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Encyclopedia > Boiling

Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Thus, a liquid may also boil when the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere is sufficiently reduced, such as the use of a vacuum pump or at high altitudes. Boiling occurs in three characteristic stages, which are nucleate, transition and film boiling. These stages generally take place from low to high surface temperatures, respectively. In physics, a phase transition, (or phase change) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Fig. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... The Roots blower is one example of a vacuum pump A vacuum pump is a pump that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. ... High altitude are regions on the Earths surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above mean sea level. ...


Nucleate boiling is characterized by the incipience and growth of bubbles on a heated surface, which rise from discrete points on a surface, whose temperature is only slightly above the liquid’s saturation temperature. In general, the number of nucleation sites are increased by an increasing surface temperature. An irregular surface of the boiling vessel (i.e. increased surface roughness) can create additional nucleation sites, while an exceptionally smooth surface, such as glass, lends itself to superheating. Under special conditions, a heated liquid may show boiling delay when heated over its boiling point, by starting to boil suddenly and violently. Bubbles in a soft drink each nucleate independently, responding to a decrease in pressure. ... In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, boiling delay, or defervescence) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its standard boiling point, without actually boiling. ... See superheater for the device used in steam engines. ...


When the surface temperature reaches a maximum value, the critical superheat, vapor begins to form faster than liquid can reach the surface. Thus, the heated surface suddenly becomes covered with a vapor layer. Because of the vapor layer’s lower thermal conductivity, this vapor layer insulates the surface. This condition of a vapor film insulating the surface from the liquid characterizes film boiling. Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ...


Transition boiling may be defined as the unstable boiling, which occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate and the minimum attainable in film boiling.


The formation of bubbles in a heated liquid is a complex physical process which often involves cavitation and acoustic effects, such as the broad-spectrum hiss one hears in a kettle not yet heated to the point where bubbles roil the surface. Bubbles of air in a soft drink For specific types of bubbles, and metaphors of the word bubble, see Bubble (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Boiling in cookery

Boiling water
Boiling water

In cookery, boiling is cooking food in boiling water, or other water-based liquid such as stock or milk. Simmering is gentle boiling, while in poaching the cooking liquid moves but scarcely bubbles. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (678x809, 88 KB) Boling water in b/w, own picture File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chemical substance Boiling ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (678x809, 88 KB) Boling water in b/w, own picture File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chemical substance Boiling ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Stock is a flavoured liquid. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Simmering is a cooking technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just barely below the boiling point of water (at average sea level air pressure), 100 °C (212 °F). ... Diego Velázquez: Old woman poaching eggs, c. ...


In places where the available water supply is contaminated with disease-causing bacteria, boiling water and allowing it to cool before drinking it is a valuable health measure. Boiling water for a few minutes kills most bacteria, amoeba, and other microbial pathogens. It thus can help prevent cholera, dysentery, and other diseases caused by microorganisms. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Alternate meanings: Amoeboid, Amoebozoa For other uses, see Amoeba (disambiguation). ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is the term for tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool), cramping, and frequent, small-volume severe diarrhea associated with blood in the feces. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


The temperature of a substance is constant as it undergoes a phase transition. Therefore, increasing the temperature of a liquid already boiling by increasing the rate of heat transfer is impossible: it will just boil more quickly. Once it has turned into steam, water will increase in temperature as heat is applied to it. Pressure and a change in composition of the liquid may alter the boiling point of the liquid. For this reason, high elevation cooking generally takes longer since boiling point is a function of atmospheric pressure. In Denver, Colorado, which is at an elevation of about one mile, water boils at approximately 95 C. [1] Depending on the type of food and the elevation, the boiling water may not be hot enough to cook the food properly. The boiling point is defined as the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the substance equals the pressure above the substance. Increasing the pressure as in a pressure cooker raises the temperature of the contents above the open air boiling point. Adding a water soluble substance, such as salt or sugar also increases the boiling point. This is called boiling-point elevation. However, the effect is very small, and the boiling point will be increased by an insignificant amount. On the other hand, salt or ethylene glycol can cause significant freezing point depression. Due to variations in composition and pressure, the boiling point of water is almost never exactly 212 F / 100 C, but rather close enough for cooking. In physics, a phase transition, (or phase change) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... Pressure cooking is a method of cooking things at high heat without boiling them. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... External Links A somewhat more involved derivation of the boiling-point elevation formula. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Freezing-point depression is the difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent. ...


