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Encyclopedia > Bohemianism

The term bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or antiestablishment political or social viewpoints, which were often expressed through extramarital sexual relations, frugality, and/or "voluntary poverty". The term Bohemian may refer to any of the following: Bohemian, a resident of the former kingdom of Bohemia, nowadays the western half of the Czech Republic Bohemianism cultural movement FC Bohemians Praha is a famous Prague football (soccer) club, founded in 1905. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ...


The term emerged in France in the 1800s when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class gypsy neighbourhoods. The term "Bohemian" reflects a belief, widely held in France at the time, that the Gypsies had come from Bohemia.[1] Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...

Contents

Origin of term

Literary Bohemians were associated in the French imagination with roving Gypsies, outsiders apart from conventional society and untroubled by its disapproval. The term carries a connotation of arcane enlightenment (the opposite of 'Philistines'), and also carries a less frequently intended, pejorative connotation of carelessness about personal hygiene and marital orthodoxy. The Spanish gypsy in the French opera Carmen set in Seville, is referred to as a bohémienne in Meilhac and Halévy's libretto (1875). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Carmen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ...

"The term 'Bohemian' has come to be very commonly accepted in our day as the description of a certain kind of literary gypsy, no matter in what language he speaks, or what city he inhabits .... A Bohemian is simply an artist or littérateur who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from conventionality in life and in art." (Westminster Review, 1862[2])

Henri Murger's collection of short stories, Scènes de la Vie de Bohème ("Scenes of Bohemian Life"), published in 1845, popularized the term's usage in France. Ideas from Murger's collection formed the theme of Giacomo Puccini's opera La bohème (1896). Puccini's work, in turn, became Jonathan Larson's source material for the musical he created, Rent, later a feature film of the same name. Like Puccini, Larson explores a Bohemian enclave in a dense urban area, in this case, New York City at the end of the 20th century. The show features a song, La Vie Bohème, which celebrates postmodern Bohemian culture. An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, or speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Henri Murger (March 27, 1822- Paris, January 28, 1861) was a French novelist and poet, born at Paris. ... La Vie de Bohème is an often-adapted story first appearing in Henry Murgers magazine articles in the early 1800s. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... Jonathan Larson (February 4, 1960 – January 25, 1996) was an American Tony Award-winning composer and playwright who lived in New York City and authored musicals, including Rent and Tick, Tick. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Rent is a rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson[1] based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. ... Rent is a 2005 film adaptation of the Broadway musical of the same name. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... La Vie Bohème (French: the Bohemian life) is a song in the musical Rent. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century...


In English, Bohemian in this sense was initially popularized in William Makepeace Thackeray's novel, Vanity Fair, published in 1848, although public perceptions of the alternative life-styles supposedly led by artists were chiefly moulded by George du Maurier's highly romanticised best-selling novel of Bohemian culture Trilby (1894). The novel purports to outline the fortunes of three expatriate English artists, their Irish model, and two very colourful Eastern European musicians, in the artist's quarter of Paris. William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Self portrait of George du Maurier George Louis Palmella Busson du Maurier (6 March 1834 – 8 October 1896) was a British author who was born in Paris, France. ... Trilby is a gothic horror novel by George du Maurier published in 1894. ...


Academics and theorists have been slow to diagnose Bohemianism as against the more abrasive, and politically non-conformist Avant-gardism. The most serious study of the tendency has been Among the Bohemians: Experiments in Living 1900–1939 (2002) by the English writer Virginia Nicholson (granddaughter of the Bloomsbury aesthete Clive Bell and his wife, the English painter Vanessa Bell). Her work systematically analysed the Bohemian lifestyle led by a broad and diverse wave of artists, writers and musicians over the early- to mid-twentieth century, showing that they were indeed unified via a set of commonly-held attitudes towards money, sex and relationships, child-rearing, beauty, clothing and personal presentation, cuisine, personal cleanliness, travel, and social mores.[3] The Loves of Zero 35 mm film by Robert Florey 1927 Avant-garde in French means front guard, advance guard, or vanguard. ... The Bloomsbury Group or Bloomsbury Set or just Bloomsbury, as its adherents would generally refer to it, was an English group of artists and scholars that existed from around 1905 until around World War II. // History The group began as an informal socialwe have been great to society assembly of... Arthur Clive Heward Bell (September 16, 1881 – September 18, 1964) was an English Art critic, associated with the Bloomsbury group. ... Vanessa Bell Vanessa Bell (May 28, 1879 – April 7, 1961), was an English painter and interior designer and a member of the Bloomsbury group. ...

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bohemian (or Lise the Bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Nationalgalerie

Download high resolution version (519x746, 37 KB)Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bohemian (or Lise the bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Nationalgalerie. ... Download high resolution version (519x746, 37 KB)Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bohemian (or Lise the bohemian), 1868, oil on canvas, Berlin, Germany: Nationalgalerie. ... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ...

