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Encyclopedia > Bollywood

Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवूड, Urdu: بالی وڈ) is the informal term popularly used for the Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. Bollywood is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the Indian film industry. Bollywood is one of the largest film producers in the world.[1]-1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... -1... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ...


The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. However, unlike Hollywood, Bollywood does not exist as a real physical place. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood, it seems likely to persist and now has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


Bollywood is commonly referred to as Hindi cinema, even though Hindustani, understood as the colloquial base common to both Hindi and Urdu, might be more accurate. There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. It is not uncommon to see films that feature dialogue with English words and phrases, even whole sentences. There is a growing number of films made entirely in English. Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Indian English comprises several dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ...

Contents

History

The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931)
The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931)

Raja Harishchandra (1913) was the first silent feature film made in India. It was made by Dadasaheb Phalke. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was a super hit. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ardeshir Irani was an early director, actor, and producer in Bollywood. ... Alam Ara (The Light of the World; 1931), directed by Ardeshir Irani, was the first Indian sound film. ... Raja Harishchandra is a 1913 silent Indian film directed by Dadasaheb Phalke, based on a story from the Mahabharata. ... Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke (Marathi: दादासाहेब फाळके) (April 30, 1870 - February 16, 1944) is known as the father of Indian cinema. ... Ardeshir Irani was an early director, actor, and producer in Bollywood. ... Alam Ara (The Light of the World; 1931), directed by Ardeshir Irani, was the first Indian sound film. ...


The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In the late 1950s, Bollywood released its first color films; however, the majority of films continued to be black-and-white until the mid-1960s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Successful actors included Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar and Raj Kapoor and actresses like Nargis, Meena Kumari, Nutan and Madhubala. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna and Dharmendra. In the mid-1970s, romantic confections made way for gritty, violent films about gangsters and bandits. Amitabh Bachchan, the star known for his "angry young man" roles, rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor, which lasted into the early 1990s. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan and Rekha.[2] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... This article is under construction. ... Escapism is mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an escape from the perceived unpleasant aspects of daily stress. ... Dharam Dev Ä€nand (Hindi: , Urdu: ) (born September 26, 1923), better known simply as Dev Anand, is a legendary Indian Bollywood actor and film producer. ... Yusuf Khan (Hindi: यूसुफ़ ख़ान ; Urdu: یوسف خان ; IPA: ) (born December 11, 1922), also commonly known as Dilip Kumar (Hindi: दिलीप कुमार ; Urdu: دِلِیپ کُمار) is a legendary Indian Bollywood film actor and a former Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha). ... Raj Kapoor (Hindi: राज कपूर, , Urdu: راج کپور, Rāj KapÅ«r, December 14, 1924 - June 2, 1988) was a legendary Indian actor, producer and director of Bollywood movies. ... For the town in France, see Nargis, Loiret. ... Mahjabeen Bano (August 1, 1932 - March 31, 1972), more commonly known as Meena Kumari, was a prominent Indian film actress. ... Nutan Nutan (Hindi/Marathi: नूतन) (June 4, 1936 - February, 1991), was a well known Bollywood actress. ... Madhubala (Hindi: मधुबाला, Urdu: ) (February 14, 1933 – February 23, 1969) was a Bollywood actress considered by many to be one of the most beautiful actresses to have graced the screens of Indian cinema. ... Rajesh Khanna (Punjabi: ਰਾਜੇਸ਼ ਖੰਨਾ) (born Jatin Khanna on December 29, 1942 in Amritsar) is an legendary Indian Bollywood actor. ... Dharmendra Singh Deol (Hindi:धर्मेन्द्र सिंह देओल), born 8 December 1935 in Phagwara, Punjab), better known as Dharmendra, is a legendary Indian Bollywood film star. ... Bachchan redirects here. ... Mithun Chakraborty (Bangla: মিঠুন চক্রবর্তী) (born Gouranga Chakraborty June 16, 1950) is a National Film Award-winning Indian film actor as well as social activist. ... Anil Kapoor (Hindi: अनिल कपूर; born December 24, 1959) is a prominent National Film Award-winning Indian actor and producer who appears in Bollywood films. ... Hema Malini (Tamil: ஹேமமாலினி, Hindi:हेमा मालिनी) (born October 16, 1948 in Ammankudi, Tamil Nadu, India) is an Indian actress and Bharatanatyam dancer, who starred in several successful Bollywood films in the 1970s, most notably the extremely successful Sholay. ... Jaya Bhaduri Bachchan (Hindi: जया बच्चन, Urdu: جیا بچّن), born Jaya Bhaduri April 10, 1948 in Jabalpur, is an Indian actress. ... Rekha (Tamil: ரேகா, Hindi: रेखा, Urdu: ریکھا), born October 10, 1954, is a National Film Award-winning Bollywood actress. ...


