLC is unique in that it is the most decorated squadron (in peace time) in the British Army, notably for acts of bravery during OP BANNER (1969-2007) in Northern Ireland.[2] A unit of the Royal Logistics Corps responsible for IEDD duties in Northern Ireland. ... A Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps (RLC) responsible for IEDD. The unit is manned by Ammunition Technical Officers and Ammunition Technicians. ...


British bomb disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment RLC were amongst the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 prior to the actual invasion itself.


EOD in low intensity conflicts

IDF American Andros EOD robot. This paticular model is the MarkV-A1
IDF American Andros EOD robot. This paticular model is the MarkV-A1

The eruption of low intensity conflicts and terrorism waves at the beginning of the 21st century caused further development in the techniques and methods of Bomb Disposal. EOD Operators and Technicians had to adapt to rapidly evolving methods of constructing improvised explosive devices ranging from shrapnel-filled explosive belts to 100 kg IED charges. Since improvised explosives are generally unreliable and very unstable they pose great risk to the public and especially to the EOD Operator, trying to render them safe. Therefore, new methods like greater reliance on remote techniques, such as advanced remotely operated vehicles such as EOD robots or armored bulldozers evolved. The US Army and the Israeli Defence Forces both have remote-control EOD vehicles and EOD bulldozers (the D7 MCAP and the armored D9R respectively). Other developments include using Advanced Electronic Countermeasures to prevent a device from being detonated remotely. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Low intensity conflict (LIC) is the use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with the policies or objectives of the political body controlling the military force. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... An explosive belt (also called suicide belt, suicide vest or shaheed belt) is a vest packed with explosives and armed with a detonator, worn by suicide bombers. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... An armored Caterpillar D9 bulldozer used by the IDF. Armored bulldozers are a standard tool of combat engineering battalions, and the Israeli Defence Forces has gained notoriety for their use of armored bulldozers for urban warfare in the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: 1st section is a copyvio of [1], the rest is stats, WP:NOT an indiscriminate collection of information If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. ...


The British Armed Forces have become experts in IED disposal after many years of dealing with bombs 'planted' by the IRA. These came in many different forms, particularly car bombs rigged to detonate via a variety of manners. As such the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 were, amongst others, British Bomb Disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment RLC. A Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps (RLC) responsible for IEDD. The unit is manned by Ammunition Technical Officers and Ammunition Technicians. ... The Royal Logistic Corps is the British Army corps that provides the logistic support for the Army. ...


During the al-Aksa Intifada, Israeli EOD forces have disarmed and detonated thousands of explosive charges, lab bombs and explosive ammunition (such as rockets). Two Israeli EOD teams gained high reputation for leading the efforts in that area: the Army's Israeli Engineering Corps' Sayeret Yaalom and the Israeli Border Guard Gaza-area EOD team. The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... The Israeli Engineering Corps are the combat engineering forces of צהל - the Israeli Defence Forces. ... The Sayeret Yaalom (formerly Sayeret Yael) is a special elite combat engineering unit of the Israel Defense Forces. ... MAGAV (in Hebrew מגב ) is an acronym for Mishmar Ha-Gvul ( מישמר הגבול ), which in Hebrew means Frontier Guard. MAGAV is the combat branch of the Israeli Police and its composed from professional officers on payroll and field policemen redirected from the IDF (men at the age of 18...


In Iraq, the coalition forces have to face many IEDs (improvised explosive devices) on travel routes. Such charges can easily destroy light vehicles such as the HMMWV but large one can even destroy main battle tank such as the M1A1 Abrams. Side charges caused many casualties and are major threat in Iraq along the car bombs and suicide bombers. These are the main challenge of the EOD forces today. Explosive devices, as used by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces, are formally known as Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


