FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bologna" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bologna
Comune di Bologna
Coat of arms of Comune di Bologna
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Bologna in Italy
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Bologna (BO)
Mayor Sergio Cofferati
Elevation 54 m (177 ft)
Area 140.73 km² (54 sq mi)
Population (as of 2007-05-31)
 - Total 373,170
 - Density 2,652/km² (6,869/sq mi)
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 44°30′27″N, 11°21′5″ECoordinates: 44°30′27″N, 11°21′5″E
Gentilic Bolognesi
Dialing code 051
Postal code 40100
Frazioni Frabazza, Paderno, Rigosa, Monte Donato
Patron St. Petronius
 - Day October 4
Website: http://www.comune.bologna.it/

Bologna (pronounced [boloɲa], from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Po Valley (Pianura Padana in Italian), between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. Home of the oldest university in the Western world, "Alma Mater Studiorum", founded in 1088, Bologna is one of the most developed cities in Italy. Bologna ranks often as one of the top cities related to quality of life in Italy. [1] This is due to its strong industrial tradition and physical position--located at the crossing of the most important highways and railways in the country--as well as its wide range of highly-developed social services. Image File history File links Bologna-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Bologna (Italian: Provincia di Bologna) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Sergio Cofferati (born 30 January 1948 in Sesto ed Uniti, Cremona) is an Italian politician, and mayor of Bologna as of 2004 for the Left-Wing Democrats. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Saint Petronius ( San Petronio) (d. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... The Reno is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. ...

Contents

History

Bologna was founded by the Etruscans with the name Felsina (c.534 BCE) in an area previously inhabited by the Villanovians, a people of farmers and shepherds. The Etruscan city grew around a sanctuary built on a hill, and was surrounded by a necropolis. Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Villanovan Culture in 900BC The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by...


In the 4th century BC, the city was conquered by the Boii, a Gallic tribe, from which came the ancient name Bononia of the Roman colony founded in c.189 BC. The settlers included three thousand Latin families led by the consuls Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Marcus Atilius Seranus, and Lucius Valerius Tappo. The building of the Via Aemilia in 187 BC made Bologna a road hub, connected to Arezzo through the Via Flaminia minor and to Aquileia through the Via Aemilia Altinate. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... Via Aemilia (It. ... Arezzo (Latin Arretium) is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ...


In 88 BC, the city became a municipium: it had a rectilinear street plan with six cardi and eight decumani (intersecting streets) which are still discernible today. During the Roman era, its population varied between c. 12,000 to c. 30,000. At its peak, it was the second city of Italy, and one of the most important of all the Empire, with various temples and baths, a theatre, and an arena. Pomponius Mela included Bononia among the five opulentissimae ("richest") cities of Italy. Although fire damaged the city during the reign of Claudius, the Roman Emperor Nero rebuilt it in the first century AD. Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...


After a long decline, Bologna was reborn in the fifth century under bishop Petronius, who traditionally built the church of S. Stefano. After the fall of Rome, Bologna was a frontier stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain, and was defended by a line of walls which however did not enclose most of the ancient ruined Roman city. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king Liutprand, becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic conquerors formed a district called "addizione longobarda" near the complex of S. Stefano, where Charlemagne stayed in 786. Saint Petronius ( San Petronio) (d. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign which brought him into conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy at some time or other. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ...


In the 11th century, Bologna began to grow again as a free commune, joining the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa in 1164. In 1088, the Studio was founded, now the oldest university in Europe, which could boast notable scholars of the Middle Ages like Irnerius, and, among its students, Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarca. In the twelfth century, the expanding city needed a new line of walls, and another was completed in the fourteenth century. Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... The Lombard League was an alliance formed around 1167, which at its apex included most of the cities of northern Italy (although its membership changed in time), including, among others, Milan, Piacenza, Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Verona, Lodi, and Parma, and even some lords, such as... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... Irnerius, also seen as Hirnerius, Hyrnerius, Iernerius, Gernerius, Guarnerius, Warnerius, Wernerius, Yrnerius, (c. ... Dante redirects here. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... From the c. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