Foods suitable for boiling include:

  • Fish
  • Vegetables
  • Farinaceous foods such as pasta
  • Eggs
  • Meats
  • Sauces
  • Stocks and soups

Advantages:

  • Older, tougher, cheaper cuts of meat and poultry can be made digestible
  • It is appropriate for large-scale cookery
  • Nutritious, well flavoured stock is produced
  • It is safe and simple
  • Maximum colour and nutritive value is retained when cooking green vegetables, provided boiling time is kept to the minimum

Disadvantages:

  • There is a loss of soluble vitamins in the water
  • It can be a slow method
  • Foods can look unattractive

Boiling can be done in two ways: The food can be placed into already rapidly boiling water and left to cook, the heat can be turned down and the food can be simmered; or the food can also be placed into the pot, and cold water may be added to the pot. This may then be boiled until the food is satisfactory.


Water on the outside of a pot, i.e. a wet pot, actually increases the time it takes the pot of water to boil. The pot will heat at a normal rate once all excess water on the outside of the pot evaporates.


Boiling for water purification

Boiling is used as a method of water purification. Boiling is commonly advocated as an emergency water treatment method, or as a method of portable water purification in rural or wilderness settings without access to a potable water infrastructure. Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... There is often a need to be able to treat water in remote or rural locations, or in emergency settings, to make it safe for drinking purposes. ...


Boiling as a means of execution

See Boiling to death. Boiling to death is a method of capital punishment. ...

Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... A Deep fried Twinkie Breaded, deep-fried squid Deep frying is a cooking method whereby food is submerged in hot oil or fat. ... Braising (from the French braiser) is cooking with moist heat, typically in a covered pot with a small amount of liquid which results in a particular flavor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Broiling. ... “Roast” redirects here. ... Sautéing is a method of cooking food using a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ... Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chǎo (炒) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in... Diego Velázquez: Old woman poaching eggs, c. ... Parboil is an action which refers to partially boiling food in water before finishing cooking it by another method. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... a pressure cooker Pressure cooking is a method of cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure. ... Simmering is a cooking technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just barely below the boiling point of water (at average sea level air pressure), 100 °C (212 °F). ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Smoking Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... . ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A whole potato, sliced pieces (right), and dried sliced pieces (left) Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of preserving, cooking, or flavoring food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Par-cooking refers to the technique of partially cooking foods so that they can be finished later. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Blanching Blanching is a cooking term that describes a process of food preparation wherein the food substance is rapidly plunged into boiling water and then removed after a brief, timed interval and then plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water. ... Creaming is a cooking technique used to blend one or more dry ingredients together with shortening of some form. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Cooking in the outdoors using heated stone Cooking in the outdoors differs substantially from kitchen-based cooking, the most obvious difference being lack of an easily defined kitchen area. ... The word burn has many meanings: Look up burn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys. ...

See also

Look up Boiling in
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Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Boiling

  Results from FactBites:
 
Boiling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (511 words)
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to a temperature such that its vapor pressure is above that of the surroundings, such as air pressure.
Thus, a liquid may also boil when the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere is sufficiently reduced, such as the use of a vacuum pump or at high altitudes.
Transition boiling may be defined as the unstable boiling, which occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate and the minimum attainable in film boiling.
Boiling point - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (920 words)
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure.
Boiling on the other hand is a bulk process, so at the boiling point molecules anywhere in the liquid may be vaporized, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles.
The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the substance equals the ambient pressure.
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