Fields of operations

EOD

In the United Kingdom, EOD Operators are held within all three Services, the most well known being the Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corps. Each Service deals has differing responsibilities for UXO, however they will often work closely on operations. Ammunition Technicians deal with the more complicated areas of bomb disposal namely improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Ammunition Technicians are also experts in chemical, biological, incendiary, radiological ("dirty bombs"), and nuclear weapons. They provide support to VIPs, help civilian authorities with bomb problems, teach personnel from all three services about bomb safety, and a variety of other tasks. The Royal Engineers of 33 Engineer Regiment (EOD) provide EOD support for conventional munitions on operations. Sometimes, people confuse engineers or sappers with Ammunition Technicians. However, while complimentary, and often working closely, they have differing skill sets with RAF, Navy or RE Bomb Disposal Operators handling conventional munitions, Royal Engineers dealing providing search advice and assets and the Royal Logistic Corps providing Improvised Explosive Device Disposal. An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... The Royal Logistic Corps is the British Army corps that provides the logistic support for the Army. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ... The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... A Very Important Person, or VIP (pronouced vee-eye-pee) is a person who is accorded special privileges due to his or her status or importance. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ...


All prospective Ammunition Technicians attend a grueling course of instruction at The Army School of Ammunition and the Felix Centre, UK. The timeframe for an Ammunition Technician to complete all necessary courses prior to finally be placed on an EOD team is around 36 months. Whereas the Engineer EOD training period is about 3 weeks. The Army School of Ammunition is the main training shool for Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers in the British Army. ... The Army School of Ammunition is the main training shool for Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers in the British Army. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Ammunition Technicians, having completed their training will be posted to a variety of units involved in IEDD, EOD or plain conventional ammunition duties. Until recent times the most prestigious EOD unit in the world was 321 EOD, that has now been surpassed by 11 EOD Regiment RLC , who not only provides all the mainland IEDD capabilities, but also provides detachments for Op TELIC Iraq and Afghanistan. Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD) is the British Army term for bomb disposal. ... A unit of the Royal Logistics Corps responsible for IEDD duties in Northern Ireland. ... A Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps (RLC) responsible for IEDD. The unit is manned by Ammunition Technical Officers and Ammunition Technicians. ... Operation (or Op) TELIC is the codename under which all British operations of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and after are being conducted. ...


PSBT

US EOD covers both on and off base calls in the US unless there is a local PSBT or "Public Safety Bomb Technician" that can handle the IED - ordnance should only be handled by the EOD experts. Also called a "Hazardous Devices Technician", PSBTs are usually members of a Police department, although there are teams formed by fire departments or emergency management agencies. Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ...


To be certified, PSBTs must attend the joint U.S. Army-FBI Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama which is modeled on the International IEDD Training school at The Army School of Ammunition, known as the Felix Centre. This school helps them to become knowledgable in the detection, diagnosis and disposal of hazardous devices. They are further trained to collect evidence in hazardous devices, and present expert witness testimony in court on bombing cases. Redstone Arsenal is a U.S. Army post and a census-designated place (CDP) located next to the city of Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama, and is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD) is the British Army term for bomb disposal. ... The Army School of Ammunition is the main training shool for Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers in the British Army. ... The Army School of Ammunition is the main training shool for Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers in the British Army. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ...


UXO

Main article: Unexploded ordnance

Before bombing ranges can be re utilized for other purposes, these ranges must be cleared of all unexploded ordnance. This is usually performed by civilian specialists trained in the field, often with prior military service in explosive ordnance disposal. These technicians use specialized tools for subsurface examination of the sites. When munitions are found, they safely neutralize them and remove them from the site. UXO redirects here. ...


Other (training, mining, fireworks)

In addition to neutralizing munitions or IEDs, conducting training and presenting evidence, Technicians also respond to other problems. They dispose of old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in quarrying or mining, as well as old or unstable fireworks and ammunition. They escort VIPs and dignitaries. They assist specialist police units, raid and entry teams with boobytrap detection and avoidance. Another function of an EOD Operator is the conducting of post-blast investigations. The EOD Operators' training and experience with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) make them an integral part of any bombing investigation. Another part of a Technician's job involves supporting the government intelligence units. This involves searching all places that the high ranking government officers or other protected dignitaries travel, stay or visit. For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


Techniques

Wheelbarrow remotely controlled bomb disposal tool.
Wheelbarrow remotely controlled bomb disposal tool.

