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Encyclopedia > Bolshevik
Bolshevik Party Meeting. Lenin is seen at right.
Bolshevik Party Meeting. Lenin is seen at right.
Boris Kustodiev's 1920 painting "Bolshevik"
Boris Kustodiev's 1920 painting "Bolshevik"

The Bolsheviks, originally[1] Bolshevists[2] (Russian: Большевик, Большевист (singular) Russian pronunciation: [bəlʲʂɨˈvʲik], derived from bolshe, "more") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction[3] at the Second Party Congress in 1903 and ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[4] The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union. Bolsheviks were members of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labor Partys Bolshevik faction. ... Bolshevik meeting. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1341x983, 365 KB) Summary Boris Michailowitsch Kustodijew (1878-1927): The Bolshevik, 1920, Moscow Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1341x983, 365 KB) Summary Boris Michailowitsch Kustodijew (1878-1927): The Bolshevik, 1920, Moscow Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Self-Portrait in front of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, 1912 Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Russian: ) (March 7, 1878–May 28, 1927) was a Russian art deco painter. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... The 2nd Congress of the RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic Labor Party) was held during July 30 - August 23 (July 17 - August 10, O.S.), 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium (until August 6) and ending in London, because Belgian police forced the delegates to leave the country. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Bolsheviks (or "the Majority") were an organization of professional revolutionaries under a strict internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism and quasi-military discipline, who considered themselves as a vanguard of the revolutionary proletariat. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism.[5] The party was founded by Vladimir Lenin, who also led it in the October Revolution. The concept of professional revolutionaries, alternatively called cadre, is in origin a Leninist concept used to describe a body of devoted communists who spend the great majority of their time organizing their party toward proletarian revolution. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... One of the defining features of a professional military is a strict and sometimes elaborate code of courtesy. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Lenin redirects here. ...

Contents

History of the split

In the Second Congress of the RSDLP, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a small core of professional revolutionaries, leaving sympathizers outside the party, and instituting a system of centralized control known as the democratic centralist model. Julius Martov, until then a close friend and colleague of Lenin's, agreed with him that the core of the party should consist of professional revolutionaries, but argued that party membership should be open to sympathizers, revolutionary workers and other fellow travellers. The two had disagreed on the issue as early as March-May 1903, but it wasn't until the Congress that their differences became irreconcilable and split the party.[6] Although at first the disagreement appeared to be minor and inspired by personal conflicts, e.g. Lenin's insistence on dropping less active editorial board members from Iskra or Martov's support for the Organizing Committee of the Congress which Lenin opposed, the differences quickly grew and the split became irreparable. The 2nd Congress of the RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic Labor Party) was held during July 30 - August 23 (July 17 - August 10, O.S.), 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium (until August 6) and ending in London, because Belgian police forced the delegates to leave the country. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Julius Martov or L. Martov (Ма́ртов, real name Yuli Osipovich Zederbaum (Russian Ю́лий О́сипович Цедерба́ум)) (November 24, 1873 – April 4, 1923) was born in Constantinople in 1873. ... A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ... The first edition of Iskra Iskra (Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants. ...


Origins of the name

The two factions were originally known as "hard" (Lenin's supporters) and "soft" (Martov's supporters). Soon, however, the terminology changed to "Bolsheviks" and "Mensheviks", from the Russian "bolshinstvo" (majority) and "menshinstvo" (minority), based on the fact that Lenin's supporters narrowly defeated Martov's supporters on the question of party membership. Neither Lenin nor Martov had a firm majority throughout the Congress as delegates left or switched sides. At the end, the Congress was evenly split between the two factions.


From 1907 on, English language articles sometimes used the term "Maximalist" for "Bolshevik" and "Minimalist" for "Menshevik", which proved confusing since there was also a "Maximalist" faction within the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party in 1904–1906 (which after 1906 formed a separate Union of Socialists-Revolutionaries Maximalists‎) and then again after 1917.[7] Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... Union of Socialists-Revolutionaries Maximalists was a political party in Russia, a radical wing expelled from the Socialist-Revolutionary Party in 1906. ...