In 1256, Bologna promulgated the Legge del Paradiso ("Paradise Law"), which abolished feudal serfdom and freed the slaves using public money. At that time the city centre was full of towers (perhaps 180), built by the leading families, notable public edifices, churches, and abbeys. In the 1270s Bolognese politics was dominated by the lettered Luchetto Gattilusio who served as podestà. Like most Italian cities of that age, Bologna was torn by internal struggles related to the Guelph and Ghibelline factions, which led to the expulsion of the Ghibelline family of the Lambertazzi in 1274. The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


In 1294, Bologna was perhaps the fifth or sixth largest city in Europe, after Cordoba, Paris, Venice, Florence, and, probably, Milan, with 60,000 to 70,000 inhabitants. After being crushed in the Battle of Zappolino by the Modenese in 1325, Bologna began to decay and asked the protection of the Pope at the beginning of the fourteenth century. In 1348, during the Black Plague, about 30,000 inhabitants died. Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Zappolino was fought in 1325 between the towns of Bologna and Modena. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Year 1325 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ...

A grosh of the Bentivoglio period (15th century).
A grosh of the Bentivoglio period (15th century).
The Tower of Asinelli.
The Tower of Asinelli.

After the happy years of the rule of Taddeo Pepoli (1337-1347), Bologna fell to the Visconti of Milan, but returned to the Papal orbit with Cardinal Gil de Albornoz in 1360. The following years saw an alternation of Republican governments like that of 1377, which was responsible for the building of the Basilica di San Petronio and the Loggia dei Mercanti, and Papal or Visconti restorations, while the city's families engaged in continual internecine fighting. In the middle of the fifteenth century, the Bentivoglio family gained the rule of Bologna, reigning with Sante (1445-1462) and Giovanni II (1462-1506). This period was a flourishing one for the city, with the presence of notable architects and painters who made Bologna a true city of art. During the Renaissance, Bologna was the only Italian city that allowed women to excel in any profession. Women there had much more freedom than in other Italian cities; some even had the opportunity to earn a degree at the university. Image File history File links Grossone_Bentivoglio. ... Image File history File links Grossone_Bentivoglio. ... Ë: The term Grosz may also refer to George Grosz. ... Giovanni II Bentivoglio Bentivoglio (in Latin, rendered as Bentivoius) was an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna and responsible for giving the city its political autonomy during the Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1850x3636, 4031 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bologna Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/2towersBologne Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/September-2006 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1850x3636, 4031 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bologna Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/2towersBologne Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/September-2006 ... The Two Towers The Towers of Bologna date back to the medieval period and the two most prominent ones, also called the Two Towers, are the landmark of the city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Visconti was a noble family that ruled Milan during the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance period. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Gil Alvarez De Albornoz (1310-1367), Spanish cardinal, was born at Cuenca early in the 14th century. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... The unfinished facade of San Petronio Basilica The Basilica of San Petronio is the main church of Bologna, the old art city in Emilia Romagna region of Italy. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Giovanni II Bentivoglio Bentivoglio (in Latin, rendered as Bentivoius) was an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna and responsible for giving the city its political autonomy during the Renaissance. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Portrait of Giovanni II Bentivoglio, ca. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Giovanni's reign ended in 1506 when the Papal troops of Julius II besieged Bologna and sacked the artistic treasures of his palace. From that point on, until the eighteenth century, Bologna was part of the Papal States, ruled by a cardinal legato and by a Senate which every two months elected a gonfaloniere (judge), assisted by eight elder consuls. In 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII. 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ...