In the mid-1990s, the pendulum swung back towards family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995) making stars out of a new generation of actors (such as Aamir Khan, Salman Khan and Shahrukh Khan) and actresses (such as Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit and Kajol).[2] In that point of time, action and comedy films were also going strong with actors like Govinda and Akshay Kumar and actresses such as Raveena Tandon and Karisma Kapoor. Furthermore, this decade marked the entry of new performers in art and independent films, some of which were successful at the box-office, with critically acclaimed performances by actors like Nana Patekar, Ajay Devgan, Manisha Koirala, Tabu and Urmila Matondkar. Hum Aapke Hain Koun. ... Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (Hindi: दिलवाले दुल्हनिया ले जाएँगे, ), also known as DDLJ (translation: The Brave-hearted will take the Bride) is an Indian classic film which premiered on October 19, 1995 and was released nationwide on October 20, 1995. ... Aamir Khan (pronounced ; Devanāgarī: आमिर ख़ान, Nastaliq: عامر خان) (born Aamir Hussain Khan; March 14, 1965) is an Indian film actor, producer, director, screenwriter, occasional singer, and the founder-owner of Aamir Khan Productions. ... Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan (Hindi: सलमान ख़ान, Urdu: سلمان خان. Pronunciation: / /), (born December 27, 1965) is an Indian Bollywood film actor. ... Shahrukh Khan (Hindi: शाहरुख़ ख़ान, Urdu: شاہ رخ خان), born 2 November 1965, is a highly acclaimed Indian actor who works in Bollywood films, as well as film producer and television host. ... Sridevi (Tamil: ஸ்ரீதேவி) also known as Sreedevi Ayyapan, was born on August 13, 1963 in Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu. ... Madhuri Dixit (Marathi: माधुरी दीक्षित) (born Madhuri Shankar Dixit on May 15, 1967) is an award-winning Indian Bollywood actress. ... Kajol Devgan, née Mukherjee (Bengali: কাজল দেবগন Kajol Debgôn, Hindi: काजोल देवगन), born August 5, 1975 in Mumbai, India, popularly known as Kajol, is an award-winning popular Bollywood actress. ... Govind Arun Ahuja (born December 21, 1963 in Virar, Maharashtra India), popularly known as Govinda, is an actor in Hindi films. ... Akshay Kumar (Hindi: अक्षय कुमार, born Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia, on September 9, 1967) is an Indian film actor. ... Raveena Tandon (born October 26, 1970 [1] in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) is a National Film Award winning, Indian Bollywood actress, producer, and a former model. ... Karisma Kapoor, nicknamed Lolo (Hindi: करिश्मा कपूर, born 25 June 1974 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) is a National Film Award-winning popular Indian actress who appears in Bollywood films. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Nana Patekar (Marathi: नाना पाटेकर) (born 1 January 1951 as Vishwanath Patekar) is a highly acclaimed Indian actor and filmmaker. ... Vishal Devgan, born (April 2, 1969 in Delhi, India), popularly known as Ajay Devgan is a National Film Award-winning actor who appears in Bollywood films. ... Manisha Koirala (born on August 16, 1970 in Kathmandu, Nepal), is a prominent Bollywood actress, UNFPA Goodwill Ambassador and social activist. ... Tabu (born Tabassum Hashmi on November 4, 1970 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India) is an award-winning Indian actress who has acted in Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam and English films. ... Urmila Matondkar(Marathi:उर्मिला मातोंडकर) (born on February 4, 1974 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) is a well-known Indian Bollywood actress. ...


The 2000s meant a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. This led the filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical quality advances such as special effects, animation etc.[3] Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films.[3] The opening up of the overseas market, the more Bollywood releases abroad and the explosion of multiplexes in big cities, led to wider box office successes in India and abroad, including Devdas, Koi... Mil Gaya, Kal Ho Naa Ho, Veer-Zaara and Dhoom 2, delivering a new generation of popular actors (Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan) and actresses (Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta and Rani Mukerji), and keeping the popularity of actors of the previous decade. Yash Raj Films (YRF) is a company set up by Yash Chopra, an Indian film director and producer. ... Dharma Productions is a film company founded by Yash Johar in 1976. ... Devdas (Hindi: देवदास) is a 2002 Bollywood film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novella, Devdas. ... Koī... Mil Gayā (Hindi: कोई मिल गया, Urdu: کوئی مل گیا, translation: I Found Someone) is a 2003 Bollywood science fiction film, directed by Rakesh Roshan (who also has a cameo role), starring Rekha, Hrithik Roshan, and Preity Zinta, and released on August 8, 2003. ... Kal Ho Naa Ho (Devanagari कल हो ना हो, Nastaliq: کل ہو نہ ہو, English: Tomorrow May or May Not Be) is a 2003 Bollywood film set in New York City. ... Veer Zaara is a romantic movie set in the background of Indo-Pak Relations. ... Dhoom 2 (Hindi: धूम 2, Urdu: ٢ ﺩﻬﻭﻡ,Telugu: ధూమ్ 2, Tamil: தூம் 2) is a 2006 Bollywood film directed by Sanjay Gadhvi. ... Hrithik Roshan (Hindi: ऋतिक रोशन, pronunciation: / born 10 January 1974) is an award-winning Bollywood actor. ... Abhishek Bachchan (Hindi: , born 5 February 1976 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) is an award-winning Indian actor. ... Aishwarya Rai (Kannada: ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯಾ ರೈ, IPA: ; born November 1, 1973) is an Indian actress. ... Preity Zinta (Hindi: . Pronunciation: born January 31, 1975)[1] is an Indian film actress who has appeared in Hindi, Telugu and English movies. ... Rani Mukerji (Bengali: ) born on March 21, 1978, is an award winning Indian film actress who works in Bollywood movies. ...