Generally EOD render safe procedures (RSP) are a type of tradecraft protected from public dissemination in order to limit access and knowledge, depriving the enemy of specific technical procedures used to render safe ordnance or an improvised device. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 139 KB)A remotely controlled bomb disposal Wheelbarrow used by the British Army to disable explosive devices since the early 1970s I took this photo at the Imperial War Museum at Duxford, UK File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 139 KB)A remotely controlled bomb disposal Wheelbarrow used by the British Army to disable explosive devices since the early 1970s I took this photo at the Imperial War Museum at Duxford, UK File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Render Safe consists of proceedures, tools and methods to render an IED or Ordnance item incapable of high-order detonation. ... Tradecraft are the techniques used in modern espionage. ...


Many techniques exist for the making safe of a bomb or munition. Selection of a technique depends on several variables. The greatest variable is the proximity of the munition or device to people or critical facilities. Explosives in remote localities are handled very differently from those in densely-populated areas.


Contrary to the image portrayed in modern day movies, the role of the Bomb Disposal Operator is to accomplish their task as remotely as possible. Actually laying hands on a bomb is only done in an extremely life-threatening situation, where the hazards to people and critical structures can't be lessened.


Ammunition Technicians have many tools for remote operations, one of which is the RCV, or remotely controlled vehicle, also known as the "Wheelbarrow". Outfitted with cameras, microphones, and sensors for chemical, biological, or nuclear agents, the Wheelbarrow can help the Technician get an excellent idea of what the munition or device is. Many of these robots even have hand-like manipulators in case a door needs to be opened, or a munition or bomb requires handling or moving. An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... Wheelbarrow remotely controlled bomb disposal tool. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...


The first ever Wheelbarrow was invented by Lieutenant-Colonel 'Peter' Miller[3] in 1972 and used by Ammunition Technicians in the battle against Provisional Irish Republican Army IED's. Wheelbarrow remotely controlled bomb disposal tool. ... An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...


Also of great use are items that allow Ammunition technicians to remotely diagnose the innards of a munition or IED. These include devices similar to the X-ray used by medical personnel, and high-performance sensors that can detect and help interpret sounds, odors, or even images from within the munition or bomb. An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Once the technicians determine what the munition or device is, and what state it is in, they will formulate a procedure to disarm it. This may include things as simple as replacing safety features, or as difficult as using high-powered explosive-actuated devices to shear, jam, bind, or remove parts of the item's firing train.


Preferably, this will be accomplished remotely, but there are still circumstances when a robot won't do, and a technician must put themself at risk by personally going near the bomb. The Technician will don a specialized suit, using flame and fragmentation-resistant material similar to bulletproof vests. Some suits have advanced features such as internal cooling, amplified hearing, and communications back to the control area. This suit is designed to increase the odds of survival for the Technician should the munition or IED function while they are near it. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Rarely, the specifics of a munition or bomb will allow the Technician to first remove it from the area. In these cases, a containment vessel is used. Some are shaped like small water tanks, others like large spheres. Using remote methods, the Technician places the item in the container and retires to an uninhabited area to complete the neutralization. Because of the instability and complexity of modern bombs, this is rarely done. For other uses, see Sphere (disambiguation). ...


After the munition or bomb has been rendered safe, the Technicians will assist in the removal of the remaining parts so the area can be returned to normal.


All of this, called a Render Safe Procedure, can take a great deal of time. Because of the construction of devices, a waiting period must be taken to ensure that whatever render-safe method was used worked as intended. While time is usually not on the EOD Operator's side, rushing usually ends in disaster.


EOD Equipment

A bomb manipulator of the German Army
A bomb manipulator of the German Army

"Pigstick" is a British Army term for the waterjet disrupter commonly deployed on the Wheelbarrow remotely operated vehicle against IRA bombs in the 1970's. The pigstick is a device that disables improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It fires an explosively-propelled jet of water to disrupt the circuitry of a bomb and thereby disable it with a low risk of detonation. The modern pigstick is a very reliable device and fires many times with minimal maintenance. It is now used worldwide. It is about 485 mm long, weighs 3 kg. It is made of metal, and can be mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). These factors make it a very effective, safe way to disarm IEDs. The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... A simple electric circuit made up of a voltage source and a resistor. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Variety of ROVs: Work Class, General, Mini Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) is the common accepted name for tethered underwater robots in the offshore industry. ...


