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Encyclopedia > Bokmål
Norwegian (norsk)
Spoken in: The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. It has a very elongated form and has an extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean, where Norways famous fjords... Norway
Total speakers: 5 million
This page attempts to present a list of languages by total native speakers. Note, however, that lists such as this may vary somewhat depending upon the definition given to certain terms. In particular, the exact difference between dialect and language is often important. An example of where this can have... Ranking: Not in top 100
Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). An accurately identified family is a phylogenetic unit, i.e., all its members derive from a common ancestor. The ancestor is very seldom known to us directly, since most languages have a very short recorded history... Genetic
Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). An accurately identified family is a phylogenetic unit, i.e., all its members derive from a common ancestor. The ancestor is very seldom known to us directly, since most languages have a very short recorded history... classification:
Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. Contemporary languages in this superfamily include Bengali, English... Indo-European

  Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. They are characterised by a number of unique linguistic features, most famously... Germanic
   A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. There are two main branches, Insular (West-) North Germanic and Continental (East-) North Germanic or Scandinavian. The Eastern branch, also known as Continental Scandinavian, is more influenced... North Germanic (from  Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). Formally, it can be divided into two similar dialects: West Norse Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian East Norse Old Danish and Old Swedish In the 11th... Old Norse)
   East (Continental) Nordic
    Bokmål and Riksmål
   West (Insular) Nordic
    Nynorsk

Official status
Official language of: The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. It has a very elongated form and has an extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean, where Norways famous fjords... Norway (Bokmål and Nynorsk)
Regulated by: Bokmål and Nynorsk: Norsk språkråd
(Norwegian Language Council)

Riksmål: The Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature (Det Norske Akademi for Sprog og Litteratur) was founded in 1953 by several notable Norwegian authors and poets, among them Arnulf Øverland, Sigurd Hoel, A. H. Winsnes, Cora Sandel and Francis Bull, who disagreed with the official language policy aiming to merge the... Norwegian Academy

Language codes
ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ISO 639 consists of different parts, of which two parts are currently published. The other parts are works in progress. There are two items for ISO 639: ISO 639-1:2002 Codes for the representation... ISO 639-1 no (Norwegian)
nb (Bokmål)
nn (Nynorsk)
ISO 639-2(B) nor (Norwegian)
nob (Bokmål)
nno (Nynorsk)
SIL International is a non-profit, faith-based, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. It provides resources in language research through Ethnologue.com. SIL International, originally the... SIL NRR (Bokmål)
NRN (Nynorsk)

Norwegian is a Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. They are characterised by a number of unique linguistic features, most famously... Germanic language spoken in The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. It has a very elongated form and has an extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean, where Norways famous fjords... Norway. Norwegian is closely related to, and generally mutually intelligible with Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a Scandinavian language language spoken predominantly in Sweden, Finland and Åland by over 8 million native speakers. Swedish is closely related to, and usually mutually intelligible with, Danish and Norwegian and to some degree with Faroese. Swedish began to evolve as a seperate language... Swedish and Danish is one of the Scandinavian languages, a sub-group of the Germanic group of the Indo-European language family. History Most Danish words are derived from the Old Norse language, with new words formed by compounding. A large percentage of Danish words, however, hails from Low German (e.g... Danish. Together with these two languages, Norwegian belongs to the A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. There are two main branches, Insular (West-) North Germanic and Continental (East-) North Germanic or Scandinavian. The Eastern branch, also known as Continental Scandinavian, is more influenced... Northern, or Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian countries are Norway, Sweden and Denmark, which recognize each other as parts of Scandinavia. The collective label Scandinavia reflects the cultural similarity, and the strong historical ties, between these countries despite their political independence. The terms Fennoscandia... Scandinavian group of the Germanic languages. Proficient speakers of any of the three languages can understand the others.