The city's prosperity continued, although a plague at the end of the sixteenth century reduced the population from 72,000 to 59,000, and another in 1630 to 47,000. The population later recovered to a stable 60,000-65,000. In 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio, the seat of the University. The period of Papal rule saw the construction of many churches and other religious establishments, and the renovation of older ones. Bologna had ninety-six convents, more than any other Italian city. Artists working in this age in Bologna established the Bolognese School that includes Annibale Carracci, Domenichino, Guercino and others of European fame. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... The Bolognese School of painting flourished in Bologna, Italy between the 16th and 17th centuries and rivalled Florence and Rome as the center of painting. ... Self-portrait, (Uffizi) Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. ... Domenico Zampieri (or Domenichino) (October 21, 1581 - April 15, 1641), Italian painter, born at Bologna, was the son of a shoemaker. ... The Italian painter Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591—1666) known as Guercino, was born at Cento, a village not far from Bologna. ...

The Palace of King Enzo.
The Palace of King Enzo.
Piazza Nettuno (Plaza of Neptune), and behind Piazza Maggiore.
Piazza Nettuno (Plaza of Neptune), and behind Piazza Maggiore.
One of Bologna's famous porticos.
One of Bologna's famous porticos.

With the rise of Napoleon, Bologna became the capital of the Repubblica Cispadana and, later, the second most important centre after Milan of the Repubblica Cisalpina and the Italian Kingdom. After the fall of Napoleon, Bologna suffered the Papal restoration, rebelling in 1831 and again 1849, when it temporarily expelled the Austrian garrisons which commanded the city until 1860. After a visit by Pope Pius IX in 1857, the city voted for annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia on June 12, 1859, becoming part of the united Italy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (803x600, 67 KB) Bologna - Palazzo Re Enzo Picture by Paolo Carboni (myself). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (803x600, 67 KB) Bologna - Palazzo Re Enzo Picture by Paolo Carboni (myself). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Image File history File links Description: Piazza Nettuno and (behind) Piazza Maggiore, Bologna, Italy. ... Image File history File links Description: Piazza Nettuno and (behind) Piazza Maggiore, Bologna, Italy. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Piazza Maggiore is a square in Bologna, Italy. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Repubblica Cispadana The Cispadane Republic (Italian: Repubblica Cispadana) was a short-lived republic located in Northern Italy, founded in 1796 with the protection of the French army, led by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The flag of the Cisalpine Republic was the Transpadane Republic vertical Italian tricolour, with the square shape of the Cispadane Republic The Cisalpine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802. ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Italian unification process. ...


In the new political situation, Bologna gained importance for its cultural role and became an important commercial, industrial, and communications hub; its population began to grow again and at the beginning of the twentieth century the old walls were destroyed (except for a few remaining sections) in order to build new houses for the population. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


On August 2, 1980, a massive bomb killed 86 people in the central train station in the city (see Bologna massacre). Only two months previously, Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870 had crashed under suspicious circumstances. is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Rescue teams making their way through the rubble The Bologna massacre, also known in Italy as the Strage di Bologna, was a terrorist bombing against the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of 2 August 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Importance

Bologna is a very important railway and motorway hub in Italy. The city's Fiera District (exhibition area) is the second largest in Italy and the fourth largest in Europe[citation needed], with important international exhibitions, like the motorshow , Saie, Saiedue and Cersaie (buildings), Cosmoprof (beauty culture, considered the most important in the world), Lineapelle, etc. Bologna and its metropolitan area have several important industries in the fields of mechanics, foods, and electronics, important retail and wholesale trade (the "Centergross" in the northern metropolitan area, built in 1973, was the largest in Europe for several years), and the first Italian vegetable and fruit market.[citation needed] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Bologna has about 400,000 inhabitants in the city proper and about 1 million in the metropolitan area, including over 100,000 students of the ancient and renowned University of Bologna, founded in the eleventh century. The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Main sights

For a complete list, see Buildings and structures in Bologna

Until the early nineteenth century, when a large-scale urban reconstruction project was undertaken, Bologna remained one of the best-preserved medieval cities in Europe; to this day it remains unique in its historic value. Despite having suffered considerable bombing damage in 1944, Bologna's historic centre, Europe's second largest (after Venice),[citation needed] contains a wealth of important Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque artistic monuments. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


Bologna developed along the Via Emilia as an Etruscan and later Roman colony; the Via Emilia still runs straight through the city under the changing names of Strada Maggiore, Rizzoli, Ugo Bassi, and San Felice. Due to its Roman heritage, the central streets of Bologna, today largely pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman settlement.