People

The term has become associated with various artistic or academic communities and is used as a generalized adjective describing such people, environs, or situations: bohemian (boho—informal) is defined in The American College Dictionary as "a person with artistic or intellectual tendencies, who lives and acts with no regard for conventional rules of behavior."


Many prominent European and American figures of the last 150 years belonged to the bohemian counterculture, and any comprehensive 'list of bohemians' would be tediously long. Bohemianism has been approved of by some bourgeois writers such as Honoré de Balzac, but most conservative cultural critics do not condone bohemian lifestyles. Ironically enough, bohemianism by definition can only exist within a framework of conservative values. In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Balzac redirects here. ...


Noted New York Times columnist David Brooks contends that much of the cultural ethos of upper-class Americans is Bohemian-derived, coining the paradoxical term "Bourgeois Bohemians" or "Bobos."[4] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... David Brooks David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is a columnist for The New York Times who has become one of the prominent voices of conservative politics in the United States. ... Bobos in Paradise is a book by David Brooks, first published in 2000. ...


The Bombshell Manual of Style author, Laren Stover, breaks down the Bohemian into five distinct mind-sets/styles in *Bohemian Manifesto: A Field Guide to Living on the Edge] "[5] The Bohemian is "not easily classified like species of birds," writes Stover, noting that there are crossovers and hybrids. The five types are: Nouveau, Gypsy, Beat, Zen and Dandy. The Bohemian Manifesto is a book written by Laren Stover and illustrated by IZAK. Subtitled, A Field Guide to Living on the Edge, it details the eccentricities, the peculiarities, and the informalities of being a Bohemian. ...


Bohemian communities in the past

By extension, Bohemia meant any place where one could live and work cheaply, and behave unconventionally; a community of free souls beyond the pale of respectable society. Several cities and neighborhoods came to be associated with bohemianism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: Montmartre and Montparnasse in Paris; Greenwich Village, East Village and the Chelsea in New York City; Provincetown, Massachusetts; Hudson, New Hampshire; Allston, Massachusetts; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Carmel-by-the-Sea, California; Venice Beach, California; North Beach, Haight-Ashbury, and the Mission District in San Francisco; Bucktown, Logan Square & Wicker Park in Chicago; the French Quarter in New Orleans; Wellington, New Zealand; Chelsea, Bedford Park, Camden Town, Fitzrovia and Soho in London; Schwabing in Munich; Ipanema and Leblon in Rio de Janeiro; Skadarlija in Belgrade; Lavapiés in Madrid; Isola and Colonne di San Lorenzo in Milan. Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... Looking south from 6th Street down Second Avenue, one of the main thoroughfares through the East Village. ... Converted townhouses along 23rd Street. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Location in Barnstable County in Massachusetts U.S. Census Map Coordinates: , Country State County Barnstable Settled 1700 Incorporated 1727 Government  - Type Open town meeting  - Town    Manager Sharon Lynn Area  - Total 17. ... Location within Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough Incorporated 1673 Annexed 1731 Incorporated 1746 (renamed in 1830) Board of Selectmen Richard Maddox, Chairman Shawn N. Jasper Kenneth Massey Kathleen MacLean Benjamin J. Nadeau Area    - City 75. ... Allston is a diverse neighborhood in the city of Boston, Massachusetts with a population which includes Boston natives, students from neighboring Boston University, Boston College, MIT and Harvard and various ethnic groups such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Brazilian, and Irish. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... “Carmel, California” redirects here. ... ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Corner of Haight and Ashbury The Haight-Ashbury is a district of San Francisco, California, USA named for the intersection of Haight and Ashbury Streets, commonly known as The Haight. ... New Mission Theatre on Mission Street The Inner Mission, often called The Mission or The Heart of the Mission (La Misión or El Corazón de la Misión in Spanish) is a neighborhood in the Mission District of San Francisco. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Bucktown is a neighborhood (located in the Logan Square community area) in Chicago northwest of the Loop. ... Logan Square is the name of: Logan Square, Chicago – community on the north side of the city Logan Circle (Philadelphia) or Logan Square – open-space park, and namesake of the surrounding neighborhood Logan Square Logan Square (US band); emo/punk rock band on Fearless Records This is a disambiguation page... This article is about Wicker Park, the neighborhood. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Alternative meanings at Wellington (disambiguation) A view of Wellington from the top of Mount Victoria. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... Bedford Park is the name of several places around the world: In Australia: Bedford Park, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide In Canada: Bedford Park, a neighborhood of Toronto In the United Kingdom Bedford Park, a district of London In the United States of America: Bedford Park, a neighborhood of... For other uses of Camden, see Camden. ... Fitzrovia is an area of central London. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Schwabing is a neighborhood in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Ipanema Beach Ipanema is a neighborhood located on the southern zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, between Leblon and Arpoador. ... Leblon Leblon (named after a French plantation owner, Le Blond, who owned this area) is an affluent neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, just west of Ipanema, another neighborhood in that city. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Belgrade has its own counterpart of the Paris Montmartre: Skadarlija, a bohemian quarter in downtown Belgrade (in Skadarska street). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Lavapiés is a barrio of the city of Madrid, centred on Plaza de Lavapiés. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Isola is the Italian name of the town of Izola in Slovenia, on the Istrian peninsula. ... The Colonne di San Lorenzo is the best-known Roman ruin in Milan. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...


