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Encyclopedia > Boiling point

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The boiling point of a substance is the maximum temperature at which a liquid can remain a liquid. Adding a small amount of heat energy (latent heat of vaporization) can convert the liquid into a gas. A pure liquid may change to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point through the process of evaporation. Any change of state from a liquid to a gas at boiling point is considered vaporization. However, evaporation is a surface phenomenon, in which only molecules located near the gas/liquid surface could evaporate. Boiling on the other hand is a bulk process, so at the boiling point molecules anywhere in the liquid may be vaporized, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles. Boiling point may refer to: The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ... Surface phenomenon are phenomenon that take place on a surface. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ...


A somewhat clearer (and perhaps more useful) definition of boiling point is "the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure." In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...

Contents

Saturation temperature and pressure

A saturated liquid contains as much thermal energy as it can without boiling (or conversely a saturated vapor contains as little thermal energy as it can without condensing). Water vapor condensing over a cup of hot tea Condensation is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as a gas (or vapor) to a liquid. ...


Saturation temperature means boiling point. The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase change. In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... 1. ...


If the pressure in a system remains constant (isobaric), a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy (heat) is removed. Similarly, a liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied. The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... isobaric (meaning of the same weight or pressure) may refer to: in thermodynamics, an isobaric process, i. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another as a result of a difference in temperature. ...


The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the substance equals the ambient pressure. Thus the boiling point is dependent on the pressure. Usually, boiling points are published with respect to standard pressure (101.325 kilopascals or 1 atm). At higher elevations, where the atmospheric pressure is much lower, the boiling point is also lower. The boiling point increases with increased ambient pressure up to the critical point, where the gas and liquid properties become identical. The boiling point cannot be increased beyond the critical point. Like wise, the boiling point decreases with decreasing ambient pressure until the triple point is reached. The boiling point cannot be reduced below the triple point. In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ...


If the Heat of Vaporization and the vapor pressure of a substance at a certain temperature is known, the normal boiling point (under standard pressure) can be calculated by: The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ...


Where TB is the boiling point under standard pressure, R is the ideal gas constant, P0 is the vapor pressure at a given temperature, T0 is that temperature, and ΔHvap is the heat of vaporization of the substance. Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... Molar gas constant (also known as universal gas constant, usually denoted by symbol R) is the constant occurring in the universal gas equation, i. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...


Saturation Pressure, or vapor point, is the pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. Saturation pressure and saturation temperature have a direct relationship: as saturation pressure is increased so is saturation temperature.


If the temperature in a system remains constant (an isothermal system), vapor at saturation pressure and temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as the system pressure is increased. Similarly, a liquid at saturation pressure and temperature will tend to flash into its vapor phase as system pressure is decreased. System (from Latin systÄ“ma, in turn from Greek systÄ“ma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... An isothermal process is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system stays constant; ΔT = 0. ... Water vapor condensing over a cup of hot tea Condensation is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as a gas (or vapor) to a liquid. ... The flash (or partial) evaporation is one of the simplest unit operations. ...


Intermolecular interactions

In terms of intermolecular interactions, the boiling point represents the point at which the liquid molecules possess enough thermal energy to overcome the various intermolecular attractions binding the molecules into the liquid (eg. dipole-dipole attraction, instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attractions, and hydrogen bonds). Therefore the boiling point is also an indicator of the strength of these attractive forces. Intermolecular describes a process or characteristic that extends from one molecule to an adjacent one; a property or phenomenon that extends from one molecule to another. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... 1. ... Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces which act between molecules or between widely separated regions of a macromolecule. ... Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces which act between molecules or between widely separated regions of a macromolecule. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ...


The boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F) at standard pressure. On top of Mount Everest the pressure is about 260 mbar (26 kPa) so the boiling point of water is 69 °C. (156.2 °F). Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... “Everest” redirects here. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


For purists with a knowledge of thermodynamics, the normal boiling point of water is 99.97 degrees Celsius (at a pressure of 1 atm, i.e. 101.325 kPa). Until 1982 this was also the standard boiling point of water, but the IUPAC now recommends a standard pressure of 1 bar (100 kPa). At this slightly reduced pressure, the standard boiling point of water is 99.61 degrees Celsius. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


Properties of other elements

The element with the lowest boiling point is helium. Both the boiling points of rhenium and tungsten exceed 5000 K at standard pressure. Due to the experimental difficulty of precisely measuring extreme temperatures without bias, there is some discrepancy in the literature as to whether tungsten or rhenium has the higher boiling point. (Cf. DeVoe, Howard, Thermodynamics and Chemistry. Prentice-Hall, 2001) General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Standard atomic weight 183. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Standard atomic weight 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Boiling Point - Knowledge Bank - HEDON Household Energy Network (751 words)
Boiling Point is an international journal on household energy now published by HEDON.
Boiling Point was created in 1982 by Practical Action who published the first 52 issues.
Ideally Boiling Point looks for articles which are written in plain clear English and which have positive information which can be used by other people in their own work.
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