The original Roman ramparts were supplanted by a high medieval system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible, and finally by a third and final set of ramparts built in the thirteenth century, of which numerous sections survive. Over twenty medieval defensive towers, some of them leaning precariously, remain from the over two hundred that were constructed in the era preceding the security guaranteed by unified civic government. For a complete treatment, see Towers of Bologna. The Two Towers The Towers of Bologna date back to the medieval period and the two most prominent ones, also called the Two Towers, are the landmark of the city. ...


Bologna is home to numerous important churches. An incomplete list includes:

  • the basilica of San Petronio, one of the biggest in the world (during construction it was intended to be larger than St. Peter's in Rome, but Pope Pius IV ordered that the arms of the church be truncated, leaving it without transepts).[citation needed]
  • San Pietro Cathedral
  • Santo Stefano basilica and sanctuary
  • San Domenico basilica and sanctuary
  • San Francesco basilica
  • Santa Maria dei Servi basilica
  • San Giacomo Maggiore basilica
  • Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca (basilica) on Colle della Guardia
  • San Michele in Bosco
  • San Paolo the Great, basilica

The cityscape is further enriched by elegant and extensive arcades (or porticos), for which the city is famous. In total, there are some 38 kilometres of arcades in the city's historical center[2] (over 45 km in the city proper), which make it possible to walk for long distances sheltered from rain, snow, or hot summer sun. The Portico of San Luca, the longest in the world (3.5 km, 666 arcades)[citation needed] connects the Porta Saragozza (one of the twelve gates of the ancient walls built in the Middle Ages, which circled a 7.5 km part of the city) with the San Luca Sanctuary, on Colle della Guardia, over the city (289 m.). The unfinished facade of San Petronio Basilica. ... Santo Stefano, Bologna Santo Stefano is a church in the city of Bologna, Italy. ... The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy. ... San Francesco is a church in Bologna, northern Italy. ... The portico and the façade of Santa Maria dei Servi in Bologna. ... The icon of the Virgin Mary, allegedly painted by Luke the Evangelist The portico leading up to the basilica The Sanctuary of the Madonna of San Luca in Bologna is a basilica church sited atop Colle or Monte della Guardia, in a forested hill some 300 meters above the plain... For other uses, see Arcade. ...


The Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca is located just outside the main city on the Colle della Guardia (Guard Hill). Built in the eleventh century, it was much enlarged in the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. The interior contains works of several masters, but probably the most important is the painting of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the Evangelist. The best way to visit this Sanctuary is on foot; you can walk under the portico mentioned above. The icon of the Virgin Mary, allegedly painted by Luke the Evangelist The portico leading up to the basilica The Sanctuary of the Madonna of San Luca in Bologna is a basilica church sited atop Colle or Monte della Guardia, in a forested hill some 300 meters above the plain... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ...


Culture

Basilica of Santi Bartolomeo e Gaetano, Bologna.
Basilica of Santi Bartolomeo e Gaetano, Bologna.

Over the centuries, Bologna has acquired many nicknames: "the learned one" (la dotta) is a reference to its famous university; "the fat one" (la grassa) refers to its cuisine.


"The red one" (la rossa) originally refers to the colour of the roofs in the historic centre, but this nickname is also connected to the political situation in the city, started after World War II: until the election of a centre-right mayor in 1999, the city was renowned as a bastion of socialism and communism. The centre-left regained power again in the 2004 mayoral elections, with the election of Sergio Cofferati. It was one of the first European towns to experiment with the concept of free public transport. [3] Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Sergio Cofferati (born 30 January 1948 in Sesto ed Uniti, Cremona) is an Italian politician, and mayor of Bologna as of 2004 for the Left-Wing Democrats. ...


