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Encyclopedia > Bologna Accord

The purpose of the Bologna process is to create the European higher education area by harmonising academic degree standards and quality assurance standards throughout Europe for each faculty and its development. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna with the signing, in 1999, of the Bologna declaration by ministers of education from 29 European countries in the Italian city of Bologna. This was opened up to other countries, and further governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003) and Bergen (2005); the next meeting will take place in London in Autumn 2007. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is the objective of the Bologna process - to create more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... REDIRECT http://de. ... The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is the university of Bologna, the second biggest university in Italy. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Bologna declaration is the main guiding document of the Bologna process. ... Bologna (pronounced , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Before the signing of the Bologna declaration, the Magna Carta Universitatum had been issued at a meeting of university rectors celebrating the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna - and thus of European universities - in 1988. One year before the Bologna declaration, education ministers Claude Allegre (France), Jürgen Rüttgers (Germany), Luigi Berlinguer (Italy) and the Baroness Blackstone (UK) signed the Sorbonne declaration in Paris 1998, committing themselves to "harmonising the architecture of the European Higher Education system". French officials in particular therefore often refer to the La Sorbonne/Bologna process. The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is the university of Bologna, the second biggest university in Italy. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude Jean Allègre (born March 31, French geochemist and politician. ... Jürgen Rüttgers (born June 26, 1951 in Cologne) is a German Politician (CDU) and Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia, widely known for his views on immigration and the famous phrase Kinder statt Inder (children instead of Indians) which was a media interpretation of Statt Inder an die... Tessa Ann Vosper Blackstone, Baroness Blackstone, PC, is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


The Council of Europe and UNESCO have jointly issued the Lisbon recognition convention on recognition of academic qualifications as part of the process, which has been ratified by the majority of the countries party to the Bologna process. The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Lisbon Recognition Convention is an international convention for the Europe area of UNESCO. It stipulates that degrees and periods of study must be recognised unless substantial differences can be proven by the institution that is charged with recognition. ...

Contents


Framework

The basic framework adopted is of three cycles of higher education qualification: bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees. In most cases, these will take 3, 2, and 3 years respectively to complete, but the framework is moving to defining qualifications in terms of learning outcomes and the length in years is in no way set in stone. A Framework of Qualifications for the European Higher Education Area was adopted by the ministers responsible for higher education at a meeting in Bergen in May 2005. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ... The team qualification may refer to: Certification A process of deciding the running order in many auto racing events This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


These levels are closer to the current model in the UK, Ireland than that in most of Continental Europe, where the model often is based on the magister or diploma. In any case, program length tends to vary from country to country, and less often between institutions within a country. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ...


Effects

Most countries do not currently fit the framework – instead they have their own time-honoured systems. The process will have many knock-on effects such as bilateral agreements between countries and institutions which recognise each others' degrees. However, the process is now moving away from a strict convergence in terms of time spent on qualifications, towards a competency-based system. The system will have an undergraduate and postgraduate division, with the bachelor degree in the former and the master and doctoral in the latter.


In mainland Europe five year plus first degrees are common, with some taking up to eight years not being unheard of. This leads to many not completing their studies; many of these countries are now introducing bachelor-level qualifications. This situation is changing rapidly as the Bologna Process is implemented.


Austria

The situation in Austria is similar to that in Germany: the traditional "lowest" degrees are the Magister and the Diplom-Ingenieur, which can be obtained after at least four to five years of study. However, beginning with the year 2000, a number of curricula have already been converted into separate bachelor (Bakkalaureat) and master (Magisterstudium) programmes, with nominal durations of six semesters (three years) and three to four semesters (1.5 - 2 years), respectively. With few exceptions (e.g. studies of human and veterinary medicine), all university curricula will be remodeled to this format within the next years. The Republic of Austria has a free and public school system, and nine years of education are mandatory. ...


Enrollment in a doctoral programme generally requires a master's level degree in a related field. The nominal duration of doctoral programmes is two years, but the actual time to graduation varies considerably and is generally longer than that.


Belgium

In Belgium the candidate's degree took 2 years (in some cases 3), with an additional 2 to 3 years (in some cases 4) to obtain a license. This has been replaced by an academic bachelor's degree of 3 years and a master's degree of 1 or 2 years (in some case 3 or even 4). The professional (non-academic) graduate degree has been replaced by a professional bachelor degree of 3 years. There are two main school systems in Belgium: State-owned schools and state-free schools. ... It has been suggested that Licensing (strategic alliance) be merged into this article or section. ...


Denmark

Previously to the adaptation to international standards the lowest degree that could be obtained at universities in Denmark were equivalent to a Master degree (Kandidat). Officially Bachelor's degrees has been introduced after 3 years university studies, but very few choose to stop at this stage, without the additional 2 years required to obtain a Masters degree. Various medium length (2-4 years) professional degrees have been adapted so they now have status as professional bachelor's degrees (3½ years), and opposed to academic bachelor's degrees they are considered to be "valid" degrees. Danish Education System is a sophisticated system designed to educate the people of Denmark. ...