The Indian film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience (see the discussion in Ganti, 2004, cited in references), and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. However, filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation, between films that appeal to rural Indians, and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences.


Genre conventions

Bollywood films are mostly musicals, and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers.[4] Indeed, a film's music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience. The musical film is a film genre in which several songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative. ...


Indian audiences expect full value for their money, with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally, "money's worth"). Songs and dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills — all are mixed up in a three-hour-long extravaganza with an intermission. Such movies are called masala films, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas, these movies are a mixture of many things such as action, comedy, romance etc. A Paisa (pl. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Massala redirects here. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ...


Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, conniving villains, courtesans with hearts of gold, long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate, dramatic reversals of fortune, and convenient coincidences. A melodrama, in the broadest sense, is a serious drama that can be distinguished from tragedy by the fact that it is open to having a happy ending. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories, both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (see Art cinema in India). They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. Bollywood conventions are changing, however. A large Indian diaspora in English speaking countries, and increased Western influence at home, have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood models. Film kisses are no longer taboo. Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than arranged marriages. The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes,"..our earliest films...[had] liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures."[5]


Cast and crew

for further details see Indian movie actors, Indian movie actresses, Indian film directors, Indian film music directors and Indian playback singers

Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. Just as in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too. // Names are alphabetized by first name. ... About this list Actresses are alphabetized by first name. ... India has many regional film centres: Bollywood, the largest, in Mumbai, producing films in the Hindi language; Kolkata, for films in Bengali; Chennai, for films in Tamil, etc. ... Most Indian films are musicals, and their music directors are among the best known musicians in India. ... This is an incomplete list. ... , Bombay redirects here. ...


Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle, and Bollywood is no exception. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day, who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results). Hence many stars make the most of their fame, once they become popular, by making several movies simultaneously. Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ...


Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, though many have tried from time to time. There have been some exceptions, one recent example is the hit film Rang de Basanti, where the lead actress is Alice Patten, an Englishwoman. Kisna, Lagaan, and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. Rang De Basanti (Hindi: रंग दे बसंती, Urdu: رنگ دے بسنتى, IAST: Raṅg De Basantī; English: Paint It Saffron [1]) is a 2006 Bollywood film. ... Alice Patten in a screenshot of the film Rang De Basanti Alice Patten (born 1980) is an English actress, and the daughter of Chris Patten, a prominent British conservative politician and the last governor of Hong Kong. ... Kisna Synopsis Vivek Oberoi plays the title role of Kisna with two new heroines - Isha Sharvani, a renowned dancer from Kerala, and Antonia Bernath from London - along with famous British actors Michael Maloney, Caroline Lingruish and veteran actress Polly Adams. ... Lagaan (Hindi: लगान; Urdu: لگان; English: land tax), also known as Lagaan: Once upon a time in India, is an award-winning film made in India, released on June 1, 2001. ... The Rising (scheduled to be released in 2005) is an Indian movie based on the life of Mangal Pandey, an Indian soldier in the 1857 Revolt against the British. ...


Bollywood can be very clannish, and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films and/or being part of a film's crew. However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is brutal and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office, their careers will falter. Some of the biggest stars, such as Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, and Shahrukh Khan have succeeded despite total lack of show business connections. For film clans, see List of Bollywood film clans. Dharmendra Singh Deol (Hindi:धर्मेन्द्र सिंह देओल), born 8 December 1935 in Phagwara, Punjab), better known as Dharmendra, is a legendary Indian Bollywood film star. ... Bachchan redirects here. ... Shahrukh Khan (Hindi: शाहरुख़ ख़ान, Urdu: شاہ رخ خان), born 2 November 1965, is a highly acclaimed Indian actor who works in Bollywood films, as well as film producer and television host. ... // Main article: Kapoor family Probably one of the oldest families in the industry, the Kapoor family have been in the industry for years since the 1940s. ...