Another nickname for Bologna is the Basket City, referring to Bologna's obsession with basketball, which is partly unusual in football-dominated Italy. The local derby between the city's two principal basketball clubs, Fortitudo and Virtus (often called after the clubs' principal sponsors), is intense, as you can see here and here. This article is about the sport. ... Soccer redirects here. ... In many countries the term local derby, or simply just derby (pronounced der-bee in American English and dar-bee in British English after the English city) means a sporting fixture between two (generally local) rivals, particularly in Association Football. ... Fortitudo Pallacanestro Bologna is a prominent Italian basketball club based in Bologna. ... Virtus Pallacanestro Bologna is a prominent Italian basketball club, based in Bologna. ...


Football is still a highly popular sport in Bologna; the main local club is Bologna F.C. 1909, which is currently in the national Serie B. Soccer redirects here. ... Bologna Football Club 1909 is an Italian football club based in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, nicknamed the rossoblù. They play in red and blue striped shirts with blue shorts and socks. ... Serie B is the name of the second highest football league in Italy. ...


The city of Bologna was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 29 May 2006. According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and creation. It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a wide range of genres from classical to electronic, jazz, folk and opera, Bologna offers its citizens a musical vitality that deeply infiltrates the city’s professional, academic, social and cultural facets."[4] Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ...


Transport

Bologna is home to Guglielmo Marconi International Airport, expanded in 2004 by extending the runway to accommodate larger aircraft. It is the fifth busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic (over than 4 million/year in 2006). Since 2004, it is also the third busiest for intercontinental flights. This article needs to be wikified. ...


Bologna Central Station is considered the most important train hub in Italy thanks to the city's strategic location. Also, its goods-station (San Donato) with its 33 railway tracks, is the largest in Italy in size and traffic.[citation needed] History The first Bologna Centrale station was constructed in 1864, however there are sketchy and unclear testimonies regarding its life. ...


Bologna's station holds a memory in Italian public consciousness of the terrorist bomb attack that killed 85 victims in August 1980. The attack is also known in Italy as the Strage di Bologna ("Bologna massacre"). August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Rescue teams making their way through the rubble The Bologna massacre, also known in Italy as the Strage di Bologna, was a terrorist bombing against the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of 2 August 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200. ...


Demographics

In May 2007 the comune of Bologna had a population of 373,170, making it the 7th largest city in Italy. As of 2004, the greater Bologna area had a resident population of 943,983, of which 94.09% were ethnic Italians. Immigrants in the city constitute 5.91% of the population. Of the 55,840 immigrants in Bologna, non-Italian Europeans number 19,668 and are chiefly of Romanian, Albanian, and Ukrainian origins. Closely following, Africans number 19,060, almost entirely North African Arabs. A recent and growing Asian population numbers 14,119 and are mostly Filipino, with some Chinese. The remaining consists of immigrants from the Americas and the Middle East. [5] While aging continues to be a factor in the city's population, the number of births has risen in the past decade, contributing to the positive growth of the city. In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Age profile

[1]

  • 00 - 14 (108,422) = 11.48%
  • 15 - 64 (615,488) = 61.59%
  • 65+ (220,113) = 23.31%

Cuisine

Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has given its name to the well-known Bolognese sauce, a meat based pasta sauce called in Italy ragù alla bolognese but in the city itself just ragù as in Tagliatelle al ragù. Fettuccine with bolognese sauce Bolognese sauce (ragù alla bolognese in Italian, also known by its French name sauce bolognaise) is a meat based sauce for pasta originating in Bologna, Italy. ... Not to be confused with Raghu, a mythological Hindu king and Indian name. ... Tagliatelle /taatl-le/ is the classic pasta of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


Situated in the fertile Po River Valley, the rich local cuisine depends heavily on meats and cheeses. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto, mortadella and salame is an important part of the local food industry. Well-regarded nearby vineyards include Pignoletto dei Colli Bolognesi, Lambrusco di Modena and Sangiovese di Romagna. Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... Prosciutto Prosciutto (IPA: ) is the Italian word for ham, used in English to refer to dry-cured ham (prosciutto crudo). ... Romano Mortadella Mortadella, a type of bologna, is a finely hashed/ground heat-cured pork sausage which incorporates at least 15% small cubes of baby fat (principally the hard fat from the neck of the pig). ... Salami is a sausage of Italian origin. ...