In the United States, the bohemian impulse can be seen in the 1960s hippie counterculture (which was in turn informed by the Beat generation via writers such as William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac). Major U.S. cities often have bohemian areas such as Williamsburg, Brooklyn in New York City; Montrose in Houston, Texas; South Side in Pittsburgh, PA; Downtown Juneau, Alaska; Dupont Circle and Adams Morgan in Washington, D.C.; and Hampden in Baltimore, Maryland. Some entire U.S. cities, often those associated with universities and elite liberal arts colleges, may have a Bohemian reputation or image; examples include Portland, Oregon, Ashland, Oregon, Sebastopol, California, Austin, TX, Bellingham, WA, Berkeley, CA, Cambridge, MA, Eugene, OR, Arcata, CA, Santa Cruz, CA, Boulder, CO, Columbia, MO, Carrboro, NC, Asheville, NC, Ann Arbor, MI, New Paltz, NY, Athens, OH, Winter Park, FL, Oberlin, OH, Missoula, MT, Burlington, VT, Brattleboro, VT, Ithaca, NY, Olympia, WA, Paia, Haiku, HI, La Crosse, WI, and Madison, WI. Other U.S. cities may have a thriving bohemian community but not a bohemian image, such as Somerville, MA, Norman, OK, Orlando, FL, Louisville, KY, or Allentown in Buffalo, NY. Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... Beats redirects here. ... William S. Burroughs. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint, Bed-Stuy, and Bushwick. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Montrose is known for its tattoo parlors and bars Montrose, also known as Neartown, is an area in west-central Houston, Texas. ... Houston redirects here. ... Southside is a neighborhood in the city of Pittsburgh, USA. It has a population of approximately 10,000 people. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Bold text Location in Juneau City and Borough, Alaska Coordinates: , Country State Borough Juneau City and Borough Founded 1881 Incorporated 1890 Government  - Mayor Bruce Botelho Area  - City  3,255. ... Aerial photograph of Dupont Circle. ... Adams Morgan is a neighborhood in Washington, DC, in the northwest quadrant of the city above Dupont Circle. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Hampden can mean: Places: Hampden, New Zealand United States: Hampden, Baltimore Hampden (town), Maine Hampden (CDP), Maine Hampden, Massachusetts Hampden County, Massachusetts Hampden Avenue is a major arterial in Denver and Aurora, Colorado Other: John Hampden, English politician. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Jackson Settled 1852 Government  - Mayor John Morrison Area  - City  6. ... Skyline from Town Lake Austin is the capital of the state of Texas, within the United States of America. ... Bellinghams Old Fairhaven neighborhood - April 2004 Bellingham is the county seat of Whatcom County, Washington. ... Berkeley is a city in the San Francisco Bay Area of northern United States. ... Harvard Square, May 2000 Cambridge is a city in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts, United States. ... Eugene redirects here. ... Arcata is a city located in Humboldt County, California. ... Downtown Santa Cruz Santa Cruz is the county seat of Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... Pearl Street Mall in Downtown Boulder Boulder (40n01, 105w16 MST) is a city located in Boulder County, Colorado, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 94,673. ... Columbia is a city located in Boone County, Missouri. ... City nickname: The Paris of the Piedmont County Orange County Mayor Mark Chilton Board of Aldermen Joal Hall Broun Jacquelyn Gist Randee Haven-ODonnell John Herrera Alex Zaffron Town Manager Steven E. Sherman Area  - Total  - Water 11. ... Downtown Asheville bustles with activity at midday while smog silently obscures the Smoky Mountains to the west. ... Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Stone houses in the historic district along Huguenot Street in New Paltz. ... Athens is a small city and the county seat of Athens County in southeastern USA, on the Hocking River. ... Park Avenue, in the heart of Winter Park, is a shoppers mecca. ... Oberlin is a city located in Lorain County, Ohio, to the south and west of Cleveland. ... Missoula, Montana viewed from the top of Mount Sentinel in 1999. ... Burlington, Vermont Burlington is a city in Chittenden County, Vermont of which it is the county seat. ... REDIRECT Brattleboro (town), Vermont   This is a redirect from a title with a U.S. postal abbreviation. ... For census data on the two municipalities called Ithaca see Ithaca (city), New York and Ithaca (town), New York. ... State Capitol and waterfront, Olympia, Washington. ... La Crosse is a city located in La Crosse County, Wisconsin. ... Wisconsin State Capitol Madison is the capital of Wisconsin, a state of the United States of America. ... Somerville is a city located in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, just north of Boston. ... Bizzel Library, University of Oklahoma Norman is a major city located in Cleveland County, Oklahoma and is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area. ... Nickname: Location in Orange County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State Counties Orange Government  - Mayor Buddy Dyer (D) Area  - City 101 sq mi (261. ... For other places with the same name, see Louisville (disambiguation). ... The Allentown district is a neighborhood in Buffalo, New York. ... See Buffalo for other places with this name. ...