Owing to Norway's mountainous geography, there is considerable diversity in A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to... vocabulary, This article is about grammar from a linguistic perspective. For English grammar rules see English writing style. According to the structuralist point of view, grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of a language. That set of rules is also called the grammar of the language, and... grammar, and In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or patterned relations, that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. Syntax originates from the Greek words συν (syn, meaning together) and ταξις (taxis, meaning sequence/order). It concerns how different words... syntax among Norwegian spoken dialects are not to be confused with Bokmål and Nynorsk, the two official written variants of the Norwegian language. The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 5 main groups, North Norwegian (nordnorsk), Trøndelag Norwegian (trøndsk), Midland Norwegian (midtnorsk), West Norwegian (vestnorsk), and East Norwegian (østnorsk... Norwegian dialects. For centuries, Norway's written language was closely related to Danish is one of the Scandinavian languages, a sub-group of the Germanic group of the Indo-European language family. History Most Danish words are derived from the Old Norse language, with new words formed by compounding. A large percentage of Danish words, however, hails from Low German (e.g... Danish. As a result, the development of written Norwegian has been subject to strong controversy related to Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. According to the theory of nationalism, the preservation of identity features, the independence in all subjects, the wellbeing, and the glory of ones own nation are fundamental values... nationalism, rural versus urban discourse, and Norway's literary history.


As established by law and governmental policy, there are currently two official forms of written Norwegian — Bokmål (literally "book language") and Nynorsk (literally "new Norwegian"). The Norsk språkråd (The Norwegian Language Council) is the Norwegian governments advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. The Norwegian Language Council aims to protect the cultural heritage represented by the Norwegian written and spoken language, promote initiatives to increase the knowledge of... Norwegian Language Council recommends the terms Norwegian Bokmål and Norwegian Nynorsk in English, but others may prefer using different terms (e.g. Dano-Norwegian and New-Norwegian).


The language question in Norway is subject to much controversy. Though not reflective of the political landscape in general, written Norwegian is often described as a spectrum ranging from the conservative to the radical. The current forms of Bokmål and Nynorsk are considered moderate forms of conservative and radical versions of written Norwegian, respectively.


The unofficial but widely used written form known as Riksmål is considered more conservative than Bokmål, and the unofficial Høgnorsk more conservative than Nynorsk. Although Norwegians are educated in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, around 86-90% use Bokmål or Riksmål as their daily written language, and 10%-12% use Nynorsk as theirs. This even though most of the spoken dialects resemble Nynorsk more closely than Bokmål. Broadly speaking, Bokmål and Riksmål are more commonly seen in urban and suburban areas; Nynorsk in rural areas, particularly in Western Norway. The Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian state-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. Founded in 1933 based on a model similar to the BBC, and located in Oslo, it was a replacement for privately operated radio stations in the larger cities. NRK initially set out... Norwegian broadcasting corporation (NRK) broadcasts in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and all governmental agencies are required to support both written languages. Bokmål or Riksmål are used in 92 % of all written publications, Nynorsk in 8 % (2000). 17 % of children in primary school learn Nynorsk as their primary language.


In spite of concern that Norwegian dialects would eventually give way to a common spoken Norwegian language close to Bokmål, dialects find significant support in local environments, popular opinion, and public policy.

Contents

Alphabet

The The Danish and Norwegian alphabet consists of 29 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Æ, Ø, Å The letter Å was introduced in Norwegian in 1917, replacing Aa. Similarly, Å was introduced in Danish... Norwegian alphabet consists of 29 letters, the first 26 of which are the same as the The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the... Latin alphabet used in The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English. The three last letters are Æ æ For the article on Æ, the Irish writer, see: George William Russell Æ, or æ, is a vowel and a grapheme used in the Icelandic, Danish, Faroese, and Norwegian alphabets. It was also used in Old English and in medieval and early modern Latin. Modern English still contains... Æ, Ø ø Ø, ø is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. Amongst the English vowels it sounds the most like the ir in bird [1] or the ur in hurt [2], as pronounced in a non-rhotic accent, like Received Pronunciation. The name... Ø and Å, or å, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Swedish, Finnish, Danish, Norwegian, Walloon and Chamorro alphabets. Other alphabets are Greenlandic, Lule Sámi, Skolt Sámi and South Sámi alphabet. The letter Å is often perceived as an A with a ring, interpreting... Å. In addition to the 29 official letters, there are several diacritical signs in use (somewhat more in Nynorsk than Bokmål): á à é è ó ò ô. The diacritical signs are not compulsory, but may in a few cases distinguish between different meanings of the word, e.g.: for (for/to), fór (went), fòr (furrow) and fôr (fodder).