Tagliatelle al ragù, lasagne, tortellini served in broth and mortadella, the original Bologna sausage, are among the local specialties. Tagliatelle /taatl-le/ is the classic pasta of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Lasagne Lasagne, also lasagna, is both a form of pasta in sheets (often rippled in North America, though seldom so in Italy) and also a dish, sometimes named Lasagne al forno (meaning Lasagne in the oven) made with alternate layers of pasta, cheese, and ragu (a meat sauce). ... Tortellini in broth Tortellini is a variety of ring-shaped pasta. ... Romano Mortadella Mortadella, a type of bologna, is a finely hashed/ground heat-cured pork sausage which incorporates at least 15% small cubes of baby fat (principally the hard fat from the neck of the pig). ...


University

Fontana del Nettuno, Bologna by Giambologna.
Fontana del Nettuno, Bologna by Giambologna.

The University of Bologna, founded in 1088, is the oldest existing university in Europe, and was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from throughout Christendom. A unique heritage of medieval art, exemplified by the illuminated manuscripts and jurists' tombs produced in the city from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, provides a cultural backdrop to the renown of the medieval institution. The Studium, as it was originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with each master collecting fees from students on an individual basis. The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 395 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poseidon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 395 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poseidon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni (formerly Via San Donato), in the north-eastern sector of the city centre. Today, the University's 23 faculties, 68 departments, and 93 libraries are spread across the city and include four subsidiary campuses in nearby Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna, and Rimini. Noteworthy students present at the university in centuries past included Dante, Petrarch, Thomas Becket, Pope Nicholas V, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Copernicus. Laura Bassi, appointed in 1732, became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history, Luigi Galvani, the discoverer of biological electricity, and Guglielmo Marconi, the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University. The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy. To this day, Bologna is still very much a university town, and the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever classes are in session. This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cesena (ancient Caesena) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Savio River, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena. ... Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, at the nearby comune of Predappio. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... Dante redirects here. ... From the c. ... Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ... This article deals with the Erasmus, the theologian. ... Pietro Martire Vermigli, known as Peter Martyr ( 1500- 1562), was a theologian of the Reformation period. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (Bologna, 31 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. ... Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737 – December 4, 1798) Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... For the inventor of radio, see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ...


The university's botanical garden, the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, was established in 1568; it is the fourth-oldest in Europe. Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

San Petronio.
San Petronio.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1026 KB) I, ZeWrestler, took this picture over the summer when I was in Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1026 KB) I, ZeWrestler, took this picture over the summer when I was in Italy. ...