Estonia

See also: Education in Estonia

Since 2002 in Estonia all honours bachelors degree are three years (before 2001 enrollment 4 years), master's 2 and doctorates 4. The masters degree is always a postgraduate degree. Basically, there is no taught or achieved through research master's gradation.


France

In contrast to the Anglo-Saxon system, the French academic system does not use undergraduate education : each student chooses a particular field of studies for his matriculation. The French term for academic degree is grade universitaire. The French educational system is highly centralized, organized, and ramified. ...


The first degree, called the baccalauréat, ends the secondary education and allows students to enter University. It is then followed by the Diplôme d'études universitaires générales or DEUG, which takes two years, followed by a third year, the licence. The licence is roughly the equivalent of the Oxford B. A.. After the licence, students can choose to enter the maîtrise, which was a one-year research degree. The maîtrise may be followed by either a work-oriented one-year degree, the diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées or DESS, or a one-year research degree, the Diplôme d'études approfondies or DEA. The DEA is one year of preparation for a doctorate, and can be considered equivalent to a M. Phil.. After DEA, students may pursue a doctorat, which takes at least three years. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ...


The baccalauréat and the doctorat status are unchanged in the new Bologna system, but the DEUG and the old licence are merged in a new, three-year, licence, as the maîtrise, the DESS and the DEA in a master of two years, which can be work-oriented (master professionnel) or research-oriented (master recherche).


Germany

In Germany the process is already underway, many subjects of the natural sciences, humanities and social studies can be completed with a BA or BSc at an increasing number of universities. The Bachelor's degree in engineering can be a BSc or a BEng. The new postgraduate Master's degrees (MA, MSc and MEng) are seen as equivalent to the old five year plus first degrees Diplom (one subject, can be in all sciences) and Magister Artium (interdisciplinary, only in social and cultural sciences). Bachelor's degrees are seen as roughly equivalent to the old four year first degree Diplom (FH) from a Fachhochschule (or University of Applied Sciences). Bearing in mind that the Fachhochschule level is not comparable to the UK honours degree or to the French DEA (see below) because although the fourth year of the FH is used for a research project, it is a practical project, done on-the-job. Furthermore, the FH is outside the university system. German universities are research universities and include courses in all traditional departments through the Doktorat level, whereas the FH are teaching colleges for technical, business and applied social science subjects which have offered only one degree, the Diplom (FH). The number of old degree courses is declining and they will be replaced by the new degrees up until 2005 in some states or up until 2010 in all other German states. The education system in Germany has a long tradition of compulsory state schools. ... A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B., from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. ... A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. ... Bachelor of Engineering (BAI (in latin), BEng, BE, or BESc) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three or four years of studying engineering at an accredited university in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and other countries, such as Australia and India. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... A Master of Engineering (M.Eng. ... Diplom - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (transliterated as Laender in English, singular Land). ...


Hungary

In Hungary, the Bologna system will be applied to those starting their university education in September 2006. From this year, only 108 majors will be available for selection (instead of more than 400 in the previous year), out of which six are exempt from the Bachelor vs. Master division: lawyer, physician, dentist, veterinary, pharmacist and architect. In Hungary most schools are owned by the state, though since the 1990s there are also church owned and private schools. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the online poll of Felvi.hu, the National Tertiary Education Information Centre, 65% think it was unnecessary to adopt this system [1] (query date: 24-FEB-06). Its unpopularity first of all comes from the fact that the new system provides much less guarantee for students to get a practically useful Master's degree because many of them will be dismissed after the three years' Bachelor education. It's also not popular that students are supposed to take up more unrelated subjects in the first three years at several majors, due to the much more reduced number of majors.

Source in Hungarian: [2]

Italy

See also: Education in Italy

Italy seems to fit the framework: since 2001, the first degree in most universities is the "Laurea triennale" that can be achieved after 3 years of studies; students can then complete 2 more years of "specialization" which lead to a second undergraduate degree ("Laurea Specialistica" or "Laurea Magistrale"). // History From Italian Unification to the Gentile Act In Italy, a state-wide Education System has existed since 1859, when the Legge Casati (Casati Act) made the responsible for the forthcoming Italian state (Italian unification happened in 1861) with the construction of state-funded boarding schools to be funded where... In Italy, the laurea is the main post-secondary academic degree. ...


The two years of specialization, however, cannot correctly be termed a Masters degree, because Italian law also provides for two Masters levels outside the undergraduate degrees: "First Level Masters", that can be pursued by those who hold at least a "Laurea triennale" degree, and "Second Level Masters", that require a "Laurea Specialistica" before entry.