Roots of the language

The languages now spoken in Scandinavia developed from the Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). Formally, it can be divided into two similar dialects: West Norse Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian East Norse Old Danish and Old Swedish In the 11th... Old Norse language, which did not differ greatly between what are now Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish areas. In fact, Viking (disambiguation). The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the... Viking traders spread the language across World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe and into The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia, making Old Norse one of the most widespread languages for a time. According to tradition, King Harald I (b. ca 850 - d. ca 933), surnamed Fairhair (Hårfagre, of the beautiful/long hair), the founder and first king (872-930) over Norway, succeeded on the death of his father Halfdan the Black Gudrødsson in A.D. 860 to the sovereignty of several small and somewhat... Harald Fairhair united Norway in Events Battle of Hafrsfjord in Norway, Harald Finehair first king of Norway. Gascony becomes an independent kingdom, with Sancho I Mitarra as its first king. 14 December: John VIII becomes pope. Louis II is crowned emperor for the second time. Births Deaths Fujiwara no Yoshifusa, Japanese regent Pope Adrian II... 872. Around this time, a simple Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. Bear this in mind if you encounter symbols such as �?�﷐􏿾. You might also consider viewing the page in a different browser or using a different font —preferably... runic alphabet was used. According to writings found on stone tablets from this period of history, the language showed remarkably little deviation between different regions. Runes had been in limited use since at least the (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. (230 - 232 AD). Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire Emperor Valerian I is taken captive by the Persian King of Kings Shapur I... 3rd century. Around Events Battle of Stiklestad ensures the Christianization of Norway. The city of Kaunas in Lithuania is founded. The city of Tartu in Estonia is founded. earliest mention of Thalwil, Switzerland Deaths September 30 - William V, Duke of Aquitaine Olav Haraldsson, died at Battle of Stiklestad but was later canonized as... 1030, For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity came to Norway, bringing with it the The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the... Latin alphabet. Norwegian manuscripts in the new alphabet began to appear about a century later. The Norwegian language began to deviate from its neighbors around this time as well.


Viking explorers had begun to settle Iceland (disambiguation). The Republic of Iceland ( Icelandic: Lýðveldið Ísland) is a borderless country in the northern Atlantic Ocean, located between Greenland, Scotland and Norway. National motto: None Official language None. Icelandic de facto. Capital and largest city Reykjavík President Ólafur Ragnar Gr... Iceland in the ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... 9th century, carrying with them the Old Norse language. Over time, Old Norse developed into "Western" and "Eastern" variants. Western Norse covered Iceland and Norway, while Eastern Norse developed in Denmark (disambiguation). The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. It is located in Scandinavia, which is in northern Europe. Denmark borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and consists of a peninsula attached to Northern Germany named Jutland (Jylland... Denmark and The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden. The languages of Iceland and Norway remained very similar until about the year Events Beginning of the Renaissance. Abacus first used in China. Money from Florence, Italy becomes the first International Currency. Philip IV of France begins attempt to annex Flanders. Wenceslas II of Bohemia becomes King of Poland. Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. The Tuareg establish a state centered on Agadez. Births... 1300, when they became what are now known as The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. Categories: Substubs ... Old Icelandic and Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). Formally, it can be divided into two similar dialects: West Norse Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian East Norse Old Danish and Old Swedish In the 11th... Old Norse. In Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. September 29 John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon is created Duke of Exeter by his half-brother Richard II of England. September 29 - Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent is created Duke of Surrey by Richard II of England. Richard Whittington aka... 1397, Norway entered a A personal union consists of two or more entities that are internationally considered separate states, only sharing the same Head of State (and thence also sharing whatever political actions are vested in the Head of State, but no, or at least extremely few, others). It is not to be confused... personal union with Denmark, which came to be the dominating part, and Danish was eventually used as Norway's written language. Danish, a language since mediaeval times mostly influenced by Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. Plattdüütsch is the name for both the Low Saxon and the East Low German language. Since 1994 Low Saxon has been... Low Saxon, came to be the primary language of the Norwegian elite, although adoption was slower among the commoners. The union lasted more than 400 years, until 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January 14 - Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in exchange for west Pomerania, as part of the Treaty of Kiel January 29 - French army of Emperor Napoleon I wins the Battle of Brienne January 31 - Gervasio Antonio de... 1814 when Norway became independent of Denmark, but was forced to enter a personal union with Sweden. Norwegians began to push for true independence by embracing This article deals with democracy in its modern sense. For other meanings, see Democracy (disambiguation). Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. Under such a system, legislative decisions are made by the people themselves... democracy and attempting to enforce the constitutional declaration of being a sovereign state. Part of this nationalist movement was directed to the development of an independent Norwegian language. Two major paths were available: modify the elite's Danish, or attempt to undo centuries of foreign rule and work with the commoners' Norwegian. Both approaches were attempted.