Famous natives of Bologna and environs

In addition to the above natives, the following became associated with Bologna by long-term residence: Giuseppe (Pupi) Avati is a director, producer and writer of mainly fantasy films and horror films. ... Adriano Banchieri. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (Bologna, 31 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. ... Ugo Bassi (1800 - August 8, 1849), Italian patriot, was born at Cento, and received his early education at Bologna. ... Stefano Benni (August 12, 1947, Bologna) is an Italian satirical writer and journalist. ... Scholar Pope, Benedict XIV Benedict XIV, né Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 - Rome, May 3, 1758) was pope from 1740 to 1758. ... Portrait of Giovanni II Bentivoglio, ca. ... Rossano Brazzi (September 18, 1916 – December 24, 1994) was an Italian actor. ... Self-portrait, (Uffizi) Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. ... Bargellini Madonna (1588) Oil on canvas, 282 x 188 cm Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna Ludovico Carracci (April 21, 1555 – November 13, 1619) was an Italian painter, etcher, and printmaker who helped reinvigorate Italian art after Mannerism by founding an academy in Bologna in 1585. ... Head of a Faun (c. ... Pierluigi Collina (born 13 February 1960) is an Italian former football referee, who was widely regarded as one of the worlds best officials. ... Scipione del Ferro (Bologna 1465–1526) was an Italian mathemtatician who first discovered a means to solve cubic equations. ... Graph of a cubic polynomial: y = x3/4 + 3x2/4 âˆ’ 3x/2 âˆ’ 2 = (1/4)(x + 4)(x + 1)(x âˆ’ 2) In mathematics, a cubic equation is a polynomial equation in which the highest occurring power of the unknown is the third power. ... Lucio Dalla on the cover of a collection of his best songs from 1970s and 1980s. ... Domenico Zampieri (or Domenichino) (October 21, 1581 - April 15, 1641), Italian painter, born at Bologna, was the son of a shoemaker. ... Gianfranco Fini Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, currently Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Government led by Silvio Berlusconi. ... Alessandro Gamberini (born August 27, 1981 in Bologna) is an Italian footballer for ACF Fiorentina of Serie A. He plays in the role of defender, is tall 185 cm and weighs 78 kg. ... Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737 – December 4, 1798) Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the static voltage of biological cells and to the electric currents that flow in living tissues, such as nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. ... Serena Grandi is an Italian actress born on March 23, 1959. ... Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) Gregory XIII, né Ugo Buoncampagno (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope (1572 – 1585). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Pope Gregory XV Gregory XV, né Alessandro Ludovisio (January 9, 1554–July 8, 1623), pope (1621-1623), born at Bologna in 1554, succeeded Paul V on February 9, 1621. ... Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 — December 9, 1666), best known as Guercino or Il Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. ... Irnerius, also seen as Hirnerius, Hyrnerius, Iernerius, Gernerius, Guarnerius, Warnerius, Wernerius, Yrnerius, (c. ... Lucius II, né Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso (d. ... Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - September 30, 1694) was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features. ... For the inventor of radio, see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ... Wireless telegraphy is the practice of remote writing (see telegraphy) without the wires normally involved in an electrical telegraph. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti (17 September 1774 – 15 March 1849) was an Italian cardinal and linguist. ... Marco Minghetti (November 18, 1818 – December 10, 1886) was an Italian economist and statesman. ... Giorgio Morandi (June 20, 1890 - June 18, 1964) was an Italian painter who specialized in still life. ... Gianni Morandi (born 1944) is an Italian pop singer and entertainer. ... Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ... Roberto Regazzi pictured by Marco Lenzi in his Bolognese atelier in the 90s Roberto Regazzi (born 1956 in Bologna, Italy) Notable contemporary violin maker and scholar who received his initiation to the craft from Otello Bignami, Bologna, in the early 80s of the past century. ... Autoportrait Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 Guido Reni (November 4, 1575, Calvenzano di Vergato, near Bologna - August 18, 1642, Bologna) was a prominent Italian painter of high-Baroque style. ... Elsa and Ottorino Respighi in the 1920s Ottorino Respighi (Bologna, July 9, 1879 - Rome, April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist, pianist, violist and violinist. ... Augusto Righi (Bologna August 27, 1850-Bologna June 8, 1920) was an Italian physicist and pioneer of the study of electromagnetism. ... This box:      Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... From Carlo Ruinis (Venice, 1618). ... Elisabetta Sirani (born 1638, died at the age of 27 in 1665) was an Italian painter whose father was the painter Giovanni Andrea Sirani of the School of Bologna, and the principal assistant of Guido Reni. ... Alberto Tomba (born December 19, 1966), popularly called Tomba la Bomba (Tomba the Bomb), is a retired professional alpine skier of Italian nationality. ... Trebisonda Valla, also known as Ondina Valla (Bologna, Italy, 20 May 1916) was the first Italian woman to win an Olympic gold medal. ... Maria Rachele Ventre (July 16, 1939 - December 16, 1995), founder and director of Italian childrens choir Piccolo Coro dell Antoniano. ... The Piccolo Coro dellAntoniano (English: Little Choir of Antoniano) is an Italian childrens choir of Bologna created by Mariele Ventre in 1963 in Antoniano Institute to sing together with little kids at the Zecchino dOro festival, opened only five years earlier. ... Christian Bobo Vieri (born July 12, 1973 in Bologna, Italy) is an Italian football striker, of French origin, who plays for ACF Fiorentina. ... Alessandro Alex Zanardi, b. ... Maria Gaetana Agnesi (May 16, 1718 - January 9, 1799) was an Italian linguist, mathematician, and philosopher. ...