This means that under current Italian legislation 3 + 2 in fact leads to an undergraduate degree, even though some universities list the "Laurea Specialistica" as a Masters.


One exception to this rule is the degree in Medicine (6 years, plus a postgraduate specialization).


The doctorate in Italy lasts 3 or 4 years, and at the moment there isn't another form of postgraduate education that leads to an academic title since the Masters' degree is not yet recognized in many public competitions, including at universities.


Ireland

In Ireland most honours bachelors degree are three to four years with master's and doctorates being broadly similar to the UK. Ordinary bachelors degrees are also first cycle qualifications. The masters degree is always a postgraduate degree, either taught or achieved through research. The generic outcomes for Irish degrees are spelled out in the National Framework of Qualifications published in 2003. The Republic of Irelands education system is quite similar to that of most other western countries. ...


Russia and Ukraine

The Russian and Ukrainian higher education frameworks are basically incompatible with the process: the generic "lowest" degree in all universities since Soviet era is the Specialist which can be obtained after completing 5 years of studies. In the meanwhile, since mid-90s many universities have introduced limited educational programmes allowing students to graduate with a Bachelor's degree (4 years) and then earn a Master's degree (another 2 years) while preserving the old 5-year scheme. It's worth mentioning that even though Specialists are eligible for post-graduate courses (Aspirantura) as well as Masters are, Bachelors are not. Specialist degree is now being discontinued in universities that take part in Bologna process, so new students don't have this option. This article is about education in Russia. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ...


Spain

See also: Education in Spain

The situation in Spain is almost identical to that in Italy. Today, the lowest degree is the "Diplomatura" (Faculties) or "Ingeniería Técnica" (Technical Schools), that can be achieved after 3 years of studies, and then there are 2 more years, obtaining the "Licenciatura" or "Ingeniería Superior" degree. In some cases (for example Physics, Chemistry, History ...), the lower degree does not exist, having only a "Licenciatura" of 4-5 years. The postgraduate courses (Doctorado) last 3 or 4 years. Only those who have the "Licenciatura" or "Ingeniería Superior" degree are eligible for a doctorate. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Sweden

Higher education institutions and parliament in Sweden are currently awaiting a bill that will introduce Bologna degrees in Sweden. The Swedish kandidatexamen will not be changed, as it is roughly equivalent to a Bachelor's degree, but there is ongoing discussion about prolonging the Swedish magisterexamen to two years to adapt it to a Master's degree as well as about the introduction of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, ECTS grading scale. Education in Sweden is mandatory for all children aged 7-16. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ... European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a method that is used to compare the marks (US: grade) given in higher education across the European Union. ...


United Kingdom

The UK starts with either a three or four year ("honours") bachelor's degree. Four year degrees are becoming more popular and some are equivalent to a three year degree plus a master's, or a three year degree plus a year in employment. Education in the United Kingdom is covered in the following articles: Education in England Education in Northern Ireland Education in Scotland Education in Wales Grammar schools in the United Kingdom Achievement in British Education List of schools in the United Kingdom British universities School inspection organisations: Office for Standards in...


A master's degree generally takes a full year to complete. The academic year for master's programmes is usually of twelve months, not nine months as for undergraduate degrees. In some case, especially in the case of an MPhil, it may take two years. A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ...


Signatories

Current signatories and thus members of the "European higher education area" are: Albania - Andorra - Armenia -Austria - Azerbaijan - Belgium - Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bulgaria - Croatia - Cyprus - Czech Republic - Denmark - Estonia - Finland - France - Georgia - Germany - Greece - Holy See - Hungary - Iceland - Ireland - Italy - Latvia - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Malta - Moldova - Netherlands - Norway - Poland - Portugal - FYR Macedonia - Romania - Russia - Serbia and Montenegro - Slovakia - Slovenia - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Turkey - Ukraine - UK The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is the objective of the Bologna process - to create more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. ...


The following organisations are also part of the follow-up of the process: ESIB, EUA, EURASHE, EI, ENQA, UNICE as well as the Council of Europe, the European Commission and UNESCO. National Unions of Students in Europe (ESIB) is an association of 50 National Unions of Students from 37 European Nations. ... The European University Association (EUA) is the main voice of the higher education community in Europe. ... The European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) came into being in 2000 as the European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Other networks at this level include ENQA as well as ENIC, NARIC and EURODOC. The European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) came into being in 2000 as the European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. ... The European Network of Information Centres (ENIC) were established as a join initiative of UNESCO and the Council of Europe. ... Created in 2001 and legally established in 2005 in Brussels, Eurodoc (www. ...


See also

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a method that is used to compare the marks (US: grade) given in higher education across the European Union. ... This is a list of articles on education organized by country: Education in Afghanistan Education in Albania Education in Algeria Education in Argentina Education in Australia Education in Austria Education in Belgium Education in Brazil Education in Bulgaria Education in Canada Education in Québec Education in the Peoples...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999

 
 

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