Sound

Sound in Bollywood films is rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). Therefore, the sound is usually created (or recreated) entirely in the studio, with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR—with the foley and sound effects added later. This creates several problems, since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. The actors have to act twice—once on-location, once in the studio—and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to recreate. Commercial Indian films—not just the Hindi-language variety—are known for their lack of ambient sound, so there is a strange silence underlying everything instead of the proper sound to create some sort of depth. In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with SeiyÅ«. (Discuss) Foley refers to the non talking Sound effects that a Voice actor makes to enhance a performance. ...


The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera, which required a blimp (cover) in order to shield the sound of the camera, for which it was notorious, from on-location filming. Commercial Indian filmmakers, known for their speed, never bothered to blimp the camera, and its excessive noise required that everything had to be recreated in the studio. Eventually, this became the standard for Indian films. The ARRI Group has been the largest world wide supplier of high quality motion picture film equipment since 1917. ...


The trend was bucked in 2001, after a 30-year hiatus of synchronized sound, with the film Lagaan, in which producer-star Aamir Khan insisted that the sound be done on location. This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of on-location sound, and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then. Lagaan (Hindi: लगान; Urdu: لگان; English: land tax), also known as Lagaan: Once upon a time in India, is an award-winning film made in India, released on June 1, 2001. ... Aamir Khan (pronounced ; Devanāgarī: आमिर ख़ान, Nastaliq: عامر خان) (born Aamir Hussain Khan; March 14, 1965) is an Indian film actor, producer, director, screenwriter, occasional singer, and the founder-owner of Aamir Khan Productions. ...


Bollywood song and dance

Songs in Bollywood are sung by professional playback singers, rather than actors, who lip-sync the lyrics. Pictured here is Mukesh, a famed playback singer.
Songs in Bollywood are sung by professional playback singers, rather than actors, who lip-sync the lyrics. Pictured here is Mukesh, a famed playback singer.

Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning "of films"). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A playback singer is a singer whose vocals are pre-recorded for use in films. ... Lip synchronization is the synchronization of audio signals (sometimes with corresponding video signals) so that there is no noticeable lack of simultaneity between them. ... Mukesh (July 22, 1923–August 27, 1976) was an Indian playback singer of Bollywood. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Folk - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman... -1...


Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema. Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Lip synchronization is the synchronization of audio signals (sometimes with corresponding video signals) so that there is no noticeable lack of simultaneity between them. ... Kishore Kumar (August 4, 1929 – October 13, 1987) was an Indian film playback singer and comic actor. ... Kundan Lal (K.L.) Saigal (April 11, 1904 - January 18, 1947) was an Indian actor and singer who is considered the first big superstar of Bollywood, the Hindi film industry centred in Mumbai. ... Noor Jehan (Urdu: نور جہاں) (September 21, 1926 – December 23, 2000) was a famous Punjabi and Urdu singer and actress. ... Since the 1950s, most songs in films produced by the various regional Indian cinema industries have been sung by playback singers; the actors and actresses who appear to be singing and dancing are only lip-synching the words. ...


Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are Suraiyya, Noor Jehan, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Alka Yagnik, etc among female playback singers and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan, Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. Mohammed Rafi is often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums. Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... Lata Mangeshkar (Marathi/Hindi:लता मंगेशकर) (born September 28, 1929) is an Indian singer. ... Asha Bhosle[1] (Marathi: ) (born September 8, 1933) is an Indian singer. ... Geeta Dutt (November 23, 1930 - July 20, 1972) was an Indian playback singer. ... Shamshad Begum (April 14, 1919 - alive [1] [2] [3] is an Indian singer who was one of the first playback singers in the film industry. ... Alka Yagnik (born March 20, 1966[1] in Calcutta, West Bengal, India) is an Indian singer. ... Mukesh (July 22, 1923–August 27, 1976) was an Indian playback singer of Bollywood. ... Mohammed Rafi (Hindi: मोहम्मद रफ़ी, Urdu: محمد رفیع, December 24, 1924 – July 31, 1980) was an Indian playback singer. ... Prabodh Chandra Dey (born May 1, 1919), better known by his nickname Manna Dey (Bengali: মান্না দে Manna De), is one of the greatest playback singer in Hindi films and other vernacular Indian films, especially Bengali. ... Hemanta Kumar Mukherjee (1920 - 1989) was an Indian film playback singer, composer and producer. ... Kishore Kumar (August 4, 1929 – October 13, 1987) was an Indian film playback singer and comic actor. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ...