Giosuè Carducci. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Giovanni Pascoli (December 31, 1855—April 6, 1912) was an Italian poet and classical scholar. ... Saint Petronius ( San Petronio) (d. ... The Archdiocese of Bologna is a Roman Catholic territory in northern Italy, with episcopal see in Bologna. ... Prodi redirects here. ... Gioachino Rossini. ... Giuseppe Torelli Giuseppe Torelli (Verona, April 22, 1658 - Bologna, February 8, 1709) was an Italian violinist, pedagogue and composer. ...

Famous companies

Ducati Motor Holding, SpA (Borsa Italiana:DMH) is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer located in Bologna, Italy. ... Malaguti is an Italian scooter and motorcycle company, and the only Italian moto company still under family ownership and control. ... For other uses, see Lamborghini (disambiguation). ... This article is about the automobile manufacturer. ... Coop logo Coop is an Italian cooperative which operates the largest supermarket chain in Italy. ...

Cultural references to Bologna

  • John Grisham's novel, The Broker, takes place largely in the city of Bologna with extensive reference to many of its sights, history, people and cuisine.

Grisham redirects here. ... Grishams 2005 Novel The Broker The Broker, is a suspense novel written by noted by American author John Grisham published in the United States on January 11, 2005. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Twin cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Kharkiv (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... La Plata is the capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, as well as of the partido of La Plata. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... St. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 145. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... San Carlos is the capital city of the Río San Juan department of Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegals Saint-Louis Region. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bologna

Bologna (Italian: Provincia di Bologna) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... History The first Bologna Centrale station was constructed in 1864, however there are sketchy and unclear testimonies regarding its life. ... The Bologna declaration is the main guiding document of the Bologna process. ... The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ... Rescue teams making their way through the rubble The Bologna massacre, also known in Italy as the Strage di Bologna, was a terrorist bombing against the Central Station of Bologna, Italy on the morning of 2 August 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Giovanni II Bentivoglio Bentivoglio (in Latin, rendered as Bentivoius) was an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna and responsible for giving the city its political autonomy during the Renaissance. ...

References

  1. ^ Siena prima in qualità della vita - Il Sole 24 ORE
  2. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Submission on the porticoes of Bologna
  3. ^ Repertoires of Democracy: The Case for Public Transport
  4. ^ The Creative Cities Network: UNESCO Culture Sector
  5. ^ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT

Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ...

External links

Find more about Bologna on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bologna travel guide - Wikitravel (4550 words)
Bologna is a lived-in comfortably stress free and prosperous North Italian city, not ruined by mass tourism, though in recent years the city has grown more popular with individual travellers.
Bologna is the seat of the oldest university in Europe, which dates from the 11th century, and a significant portion of its population consists of away-from-home University students.
Bologna is at it best from March-April to October, when it is warm and people stay outside, sit in squares such as Piazza Santo Stefano and Piazza Maggiore.
Bologna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2424 words)
Bologna (pronounced [boˈloɲa], from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly, between Reno River and Sàvena River.
In the new political situation Bologna gained importance for its cultural role and became an important commercial, industrial and communications hub; its population began to grow again and at the beginning of the 20th century the old walls were destroyed (except few parts) in order to build new houses for the population.
The University of Bologna, founded in 1088, is the oldest existing university in Europe, and was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from throughout Christendom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m