History

The name "pigstick" is an odd analogy coming from the verb meaning “to hunt the wild boar on horseback with a spear.” Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


It was invented for the British army in 1972; prior to that time bombs would be dismantled by hand, which was obviously very dangerous. It has to be held three inches (76 mm) from the IED to disarm it, still putting the user in danger. So explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operators started connecting them to Wheelbarrows, and “in the period 1972-1978, and taking into account machines which had been exported, over 400 Wheelbarrows were destroyed while dealing with terrorist devices. In many of these cases, it can be assumed that the loss of a machine represented the saving of an EOD man's life.” [4] The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


EOD badges

Israeli "Yahalom" unit pin.The Israeli EOD was merged with other engineering-units into "Yahalom"
Israeli "Yahalom" unit pin.
The Israeli EOD was merged with other engineering-units into "Yahalom"
Old Israeli EOD (Yachsap) pin, before it was merged to "Yahalom".
Old Israeli EOD (Yachsap) pin, before it was merged to "Yahalom".

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... US Military EOD Badge File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which recognizes those service members who are specially trained to deal with the construction, deployment, disarmament, and disposal of high explosives munitions and may include other types of ordnance such as Nuclear, Biological and Chemical... The Sayeret Yahalom (formerly Sayeret Yael) is a special elite combat engineering unit of the Israeli Engineering Corps of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Sayeret Yahalom (formerly Sayeret Yael) is a special elite combat engineering unit of the Israeli Engineering Corps of the Israel Defense Forces. ...

British Army

Having been pre-selected for training as Ammunition Technicians soldiers will attend the specialised course at the Army School of Ammunition with both soldiers and officers completing an almost identical course. Only Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers of the Royal Logistics Corps are entitled to wear the flaming A badge on their uniform . If serving in the Corps of Royal Engineers and passing the Explosive Ordnance Disposal course at the Defence Explosive Ordnance Disposal School, Sappers are entitled to wear the EOD badge. An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... The Army School of Ammunition is the main training shool for Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers in the British Army. ...


The move in recent years has been to make best use of the specialist training and skills set of the individual services; recognition that each service has its particular strengths within the field of EOD and will be tasked accordingly. EOD support to UK military personnel reflects the tri-service capabilities with the inclusion of subject matter experts from all three services. RLC, RE, RAF and Navy SMEs and operators are tasked through a Joint Service cell depending on the type of ordnance requiring attention.


This joint approach now applies to the manner in which the services are trained and commanded. RLC,RE RAF and RN EOD personnel go through basic IEDD training together, ensuring all can provide the basic capability. The RLC Ammunition Technicians also train in High Threat and Advanced Manual Techniques at The Felix Centre. RE, RAF and RN personnel receive some basic training at Defence EOD School to provide them with the basic EOD skills for use in War and peace support operations in clearing battle fields of mines and explosive remnants of war; a separate skills set reflecting the larger scale of battlefield EOD clearance in deployed theatres. This allows RLC Ammunition Technicians to focus on providing the lead for IEDD in the UK and all overseas theatres of operation, reflecting the many years experience the RLC have in IEDD terrorist/insurgent devices in Northern Ireland, UK, Europe, Iraq and Afghanistan. Within the UK the RLC (30 teams), RAF (2 teams) and RN (6 teams) are responsible for UK IEDD cover. An Ammunition Technician (AT) is a British Army soldier trained to inspect, repair, test and modify all ammunition and explosives used by the British Army. ... The Army School of Ammunition is the main training shool for Ammunition Technicians and Ammunition Technical Officers in the British Army. ...


Within the UK the RLC are responsible for High Threat IEDD and the disposal of Land service ammunition items, including ammunition used by the Army Air Corps. As the subject matter experts they are responsible for the training of all IEDD teams and provide back up on the ground to RAF and RN teams faced by complex devices or those from known terrorist organisations. RLC Ammunition Technicians are also responsible for Nuclear, Biological and Chemical munitions disposal.


Within the UK, the Royal Engineers BDOs are responsible for enemy air dropped ammunition, and the Royal Navy are responsible for ammunition items found below the High Tide mark.