Bollywood dances usually follow songs
Bollywood dances usually follow songs

The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif), or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals), though it is not unusual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location and/or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a pas-de-deux (a dance and ballet term, meaning "dance of two"), it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation". Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 702 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded on August 29, 2006 by Skip The Budgie Uploaded to wiki by User nikkul http://flickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 702 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded on August 29, 2006 by Skip The Budgie Uploaded to wiki by User nikkul http://flickr. ... Historically, a tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the Muslim nobility of South Asia, particularly during the Mughal era. ... Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is dominated by an inherited... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ...


Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing; other times, a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. In this case, the event is almost always two characters falling in love.


Bollywood films have always used what are now called "item numbers". A physically attractive female character (the "item girl"), often completely unrelated to the main cast and plot of the film, performs a catchy song and dance number in the film. In older films, the "item number" may be performed by a courtesan (tawaif) dancing for a rich client or as part of a cabaret show. The dancer Helen was famous for her cabaret numbers. In modern films, item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences, dancing at celebrations, or as stage shows. Item number is a term commonly used to describe a catchy, upbeat dance song in an Indian movie that has no relevance to the plot of the film. ... Historically, a tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the Muslim nobility of South Asia, particularly during the Mughal era. ... Helen was the Bollywood actress known for playing vamps and vixens. ... Discothèque redirects here. ...


For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie.


Dialogues and lyrics

Main article: Bollywood songs

The film script or lines of dialogue (called "dialogues" in Indian English) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. Bollywood songs (often termed filmi songs) are heard far beyond the borders of India. ... Indian English comprises several dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ...


Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi or Hindustani that would be understood by the largest possible audience. Some movies, however, have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or old-fashioned courtly Urdu in Mughal-era historical films. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. In fact, many movie scripts are first written in English, and then translated into Hindi. Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one).-1... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... -1...


Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally.


Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. This phenomenon is not unlike the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals (e.g., Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, or Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe). Song lyrics are usually about love. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use Arabo-Persic Urdu vocabulary. Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the mythological amours of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis. Many lyrics compare the singer to a devotee and the object of his or her passion to Krishna or Radha. This article is about the American composer. ... For work done with Richard Rodgers, see Rodgers and Hammerstein Oscar Hammerstein II (July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was a New-York born writer, producer, and (usually uncredited) director of musicals for almost forty years. ... Alan Jay Lerner (August 31, 1918 – June 14, 1986) was an American Broadway lyricist and librettist. ... Frederic Loewe, an Austrian-American composer (June 10, 1901 - February 14, 1988) worked with lyricist Alan J. Lerner in musical theater. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... A Rajastani style painting of Sri Radha Radha (Devanagari: राधा) is the principal paramour of Krishna in the Srimad Bhagavatam, and the Gita Govinda of the Hindu religion. ... Gopis as depicted in portrait at the Smithsonian Institute Gopi is a word of Sanskrit (गोपी) origin meaning cow-herd girl. In Hinduism specifically the name gopi (sometimes gopika) is used more commonly to refer to the group of cow herding girls famous within Vaishnava Theology for their unconditional devotion (bhakti...


Finances

Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to 100 crores. Sets, costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels. In particular, in areas such as action and special effects. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. In drama, the set (or setting) is the location of a storys action. ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Cinematography (from Greek: kinesis (movement) and grapho (to record)), is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. ... Krrish is a Bollywood science fiction superhero film directed by Rakesh Roshan, which released on June 23, 2006. ...


Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, continental Europe and elsewhere. Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well, such as Lagaan, Devdas and other recent films. The term box office can refer to either: A place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to a venue The amount of business a particular production, such as a movie or theatre show, does. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Lagaan (Hindi: लगान; Urdu: لگان; English: land tax), also known as Lagaan: Once upon a time in India, is an award-winning film made in India, released on June 1, 2001. ... Devdas (Hindi: देवदास) is a 2002 Bollywood film based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novella, Devdas. ...


Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. However, this ban has now been lifted.[6] As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the Mumbai underworld. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for their patronisation of several prominent film personalities; On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. In January, 2000, Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan, a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan; it had been reported that he had rebuffed mob attempts to meddle with his film distribution.[citation needed] In 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld.[7] A movie studio (aka film studio) is a controlled environment for the making of a motion picture. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... A financial institution acts as an agent that provides financial services for its clients. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Rakesh Roshan (Hindi: राकेश रोशन, Urdu: راکیش روشن) (born Rakesh Roshan Lal Nagrath on September 6, 1949 in Bombay, Maharashtra, India) is a producer, director and former actor in Bollywood films. ... Hrithik Roshan (Hindi: ऋतिक रोशन, pronunciation: / born 10 January 1974) is an award-winning Bollywood actor. ... The CBI emblem. ... Chori Chori Chupke Chupke (Hindi: चोरी चोरी चुपके चुपके, Urdu: چوری چوری چپکے چپکے) is a 2001 Bollywood movie directed by the successful pair Abbas-Mustan. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia and South East Asia. Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora, too. (In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale, distribution and telecast). Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U.S. and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance, while consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem. The Cathach of St. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. ... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ...


Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. However, most Bollywood producers make money, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue, including selling ancillary rights. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films.


For an interesting comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures, see this chart. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. Bollywood sold 3.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets, DVDs, television etc.) of US$1.3 billion, whereas Hollywood films sold 2.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. USD redirects here. ...


Advertising

Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters. (The well-known artist M.F. Hussain was a poster painter early in his career.) This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Now, a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art. India Today Cover Maqbool Fida Husain, (born September 17, 1915, Pandharpur) popularly known as M F Husain, is a well known Indian artist. ... Island of Salvation Botanica, Piety Street, Bywater neighborhood, New Orleans Folk art describes a wide range of objects that reflect the craft traditions and traditional social values of various social groups. ...


Releasing the film music, or music videos, before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters.


Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew.


Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. Product placement, as used in Hollywood, is widely practiced in Bollywood.[8] Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ...


Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products, such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement). Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales. In promotion and advertising, a testimonial or endorsement consists of a written or spoken statement, sometimes from a public figure, sometimes from a private citizen, extolling the virtue of some product. ...


Awards

The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India.[9] The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954, and awards were given to the best films of 1953. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in 1956.[10] Like the Oscars, the Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit. The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the oldest and most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India [1] and is sometimes referred to as the Indian Oscars. ... Legendary Movie Poster Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based film industry in India. ... Filmfare Awards are Bollywoods answer to the Oscars. ... Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study building on La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in the Hollywood, district. ...


As the Filmfare, the National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards, awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). The DFF screens not only Bollywood films, but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts.[11] The National Film Awards, commonly known as the National Awards, are arguably the most prestigious and prominent film awards in India. ... The Directorate of Film Festivals in India is a government organisation set up to organise National and International film festivals in India. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


Additional ceremonies held within India are:

Ceremonies held overseas are: The Stardust Awards is a award ceremony which congratulates the superstars of the new generation who will make an impact in the future. ... Awards Popular awards Best Film Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Villain Best Comedian Best Music Director Best Lyricist Best Male Playback Best Female Playback Lifetime Achievement Technical Awards Best Art Direction Best Action Best Cinematographer Best Editing Best Choreography Best Story Best...

Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and lots of stars and starlets. The Bollywood Movie Awards, is an annual film award ceremony held in Long Island, New York, United States, celebrating films and actors from the Bollywood film industry based in Mumbai, India. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the state. ... Global Indian Film Awards (GIFA) is promoted by Jordy Patel and Sameer Khan. ... The awards of the International Indian Film Academy (commonly known as the IIFA Awards) is a prestigious award ceremony, honouring Hindi movies (Bollywood) around the world. ... The Zee Cine Awards or ZCA for short is an Awards Ceremony in India. ...


Film education

The Asian Academy of Film & Television is the pioneer most Film school in this part of the world. ... Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), is an autonomous Institute under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. ...

Popularity and appeal

Over the years, Bollywood, [12][13]has sold 3.6 billion tickets,[14] has shown progress in its popularity, and has been entering the consciousness of Western audiences and producers.[13]


Asia

Bollywood films are watched in South Asian countries, such as Bangladesh , Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Most Pakistanis watch Bollywood films[15], in part because many Pakistanis speak or at least understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu). Despite a government ban on Indian films[15], a few Bollywood films have been legally released there, such as Taj Mahal. For the most part, Bollywood movies are watched on cable in Pakistan, and there is a huge market for Bollywood movies in local video stores. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ...


Bollywood movies are popular in Afghanistan due to the country's close proximity with the Indian subcontinent and certain cultural perspectives present in the movies.[16] Several Bollywood actors have their roots connected to Afghanistan. A number of Bollywood movies were filmed inside Afghanistan while some dealt with the country, including Dharmatma, Kabul Express, Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban.[17][18] Dharmatama is a 1975 Hindi movie, which was produced and directed by Feroz Khan. ... Kabul Express (Hindi: काबुल एक्स्प्रेस, Urdu: کابل ایکسپریس) is a Bollywood movie that was released on December 15, 2006. ... Khuda Gawah (English: God is my witness) is a 1992 Bollywood film directed by Mukul S. Anand and starring Amitabh Bachchan, Sridevi (in a dual role), Nagarjuna, Shilpa Shirodkar and Danny Denzongpa. ... Escape From Taliban is a 2003 Indian film directed by Ujjal Chattopadhyaya. ...