From Danish to Norwegian

In the Events and Trends First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi New Zealand. The treaty between the British Crown and Maori made New Zealand a British colony and is considered the founding point of modern New Zealand. Introduction of the postage... 1840s, many writers began to "Norwegianize" Danish by incorporating words that were descriptive of Norwegian scenery and folk life. Spelling and grammar were also modified. This was adopted by the Norwegian parliament as Riksmål, or "Standard Language" in 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - End of Spanish rule in Cuba. January 1 - Queens and Staten Island merge with New York City. January 3 - The first known use of the word automobile, in an editorial in the New York... 1899.


However, a nationalistic movement strove for the development of a new written Norwegian. Ivar Andreas Aasen (August 5, 1813 - September 23, 1896) was a Norwegian philologist and lexicographer. Ivar Aasen Aasen was born at Aasen in Ørsta (then Ørsten), in the district of Sunnmøre, on the West Coast of Norway. His father, a small peasant-farmer named Ivar Jonsson, died in 1826... Ivar Aasen, a self-taught linguist, began his work to create a new Norwegian language at the age of 22. He travelled around the country, comparing the dialects in different regions, and examined the development of Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland. It is an inflected language. While most Western European languages have reduced greatly the extent of inflection, particularly in noun declension, Icelandic retains an inflectional grammar comparable to that of Latin, Ancient Greek, or more closely, Old English. Written Icelandic... Icelandic, which had largely escaped the influences Norwegian had come under. He called his work, which was published in several books from 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Events Monument for the leaders of the 1848 Matale rebellion, Sri Lanka The Revolution of 1848 (qv.), a series of widespread but failed struggles for more liberal governments, from Brazil to Hungary. January 24 - California gold... 1848 to Events January - April January 17 - Indian Wars: First Battle of the Stronghold during the Modoc War. February 11 - Spanish Cortes deposes King Amadeus I and proclaims the First Spanish Republic. February 12 - Former foreign minister Emilio Cistelar y Ripoli becomes prime minister of the new Spanish Republic. February 20 - The... 1873, Landsmål, or "National Language".


After the A personal union consists of two or more entities that are internationally considered separate states, only sharing the same Head of State (and thence also sharing whatever political actions are vested in the Head of State, but no, or at least extremely few, others). It is not to be confused... personal union with Sweden was dissolved, both languages were developed further. Riksmål was in 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 2 - Canada and the United States agree on a plan to preserve Niagara Falls. January 9 - The Seeing Eye is established with the mission to train dogs to assist the blind ( Nashville, Tennessee... 1929 officially renamed Bokmål (literally "Book language"), and Landsmål to Nynorsk (literally "New Norwegian") — the names Dano-Norwegian and Norwegian lost in parliament with one single vote, as the Danish label was (and still is) very unpopular among Bokmål/Riksmål users.


Bokmål and Nynorsk were made closer by reforms in 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917, 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 3 - The March of Dimes is established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. January 11 - Frances Moulton is the first woman to become president of a US national bank. January 20 - Wedding of King... 1938 and 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January 1 - Cultivars of plants named after this date must be named in a modern language, not in Latin. January 1 - Cuba: Fulgencio Batista flees Havana when forces of Fidel Castro advance January... 1959. This was a result of a state policy to merge Nynorsk and Bokmål into one language, called Samnorsk (Common Norwegian). This resulted in massive protests, and the policy had little influence after 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January - State of emergency is lifted in Kenya - Mau Mau Rebellion is officially over January 1 - Independence of Cameroon January 9 - Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt January 14 - Ralph Chubb, the... 1960, and was officially abandoned in 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated: International Year of Ecotourism and Mountains National Science Year in the United Kingdom Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom Events January Euro banknotes in circulation throughout the twelve countries of the European Union that... 2002. Users of either written language resented the efforts to dilute the distinctness of their written language in general and spelling in particular. Over the years, the standards for Bokmål have increasingly accommodated Riksmål forms. As a result, some people prefer to follow a more traditional way of spelling of Nynorsk, called Høgnorsk.