Royal Air Force

Within the UK the Royal Air Force are responsible for UK service airdropped ammunition less ammunition used by the Army Air Corps helicopters like the AH-64 Longbow Apache


No 5131(BD) Squadron (RAF) Mission Statement To deliver and develop EOD capability to support UK defence policy No 5131(BD) Squadron is a sub-unit within the Armament Support Unit which delivers and develops EOD capability to support UK defence policy. Airfield EOD assets provide rapid Explosive Ordnance Clearance (EOC) of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and other explosive hazards prior to or during DOB activation. The prime function of this Force Element is the generation of an aircraft Main Operating Surface, Main Aircraft Operating Surface and the EOC of facilities for vital Detached Operation Bases (DOB) installations. Following DOB activation, it provides continuing EOD support to air operations and DOB Force Protection (FP) assets within the FP AOR.


The Squadron will provide a 5-man AEOD C2 team (to integrate within the Force Protection Headquarters). The 3-man EOD teams deploy in Spartan CVR(T) fitted with Clansman (to be replaced with BOWMAN). Force strength deployed will depend upon the threat. Additional EOD personnel are available from non-cadre EOD posts (NFU personnel). During peacetime, the Squadron fulfils Military Task 1 (UK MACP) and Conventional Munitions Disposal - and conducts EOC Tasks across the UK ranging from the clearance of Air Weapon ranges and the land remediation of current MoD sites to the removal of hazard from former chemical weapon storage sites.


United States

US military EOD Technicians are awarded a specialized badge upon successful completion of school, informally referred to as a 'crab'. Civilian PSBTs have a similar badge. The components of the badge each have a special meaning: The Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which recognizes those service members who are specially trained to deal with the construction, deployment, disarmament, and disposal of high explosives munitions and may include other types of ordnance such as Nuclear, Biological and Chemical...

  • The Wreath: Symbolic of the achievements and laurels gained in minimizing incidents through the ingenuity and devotion to duty of its members. It is in memory of those EOD members who gave their lives while performing EOD duties.
  • The Bomb: Copied from the design of the World War II Bomb Disposal badge, represents the historic and major objective of the EOD mission, the unexploded bomb. The three fins represent the major areas of nuclear, conventional and chemical/biological interest.
  • Lightning Bolts: Symbolizes the potential destructive power of the bomb and the courage and professionalism of EOD personnel.
  • The Shield: Represents the EOD mission -- to prevent a detonation and protect the surrounding area and property to the utmost.

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Israeli

The Israeli military EOD technicians wear the badge and pin of Yahalom unit, after the SAP unit was merged with Sayeret Yael and grew up to other fields as well. The Sayeret Yahalom (formerly Sayeret Yael) is a special elite combat engineering unit of the Israeli Engineering Corps of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


Canadian

The Canadian military EOD Technicians wear this patch: http://jfchalifoux.com/explosive_ordinance_destruction_gold_bullion_new_uniform.jpg.


Combat Engineers, Air Weapon Systems Technicians (now called AVN techs), Ammunition Technicians and Clearance divers are all candidates for EOD training.


It is the Dress Uniform version of the EOD badge.


Basque Country-Spain

In the basque country, sited in the north of Spain, there are three corps in charge of bomb disposal nowadays. Policia Nacional, Guardia Civil, and Ertzaintza.


Ertzaintza has its Bomb Disposal Unit since the 80's when they started been trained by a British Expert from the London MET. They have been making safe IEDs from the terrorist group ETA since then. ETA is possibly the European only terrorist group still setting bombs . They have an EOD-IED association call Adexe. For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ...


See also

The typical configuration of anti-handling devices used with anti-tank landmines. ... Hydrema mine clearing vehicle MineWolf tiller-based demining machine deployed in Sudan Digger Mini Flail for Mine Clearance Demining is the process of removing landmines or naval mines from an area. ... Fuze is a brand of beverage. ...

Notes and references

In-line
  1. ^ (English) David Payne. Duds On The Western Front In The Great War. westernfrontassociation.com. The Western Front Association. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  2. ^ (English) Patrick, Derrick (1981). Fetch Felix: The Fight Against the Ulster Bombers, 1976-1977. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0241103711. 
  3. ^ (English) "Lieutenant-Colonel 'Peter' Miller" (September 2006). The Times (September 06, 2006). 
  4. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debates for 21 Oct 1998 (pt 17)
General
  • Samuel J. Hooper, The History of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (1941-1980). (unpublished manuscript) c.1981.
  • Jeffrey M. Leatherwood, Nine from Aberdeen: Colonel Thomas J. Kane and the Genesis of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal in World War II. [Master's Thesis] Western Carolina University. Department of History, c. 2004.
  • Christopher Ransted, Bomb Disposal and the British Casualties of WW2, c. 2004.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...