One of the ironies of these neo-bohemian communities in the United States is their tendency towards rapid gentrification and the commercialization and decay of the bohemian culture that provided the initial attractive character of the community.[6][7][8] In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ...


The Rainbow Family of Living Light co-written by Paul Palino and associated Rainbow Gatherings may be seen as another contemporary worldwide expression of the bohemian impulse.[9] A Rainbow brother waiting in line to fill his water containers at the 2002 Family Gathering in Michigan The Rainbow Family of Living Light is an international loose affiliation of individuals who have a common goal of trying to achieve peace and love on Earth. ... Welcome home and We love you are common greetings at the Rainbow Gathering. ...


"Bohemian" Cultures

A hipster is a person who is strongly associated with a subculture that considers itself hip. ... Beatnik is a media stereotype that borrowed the most superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s to present a distorted (and sometimes violent), cartoon-like misrepresentation of the real-life people and the spirituality found in Jack Kerouacs autobiographical fiction. ... Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... Look up punk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term indie is short for independent and refers to artistic creations outside the commercial mainstream, without the support of a major record label, major movie studio, or other source of a large budget. ... Sporty Parisian dandies of the 1830s: a girdle helped one achieve this silhouette. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Look up nouveau in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

See also

A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... See also Artist collective An art colony or artists colony is a place where arts practitioners, usually visual artists and craftspeople, live and interact with one another. ... Beats redirects here. ... In modern usage, the term Bohemian (sometimes shortened to boho) is applied to people who live unconventional, usually artistic, lives. ... Short floaty skirt, 2005 Boho-chic was a style of female fashion (c. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... This article is about the late 20th / early 21st century subculture. ... Indie, an abbreviation of independent, is a term regarding a trend seen in music, film, business and subculture originating in the late 20th century. ... The Jiānghú (江湖; Cantonese: gong woo) world is the milieu, environment, or sub-community, often fictional, in which many Chinese classical wuxia stories are set. ... Founded in 1994 by Levi Asher, Literary Kicks is a website that functions as a digital library of poetry and prose, biography and cultural criticism. ... Metropia was a Canadian television drama, which aired on Omni Television. ... Moulin Rouge is a 2001 Academy Award-winning jukebox musical film directed by Baz Luhrmann. ... Punks at a music festival The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock music. ... Rent is a rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson[1] based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... Slumming (derived from slum) originally referred to a practice, fashionable among certain segments of the middle class in many Western countries, whereby one deliberately patronizes areas or establishments which are populated by, or intended for, people well below ones own socio-economic level, motivated by curiosity or a desire... This article is about occupying land without permission. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ...

Notes

  1. ^ As a French-English dictionary will given Bohemien+Gypsy".
  2. ^ Noted at Online Etymology Dictionary.
  3. ^ Nicholson, Virginia (2002). Among the Bohemians: Experiments in Living 1900–1939. Viking. ISBN 0-670-88966-0. 
  4. ^ Brooks, David (2001). Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85378-7. 
  5. ^ Stover, Laren. Bohemian Manifesto: A Field Guide to Living on the edge. Bulfinch Press=2004. ISBN 0-8212-2890-0. 
  6. ^ Mele, Christopher (2000). Selling the Lower East Side. Univ of Minnesota. ISBN 0-8166-3182-4. 
  7. ^ Lloyd, Richard (2006). Neo-Bohemia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-95182-8. 
  8. ^ Cash, Stephanie. "“Landlords put a squeeze on Brooklyn artists.”". Art in America 89 (3): 39–40. 
  9. ^ Niman, Michael I. (1997). People of the Rainbow: A Nomadic Utopia. The University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-988-2. 

Further reading

  • Malcolm Easton, Artists and Writers in Paris. The Bohemian Idea, 1803–1867 (London: Arnold) 1964.
  • César Graña, Bohemian versus Bourgeois: French Society and the French Man of Letters in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Basic Books).
  • Elizabeth Wilson, Bohemians: The Glamorous Outcasts.
  • Christine Stansell , American Moderns: Bohemian New York and the Creation of a New Century.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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