Modern Norwegian

Bokmål and Nynorsk

Like some other European countries, Norway has an official "advisory board" - Norsk språkråd - that determines, after approval from the Ministry of Culture, official spelling, grammar, and vocabulary for the Norwegian language. The board's work has been subject to considerable controversy through the years, and much work lies ahead.


Both Nynorsk and Bokmål have a great variety of optional forms. The Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Riksmål is called moderate or conservative, depending on one's viewpoint, while the Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Nynorsk is called radical. Nynorsk has forms that are close to the original Landsmål and forms that are close to Bokmål.


Riksmål

Opponents of the spelling reforms aimed at bringing Bokmål closer to Nynorsk have retained the name Riksmål as their own unofficial form of Norwegian and employ spelling and grammar that predate the Samnorsk movement. Riksmål and conservative versions of Bokmål have been the de facto standard written language of Norway for most of the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century, being used by large newspapers, encyclopedias, and a significant proportion of the population of Oslo, surrounding areas, and other urban areas, as well as much of the literary tradition. Since the reforms of 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January-February January - Sarawak Chamber found January 1 - Greece enters the EEC January 1 - Palau becomes self-governing January 4 - Sheffield police arrests Peter Sutcliffe, the Yorkshire Ripper January 10 Townsville International Airport opens (aus) January 16 - Protestant gunmen shoot and... 1981 and 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. Pascal Couchepin becomes President of the Confederation in... 2003 (the latter decided by the Norwegian Language Council, approved by the Ministry, and will be official in June 2005), the official Bokmål can be adapted to be almost identical with modern Riksmål. The differences between Riksmål and Bokmål are today comparable to International vs. American English.


Riksmål is regulated by the The Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature (Det Norske Akademi for Sprog og Litteratur) was founded in 1953 by several notable Norwegian authors and poets, among them Arnulf Øverland, Sigurd Hoel, A. H. Winsnes, Cora Sandel and Francis Bull, who disagreed with the official language policy aiming to merge the... Norwegian Academy, which determines acceptable spelling, grammar, and vocabulary.


Høgnorsk

There is also an unofficial form of Nynorsk, called Høgnorsk, discarding the post-1917 reforms, and thus close to Ivar Aasen's original Landsmål. However, Høgnorsk has found no widespread use.


Spoken Norwegian

Main article: Norwegian spoken dialects are not to be confused with Bokmål and Nynorsk, the two official written variants of the Norwegian language. The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 5 main groups, North Norwegian (nordnorsk), Trøndelag Norwegian (trøndsk), Midland Norwegian (midtnorsk), West Norwegian (vestnorsk), and East Norwegian (østnorsk... Norwegian dialects


There is general agreement that a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Dialects are in some cases so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners. Many linguists note a trend toward regionalization of dialects that diminishes the differences at such local levels; but there is renewed interest in preserving distinct dialects.


Current usage

About 85.3 % of the pupils in the primary and lower secondary schools in Norway receive education in Bokmål, while about 14.5 % receive education in Nynorsk. From the eighth grade onwards pupils are required to learn both.


Out of the 433 municipalities in Norway, 161 have declared that they wish to communicate with the central authorities in Bokmål, 116 (representing 12 % of the population) in Nynorsk, while 156 are neutral.


Of 4,549 Norwegian publications in 2000 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 2000 From Wikipedia 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd... 2000 8 % were in Nynorsk, and 92% in Bokmål/Riksmål. The large national newspapers ( Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. It is generally considered the leading serious Norwegian newspaper. Aftenposten is published in Riksmål... Aftenposten, Dagbladet is Norways third largest newspaper with a circulation of 191,164 copies in 2002. It publishes the highly succesful feature magazine Magasinet every Saturday. It also runs Norways largest website (Dagbladet.no), being slightly larger than Verdens Gang. The paper got online 8 March 1995, and is... Dagbladet and VG may stand for: Norways largest circulation newspaper, Verdens Gang British Virgin Islands: ISO country code Very Good, a quality grading (rating) for collectibles; better than Good and less than Excellent; also known as Very Fine (VF) Vein of Galen, a blood vessel in the cerebrum prone to congenital... VG) are published in Bokmål/Riksmål. Some major regional newspapers (including Founded in 1868, Bergens Tidende is a newspaper published in Bergen, Norway. It is available in Norwegian language only. External links: Official site (in Norwegian language only) Categories: Norwegian newspapers ... Bergens Tidende and Stavanger Aftenblad (evening paper of Stavanger) is a daily newspaper in Stavanger, Norway. It was founded in 1893 by the priest Lars Oftedal, and was for a long period a publication for the political party Venstre. It had a circulation of 70,101 copies in 2003. Editor in Chief is... Stavanger Aftenblad), many political journals, and many local newspapers use both Bokmål and Nynorsk.