Recently Bollywood has progressed in Israel. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable. Indian films have been popular in a few Arab countries, particularly in the Gulf countries. Imported Indian films are usually dubbed in Arabic upon their release. Other Asian countries where Bollywood films are watched include Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and post-Soviet states. In the past, Bollywood films were also watched in China and the Soviet Union. Arab States redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...


Africa

Bollywood is recognised in parts of Africa. The Indian population in countries such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Morocco allows for box office successes for Bollywood products.


Russia and Eastern Europe

Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union. Bollywood films were being dubbed to Russian, and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm. In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. ... Mosfilm logo was the Statue of the Worker and Kolkhoznitsa at VDNKh Mosfilm film studio (in Cyrillic, Мосфи́льм) is often described as the largest and oldest in Russia and in Europe. ... Kinostudiya Lenfilm (Ленфи́льм) was a production unit of the Soviet film industry), with its own film studio, located in Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.. After the fall of Communism and the foundation of the Russian Republic, it became a quasi-private film production company, retaining its name in spite of...


Ashok Sharma, Indian Ambassador to Suriname, who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States region during his diplomatic career said:  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...

The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western countries were banned in the Soviet Union. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.[19]

After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system, Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood. However, Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians.[20] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Western Europe and the Americas

Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in North American markets, and is particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities of the larger cities such as Chicago and New York City.[3] Yash Raj Films, one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theater screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks.[3] In other words, films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other country.[3] During the last decade, Bollywood films filmed in North America have largely been shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver and Toronto. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Yash Raj Films (YRF) is a company set up by Yash Chopra, an Indian film director and producer. ... This article is about the state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...


Bollywood films are also performing well in the United Kingdom,[21] where Bollywood films frequently enter the UK top ten. Many films, such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham have been set in London, the U.K. is also one of the most filmed locations for Bollywood films, however there is no official report claiming this as there are many Indian films shot in the U.K., yet no mention of the U.K. itself in the film. Bollywood is also appreciated in Germany as well as France. Various Bollywood movies are dubbed in German and shown on the German Television channel RTL II on a regular basis. Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (Hindi: कभी ख़ुशी कभी ग़म, Urdu: کبھی خوشی کبھی غم - Sometimes Happiness, Sometimes Sadness) is a Bollywood film released in India and countries with large NRI populations on December 14, 2001. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... A montage of some of the Real Surreality Break bumpers from 2004 RTL II is a privately owned, commercial, general-interest German television channel. ...


Bollywood is not as popular in South American countries, however it has its recognition in Caribbean nations with large Indian diasporas, such as Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago — all of which have people of Indian descent as a majority of their population. Bollywood culture and dance has also been recognised in Peru. In 2006, Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[22] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Dhoom 2 (Hindi: धूम 2, Urdu: Ù¢ ﺩﻬﻭﻡ,Telugu: ధూమ్ 2, Tamil: தூம் 2) is a 2006 Bollywood film directed by Sanjay Gadhvi. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


Oceania

Bollywood is not as successful in Oceanic Countries such as New Guinea.[23] However, it ranks second to Hollywood in countries such as Fiji, Australia and New Zealand.[23]


Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora.[23] Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well.[23] Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films.[23] Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences, which demonstrated the contrast between the values.[23] However, nowadays, Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films.[23] Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 there. This was followed by Heyy Babyy and Chak De! India which turned out as box office successes.[23] Yash Raj Films (YRF) is a company set up by Yash Chopra, an Indian film director and producer. ... Salaam Namaste (Hindi: सलाम नमस्ते, Urdu: سلام نمستے, English: Urdu and Hindi greetings, respectively) is an Indian Bollywood movie released on September 9, 2005, directed by Siddharth Anand and produced by Aditya Chopra and Yash Chopra. ... Heyy Babyy is a Bollywood film starring Akshay Kumar, Vidya Balan, Fardeen Khan, Riteish Deshmukh and Boman Irani. ... Chak De India (Hindi: चक दे इन्डिया, Urdu: چک دے انڈیا, English: Buck Up India or Come On India) is a Hindi film, directed by Shimit Amin starring Shahrukh Khan and Vidya Malvade in lead roles. ...