Beginning of the 1905 Revolution (1903–1905)

The two factions were in a state of flux in 1903–1904 with many members changing sides. The founder of Russian Marxism, Georgy Plekhanov, who was at first allied with Lenin and the Bolsheviks, parted ways with them by 1904. Leon Trotsky at first supported the Mensheviks, but left them in September 1904 over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks. He remained a self-described "non-factional social democrat" to until August 1917 when he joined Lenin and the Bolsheviks as their positions converged and he came to believe that Lenin was right on the issue of the party. G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


The lines between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks hardened in April 1905 when the Bolsheviks held a Bolsheviks-only meeting in London, which they call the Third Party Congress. The Mensheviks organized a rival conference and the split was thus formalized.


The Bolsheviks played a relatively minor role in the 1905 revolution, and were a minority in the St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies led by Trotsky. The less significant Moscow Soviet, however, was dominated by the Bolsheviks. These soviets became the model for the Soviets that were formed in 1917. St. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ...


("The minority") (1906–1907)

As the Russian Revolution of 1905 progressed, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and smaller non-Russian social democratic parties operating within the Russian Empire attempted to reunify at the Fourth (Unification) Congress of the RSDLP held at Folkets hus, Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, April 1906. With the Mensheviks ("The minority") striking an alliance with the Jewish Bund, the Bolsheviks found themselves in a minority. However, all factions retained their respective factional structure and the Bolsheviks formed the Bolshevik Center, the de-facto governing body of the Bolshevik faction within the RSDLP. At the next, Fifth Congress held in London in May 1907, the Bolsheviks were in the majority, but the two factions continued functioning mostly independently of each other. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Fourth (Unity) Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party that took place in Stockholm, Sweden, from April 10-25 (April 23 to May 8), 1906. ... Folkets hus at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm. ... The LO-building at Norra Bantorget Norra Bantorget (The Northern Railway Square) is an area in central Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אלגמײנער ײדישער ארבײטרסבונד אין רוסלנד, ליטא אונד פוילן), generally called The Bund (בונד), was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between...


Split between Lenin and Bogdanov (1908–1909)

With the defeat of the revolution in mid-1907 and the adoption of a new, highly restrictive election law, the Bolsheviks began debating whether to boycott the new parliament known as the Third Duma. Lenin and his supporters Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev argued for participating in the Duma while Lenin's deputy philosopher Alexander Bogdanov, Anatoly Lunacharsky, Mikhail Pokrovsky and others argued that the social democratic faction in the Duma should be recalled. The latter became known as recallists ("otzovists" in Russian). A smaller group within the Bolshevik faction demanded that the RSDLP central committee should give its sometimes unruly Duma faction an ultimatum, demanding complete subordination to all party decisions. This group became known as "ultimatists" and was generally allied with the recallists. State Duma of the Russian Empire was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire. ... Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Russian: (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Belarusian: ) August 22 (Old Style), 1873, Hrodna, Russia (today Belarus) - April 7, 1928, Moscow) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity whose scientific interests ranged from the universal systems theory to the possibility of human rejuvenation... Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky (1875 – Russian Soviet literary critic, Bolshevik revolutionary and Communist political figure. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Pokrovsky (August 29, 1868 - April 10, 1932) was a Bolshevik Russian historian, who was held in highest repute under Lenin and Stalin. ... Otzovists or Recallists were a group of radical Bolsheviks, who demanded to cease all participation of the RSDLP in legal state establishments, in particular, to recall the RSDLP representatives from the State Duma, hence the name (to recall is otozvat in Russian). ...


With a majority of Bolshevik leaders either supporting Bogdanov or undecided by mid-1908 when the differences became irreconcilable, Lenin concentrated on undermining Bogdanov's reputation as a philosopher. In 1909 he published a scathing book of criticism entitled Materialism and Empiriocriticism (1909),[8] assaulting Bogdanov's position and accusing him of philosophical idealism.[9] In June 1909, Bogdanov was defeated at a Bolshevik mini-conference in Paris organized by the editorial board of the Bolshevik magazine Proletary and expelled from the Bolshevik faction.[10] This article is about the capital of France. ... Proletary (The Proletarian) was an illegal Russian Bolshevik newspaper edited by Lenin; it was published from September 3, 1906 until December 11, 1909. ...