Examples

Below are a few sentences giving an indication of the differences between Bokmål and Nynorsk, compared to the conservative (Danish-near) form Riksmål and to Danish:

  • B=Bokmål
  • R=Riksmål
  • D=Danish
  • N=Nynorsk
  • H=Høgnorsk
  • E=English

B/R/D: Jeg kommer fra Norge
N/H: Eg kjem frå Noreg.
E: I come from Norway.


B/R: Hva heter han?
D: Hvad hedder han?
N/H: Kva heiter han?
E: What is his name?


B/R/D: Dette er en hest.
N/H: Dette er ein hest.
E: This is a horse.


B: Regnbuen har mange farger.
R/D: Regnbuen har mange farver.
N: Regnbogen har mange fargar.
H: Regnbogen hev mange fargar. (Or better: Regnbogen er manglìta).
E: The rainbow has many colours.


Grammar

The number of In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. (Source of definition: Hockett, 1958, p. 231. See References... grammatical genders in Norwegian is somewhat disputed, but the official view is that Norwegian nouns fall into three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. The inflection of the nouns depends on the gender.

 Bokmål m.: en gutt gutten gutter guttene (a boy) (the boy) (boys) (the boys) f.: en/ei dør døren/døra dører dørene (a door) (the door) (doors) (the doors) n.: et hus huset hus husene/husa (a house) (the house) (houses) (the houses) 

Note that feminine nouns can be inflected like masculine nouns in Bokmål. Riksmål rejects the feminine gender and merges it with the masculine into a common gender (utrum), like in Danish.

 Nynorsk m.: ein gut guten gutar gutane (a boy) (the boy) (boys) (the boys) f.: ei sol sola/soli soler solene (a sun) (the sun) (suns) (the suns) ei kyrkje/ kyrkja kyrkjer/ kyrkjene/ kyrkja kyrkjor kyrkjone (a church) (the church) (churches) (the churches) n.: eit hus huset hus husa/husi (a house) (the house) (houses) (the houses) 

Trivia

Compound words are written together in Norwegian (see Nominal compositum), which can cause words to become very long, e.g. sannsynlighetsmaksimeringsestimator ( In statistics, the method of maximum likelihood, pioneered by geneticist and statistician Sir Ronald A. Fisher, is a method of point estimation, that uses as an estimate of an unobservable population parameter the member of the parameter space that maximizes the likelihood function. For the moment let p denote the... maximum likelihood In statistics, an estimator is a function of the known data that is used to estimate an unknown parameter; an estimate is the result from the actual application of the function to a particular set of data. Many different estimators are possible for any given parameter. Some criterion is used... estimator). Another example is the title høyesterettsjustitiarius (originally put together of The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. In the United States, for example, there is a federal Supreme Court as well as supreme courts within most of the... supreme court and the actual title, justitiarius. However, because of the increasing influence the The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English language is having on Norwegian, and inadequate computer In computing terms, a spelling checker (also spell checker) is a software program designed to verify the spelling of words in a file, helping a user ensure his/her spelling is correct. A spelling checker may be implemented as a standalone application capable of operating on an arbitrary block of... spell checkers, this is often forgotten, sometimes with humorous results. Instead of writing e.g. lammekoteletter (lamb chops), people make the mistake of writing lamme koteletter (paralyzed, or lame, chops). The original message can even be reversed, as when røykfritt (smoke-free) becomes røyk fritt (smoke freely).


Other examples include:

  • Terrasse dør ("terrace dies") instead of Terrassedør ("terrace door");
  • Tunfisk biter ("Tuna bites", verb) instead of Tunfiskbiter ("Pieces of tuna", noun);
  • Smult ringer ("lard calls", verb) instead of Smultringer ("doughnuts");
  • Tyveri sikret ("Theft guaranteed") instead of Tyverisikret ("Theft-proof").