See also

South Asian cinema
Bengali cinema
Assamese cinema
Bengali cinema
Bollywood
Karnataka cinema
Kollywood
Malayalam cinema
Marathi cinema
Punjwood
Tollywood

South Asian cinema refers to the cinema of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. ... This article addresses Persian and Pashto cinemas of Afghanistan. ... The Bangladeshi film industry is based in Dhaka As of 2004, it produced approximately 100 movies a year. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... Assamese cinema was born in 1935 when Jyoti Prasad Agarwala released his movie Joymoti. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... The Cinema of Karnataka encompasses movies made in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Kollywood (Tamil : கோலிவூட் ) is a name often applied to the home of the Tamil-language film industry based in India, and to the industry as a whole. ... Malayalam cinema refers to films made in the Indian state of Kerala in the Malayalam language. ... Marathi cinema (मराठी चित्रपट) is one of the oldest in regional Indian films industry. ... Punjwood is the informal name given to the Punjabi-language film industry in India. ... Telugu Cinema refers to the Telugu film industry. ... The Himalayan country of Nepal does not have a very long film history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of Nepal. ... Lollywood (Urdu: لالیوڈ) refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... Sri Lankan cinema in recent years has featured films that tackle gritty subjects, including family relationships, abortion and the years of conflict between the military and Tamil Tiger rebels in the north. ... Bollywood songs (often termed filmi songs) are heard far beyond the borders of India. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... A list of films produced by the Bollywood film industry based in Mumbai ordered by year of release. ... // Main article: Kapoor family Probably one of the oldest families in the industry, the Kapoor family have been in the industry for years since the 1940s. ... The Hindi film industry centered in Mumbai, commonly known as Bollywood, is an extremely prolific industry. ...

References

  1. ^ businessweek.com
  2. ^ a b Ahmed, Rauf. The Present. Rediff.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e Anita N. Wadhwani. "Bollywood Mania" Rising in United States. USinfo. (August 9, 2006. retrieved on November 12, 2007.
  4. ^ Kalita, S. Mitra (2005). Suburban Sahibs: Three Immigrant Families And Their Passage from India to America. Rutgers University Press, p. 134. ISBN 081353318X
  5. ^ Free Reeling, PLAY, Sunday Mid-day, March 11, 2007, Mumbai. MH/MR/WEST/66/2006-08 Khubchandani, Lata. Memories of another day. mid-day.com.
  6. ^ Rediff: 'I & B Ministry will help film industry'
  7. ^ Singh, Vijay (October 1, 2003). Bharat Shah sentenced, but won't have to spend time in prison. Rediff.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  8. ^ Indian Television: Leo Entertainment capitalises on film placements
  9. ^ Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor - Special Features-Indiatimes - Movies
  10. ^ Diaspora News & Network Ltd
  11. ^ Filmfare Awards Complete Winners List - BollywoodSoundtracks.com
  12. ^ shubhyatra.com
  13. ^ a b Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?. Business Week.
  14. ^ businessweek.com
  15. ^ a b Despite official ban, Hindi movies are a craze in Pakistan. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  16. ^ India, more so than Pakistan seems to share a similar style of music and musical instruments with Afghanistan. The Hindu Business Line: It's Bollywood all the way in Afghanistan
  17. ^ Cnn World: Kabul TV bans 'explicit' Indian films, soaps
  18. ^ BBC: Bollywood eyes Afghan market
  19. ^ Tanya Ashreena. Promoting Bollywood Abroad Will Help to Promote India.
  20. ^ RussiaToday : Features : Bollywood challenges Hollywood in Russia
  21. ^ Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?
  22. ^ Firdaus Ashraf, Syed (September 15, 2006). Will Hrithik's Dhoom 2 prove lucky for Brazil?. Rediff.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Bollywood clubs popular among Australians. The Times of India (September 15, 2007). Retrieved on November 12, 2007.

Rediff. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rediff. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rediff. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... The Times of India (TOI) is a leading English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

  • Alter, Stephen. Fantasies of a Bollywood Love-Thief: Inside the World of Indian Moviemaking. (ISBN 0-15-603084-5)
  • Bernard 'Bollywood' Gibson. Passing the envelope, 1994.
  • Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood, Routledge, New York and London, 2004.
  • Jolly, Gurbir, Zenia Wadhwani, and Deborah Barretto, eds. Once Upon a Time in Bollywood: The Global Swing in Hindi Cinema, TSAR Publications. 2007. (ISBN 978-1-89-4770-40-8)
  • Joshi, Lalit Mohan. Bollywood: Popular Indian Cinema. (ISBN 0-9537032-2-3)
  • Kabir, Nasreen Munni. Bollywood, Channel 4 Books, 2001.
  • Mehta, Suketu. Maximum City, Knopf, 2004.
  • Mishra, Vijay. Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. (ISBN 0-415-93015-4)
  • Pendakur, Manjunath. Indian Popular Cinema: Industry, Ideology, and Consciousness. (ISBN 1-57273-500-5)
  • Raheja, Dinesh and Kothari, Jitendra. Indian Cinema: The Bollywood Saga. (ISBN 81-7436-285-1)
  • Raj, Aditya (2007) “Bollywood Cinema and Indian Diaspora” IN Media Literacy: A Reader edited by Donaldo Macedo and Shirley Steinberg New York: Peter Lang
  • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Oxford University Press, revised and expanded, 1999.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Indian actors
General guides

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