Final attempt at party unity (1910)

With both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks weakened by splits within their ranks and by Tsarist repression, they were tempted to try to re-unite the party. In January 1910, Leninists, recallists and various Menshevik factions held a meeting of the party's Central Committee in Paris. Kamenev and Zinoviev were dubious about the idea, but were willing to give it a try under pressure from "conciliator" Bolsheviks like Victor Nogin. Lenin was adamantly opposed to any re-unification, but was outvoted within the Bolshevik leadership. The meeting reached a tentative agreement and one of its provisions made Trotsky's Vienna-based Pravda a party-financed 'central organ'. Kamenev, Trotsky's brother-in-law, was added to the editorial board from the Bolsheviks, but the unification attempts failed in August 1910 when Kamenev resigned from the board amid mutual recriminations. zapt Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Viktor Nogin (1878-1924) was a prominent Bolshevik activist in Moscow. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ...


Forming a separate party (1912)

The factions permanently broke off relations in January 1912 after the Bolsheviks organized a Bolsheviks-only Prague Party Conference and formally expelled Mensheviks and recallists from the party. As a result, they ceased to be a faction in the RSDLP and instead declared themselves an independent party, which they called RSDLP (Bolshevik). The failure of the attempt to secure unity convinced Lenin of the need for a clean break. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the ruling party in the Soviet Union. ...


Although the Bolshevik leadership decided to form a separate party, convincing pro-Bolshevik workers within Russia to follow suit proved difficult. When the first meeting of the Fourth Duma was convened in late 1912, only one out of six Bolshevik deputies, Matvei Muranov, (another one, Roman Malinovsky, was later exposed as a secret police agent) voted to break away from the Menshevik faction within the Duma on 15 December 1912.[11] The Bolshevik leadership eventually prevailed and the Bolsheviks formed their own Duma faction in September 1913. Matvei Konstantinovich Muranov (29 November 1873 — 9 December 1959) was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. ... The Soviet Union had a succession of secret police agencies over the course of its existence. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Bolsheviks with Lenin in the middle.

Bolshevik central committee, public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...

Political philosophy

The Bolsheviks believed in organizing the party in a strongly centralized hierarchy that sought to overthrow the Tsar and achieve power. Although the Bolsheviks were not completely monolithic, they were characterized by a rigid adherence to the leadership of the central committee, based on the notion of democratic centralism. The Mensheviks favored open party membership and espoused cooperation with the other socialist and some non-socialist groups in Russia. Bolsheviks generally refused to co-operate with liberal or radical parties (which they labeled "bourgeois") or even eventually other socialist organizations, although Lenin sometimes made tactical alliances. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...

Left to right: Trotsky, Lenin, and Kamenev
Left to right: Trotsky, Lenin, and Kamenev

Image File history File links 1919-Trotsky_Lenin_Kamenev-Party-Congress. ... Image File history File links 1919-Trotsky_Lenin_Kamenev-Party-Congress. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Categories: People stubs | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Exonerated Soviet death sentences | Russian Jews ...

From Bolshevism to Communism

Under Lenin and Stalin the words Bolshevik and Communist were synonymous, and the official name of the ruling party was: the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). However, in 1952 at XIX Party Congress Stalin declared: "There are no more Mensheviks. Why should we call ourselves Bolsheviks? We are not the majority, but the whole party." According to his suggestion, the Communist party was renamed as the Communist Party of Soviet Union. Since that time, the term Bolshevik has been regarded as obsolete, and relevant only to the pre-Revolutionary times and the Russian Civil War.


Derogatory usage of "Bolshevik"

During the days of the Cold War in the United Kingdom, labour union leaders and other leftists were sometimes derisively described as "Bolshie". The usage is roughly equivalent to the term "Red" or "pinko" in the United States during the same period. However these days it is often used to describe a difficult or rebellious person e.g.:"Timothy, don't be so bolshie!" An alternative spelling is "bolshy". (Collins Mini Dictionary, 1998) For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Pinko is a derogatory term for a person sympathetic to a Communist Party, but not necessarily a communist. ...