See also

  • Danish and Norwegian are very similar languages, but there are more differences than are easily noticeable without taking a closer look. One thing that is especially noticeable is that the Danish language has many German words and some grammatical influence not found in Norwegian. An example is names of countries... Differences between the Norwegian and Danish language
  • Norsk språkråd
  • The Norwegian Academy for Language and Literature (Det Norske Akademi for Sprog og Litteratur) was founded in 1953 by several notable Norwegian authors and poets, among them Arnulf Øverland, Sigurd Hoel, A. H. Winsnes, Cora Sandel and Francis Bull, who disagreed with the official language policy aiming to merge the... Det Norske Akademi for Sprog og Litteratur
  • Riksmålsforbundet
  • Noregs Mållag
  • Det Norske Samlaget
  • Landslaget for Språklig Samling
  • Norsk Ordbok (NO) is a comprehensive dictionary of written Norwegian (Nynorsk) and the Norwegian dialects, planned to twelve volumes and with four volumes published. The work will be completed in 2014. It is edited at the University of Oslo, published by the Norwegian publishing house Det Norske Samlaget, and financed... Norsk Ordbok
  • Russenorsk (or Russonorsk) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago and the Russian Kola peninsula. The presence of seamen, fishermen, and traders in close proximity with no common language necessitated the creation of some minimal form of... Russenorsk, a A Pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. Pidgins have rudimentary grammars and restricted vocabulary, serving as auxiliary contact languages. They are improvised rather than learned... pidgin language combining Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian and Norwegian.
  • The Norwegian national anthem is called Ja, vi elsker dette landet. The lyrics were written by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson between 1859 and 1868, and the melody was written by his cousin Rikard Nordraak in 1864. It was first performed publicly on 17 May 1864 in connection with the 50th... Ja, vi elsker dette landet, the Norwegian The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their states official national song. During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, with the rise... national anthem.
  • Here is a list of common phrases in different languages. It is possible for tourists in a country whose language they do not understand to get along with a surprisingly short list of phrases, combined with pointing, miming, and writing down numbers on paper. You are invited to add more... Common phrases in different languages
  • The following is a table of the numbers 0 through 10 in a sample of the languages and writings of the world. 1The forms between brackets are transcriptions different from the Hindi. 2Although English names its numerals Arabic numerals, they came to Europe through India, originally from the Islamic civilization... Numbers in various languages

External links

This image is the site logo used on the English Wikipedia, the Wiki.png name is magical because once the functionality has been turned on at a particular wiki the image with that name becomes the site-wide logo (usually displayed in the top-left corner). This image is trademarked...
Norwegian language edition of Wikipedia is a Web-based free content encyclopedia designed to be read and edited by anyone, with editions of varying sizes in 190 languages. About 6,000 (dec.2004) active users collaboratively edit and maintain the English edition Wikipedia, which has allowed it in just over four years of operation... Wikipedia
This image is the site logo used on the English Wikipedia, the Wiki.png name is magical because once the functionality has been turned on at a particular wiki the image with that name becomes the site-wide logo (usually displayed in the top-left corner). This image is trademarked...
Norwegian language edition of Wikipedia is a Web-based free content encyclopedia designed to be read and edited by anyone, with editions of varying sizes in 190 languages. About 6,000 (dec.2004) active users collaboratively edit and maintain the English edition Wikipedia, which has allowed it in just over four years of operation... Wikipedia
  • All free Norwegian dictionaries (http://www.dicts.info/dictlist1.php?k1=67)
  • Ethnologue report for Norwegian, bokmål (http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nob)
  • Ethnologue report for Norwegian, nynorsk (http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nno)
  • Norway: Small country with two written languages - article from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (http://odin.dep.no/odin/engelsk/norway/history/032005-990497/index-dok000-b-n-a.html)
  • Norwegian - English Dictionary (http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/Norwegian-english/)
  • Bokmålsordboken and Norsk Riksmålsordbok - Norwegian dictionary (http://www.ordnett.no/ordbok.html)
  • Bokmålsordboka og Nynorskordboka - Norwegian dictionary (http://www.dokpro.uio.no/ordboksoek.html)
  • nynorsk.no - News about Nynorsk (in Norwegian) (http://www.nynorsk.no/)

References

  • Einar Haugen, editor (1965, 1967, 1974). Norwegian-English Dictionary. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

 
 

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