Further reading

  • Birchall, Peter (1998). The Longest Walk: The World of Bomb Disposal. Sterling Pub Co Inc. ISBN 1-85409-398-3. 
  • Styles, George (1975). Bombs Have No Pity: My War Against Terrorism. W Luscombe. ISBN 0-86002-133-5. 
  • Ryder, Chris (2005). A Special Kind of Courage: Bomb Disposal and the Inside Story of 321 EOD Squadron. Methuen Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-413-77276-4. 
  • Hunter, Chris (2007). Eight Lives Down (Fiction). Bantam Press. ISBN 0-5930-5860-7. 
  • Gurney, Peter (1994). Braver Men Walk Away. Ulverscroft. ISBN 0-7089-8762-1. 
  • Bundy, Edwin A. (2006). Commonalities in an Uncommon Profession: Bomb Disposal. Available online at http://www.wmdtraining.com/Commonalities_in_Bomb_Disposal_Technicians.pdf. 
  • Smith, Gary (1997). Demo Men. Pocket. ISBN 978-0671520533. 

A unit of the Royal Logistics Corps responsible for IEDD duties in Northern Ireland. ...

External links

Look up defuse, defusion, defusing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Explosive Ordnance Disposal
  • [1]USAF EOD During Vietnam
  • Pigstick specs
  • 1998 Debate on pigstick in the House of Commons
  • Pigstick description
  • Blaster Exchange Explosives Industry Portal
  • www.ammotechs.org The Association of Ammunition Technicians
  • 11 EOD Regiment RLC
  • Palace Barracks Memorial Palace Barracks Memorial Garden in honour of fallen British Bomb Disposal Experts
  • George Cross Capt Peter Norton - British Bomb Disposal Expert receives George Cross
  • Ammunition Technical Officers (MOD) Ammunition Technical Officers
  • Dudbuster Dudbuster - the US home of EOD and PSBT guys.
  • NAVSCOLEOD US Naval School, EOD - Home of the United States Joint Service EOD School
  • Royal Engineers (MOD) Royal Engineers Bomb Disposal Specialist
  • Royal Engineers (MOD) 33 Engineer Regiment (Explosive Ordnance Disposal)
  • Royal Engineers Remembered - 9th Bomb Disposal Company
  • USAF EOD US Air Force EOD Home page
  • US Air Force EOD
  • Air Force Explosive Ordnance Disposal--Its Proud Beginning
  • REDSTONE Redstone Arsenal, home of the US Hazardous Devices School
  • Fort Bragg EOD recruiting page, contains some good images.
  • Mulvaney on Bomb Disposal Cartoons from the World War II newsletter of the US Naval Bomb Disposal School
  • EOD memorial, in remembrance to those that gave their lives. Also provides academic scolarships for their families.
  • International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators
  • Danger UXB 1979 BBC drama about bomb disposal in WWII
  • more links An excellent source of links from the Frozen Chosen!
  • A Brown Origin EOD Website Dedicated to the world of EOD
  • DEMIRA Deutsche Minenraeumer e.V. - German Mine Clearer
  • [2]- US NAVY EOD
  • http://adexe-ertzaintza.spaces.live.com/
  • Close-up aerial photo UK Army School of Ammunition IEDD Felix Centre
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Royal Engineers - Specialist - Bomb Disposal (407 words)
Many shells, bombs and munitions fail to explode, leaving them around the battlefield after the fighting is over.
Bomb Disposal Engineers are expert in the vital task of safely disposing of unexploded ordnance.
In summary Bomb Disposal is an extremely busy and exciting role that will give the opportunity to serve around the world in most operational theatres.
Bomb disposal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3277 words)
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous devices are rendered safe.
They dispose of old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in quarrying or mining, as well as old or unstable fireworks and ammunition.
The Bomb: Copied from the design of the World War II Bomb Disposal badge, represents the historic and major objective of the EOD mission, the unexploded bomb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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