See also Jewish Bolshevism

Conditions in Russia (1924) A Census -Bolsheviks by Ethnicity Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Żydokomuna, is an antisemitic conspiracy theory which blames the Jews for Bolshevism; it is an antisemitic political epithet. ...

Non-Russian/Soviet groups having used the name "Bolshevik"

Maoist Bolshevik Reorganisation Movement of the Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party is an underground communist party in Bangladesh. ... Bolshevik-Leninist Party of India, Ceylon and Burma (BLPI) was formed in Indian groups and Lanka Sama Samaja Party of Ceylon. ... Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) [RSP(B)] was formed as a splinter-group from Revolutionary Socialist Party in Kerala in 2001. ... Bolshevik Communist Party (Spanish: ) was a communist group in Mexico during the 1960s. ... Bolshevik Nuclei (in French: Noyau-Bolshevik) was a small clandestine marxist group in Senegal. ... The Bolshevik Samasamaja Party was the Ceylon section Bolshevik-Leninist Party of India, Ceylon and Burma (BLPI) after 1945 and of the Fourth International in 1948-1950, after the dissolution of the BLPI. After the war there was a split in the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP). ... The International Bolshevik Tendency is a Trotskyist international organisation. ...

See also

The Group of Democratic Centralism was a dissenting faction within the Soviet Communist Party in the early 1920s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The following is a list of self-identified socialists, divided by geographical location. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Old Bolshevik (Russian: ) is an unofficial designation for a member of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... Neo-Bolshevism refers to the followers of the extreme left-wing social beliefs of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party. ...

References

  1. ^ Ushakov's Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language, article "Большевистский"
  2. ^ Dictionaries define the word "Bolshevist" both as a synonym to "Bolshevik" and as an adherent of Bolshevik policies.
  3. ^ Derived from menshe ("less"). The split occurred at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
  4. ^ After the split, the Bolshevik party was designated as RSDLP(b) (Russian: РСДРП(б)), where "b" stands for "Bolsheviks". Shortly after seizing power in November 1917 the party changed its name to the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (РКП(б)) and was generally known as the Communist Party after that point, however, it was not until 1952 that the party formally dropped the word "Bolshevik" from its name. (See Congress of the CPSU article for the timeline of name changes.)
  5. ^ Leon Trotsky frequently used the terms "Bolshevism" and "Bolshevist" after his exile from the Soviet Union to differentiate between what he saw as true Leninism and the regime within the state and the party which arose under Stalin. However, "Bolshevism" today is commonly associated with the Stalinist regime which existed in the Soviet Union.
  6. ^ See Israel Getzler. Martov: A Political Biography of a Russian Social Democrat, Cambridge University Press, 2003 (first edition 1967), ISBN 0-521-52602-7 p.78
  7. ^ See Étienne Antonelli, Bolshevik Russia, A.A. Knopf, 1920, tr. by Charles A. Carroll, 307pp.: "the term "Maximalist" rather widely used as a translation for "Bolshevik" is historically false." (p.59)
  8. ^ First published in Moscow in May 1909 by Zveno Publishers, available online
  9. ^ See Alan Woods. Bolshevism: The Road to Revolution, Wellred Publications, 1999, ISBN 1-900007-05-3 Part Three: The Period of Reaction available online
  10. ^ English language excerpts from the resolution are quoted in A Documentary History of Communism in Russia, ed. Robert V. Daniels, UPNE, 1993, ISBN 0-87451-616-1 p.33
  11. ^ Robert B. McKean, St. Petersburg Between the Revolutions: workers and revolutionaries, June 1907-February 1917, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1990, pp. 140-1.

The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ...

External links

Alan Woods is a British activist born in Swansea, South Wales in 1944 into a working-class family with a strong Communist tradition. ... Maurice Brinton was the pen name under which Chris Pallis (1923-2005) wrote and translated for the British libertarian socialist group Solidarity from 1960 until the early 1980s. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...

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