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Encyclopedia > Bohemia
Bohemia (green) within the Czech Republic today.
Bohemia (green) within the Czech Republic today.
Flag of Bohemia
Flag of Bohemia

Bohemia (Czech: Čechy[1]; German: ; Polish: Czechy) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, it often refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia,[2] especially in historical contexts, such as the Kingdom of Bohemia. Bohemia may refer to: Bohemia, a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic; Bohemia, New York the plant Acacia cuspidifolia. ... zurbon File links The following pages link to this file: Bohemia Moravia History of the Czech lands Czech lands Regions of the Czech Republic Template:Territories of the Czech Republic Czech Silesia ... zurbon File links The following pages link to this file: Bohemia Moravia History of the Czech lands Czech lands Regions of the Czech Republic Template:Territories of the Czech Republic Czech Silesia ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bohemia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bohemia. ... Image File history File links Böhmen. ... This is a list of major historical regions of Central Europe. ... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... ...


Bohemia has an area of 52,750 km² and 6.25 million of the Czech Republic's 10.3 million inhabitants. It is bordered by Germany to the southwest, west, and northwest, Poland to the north-east, the Czech historical region of Moravia to the east, and Austria to the south. Bohemia's borders are marked with mountain ranges such as the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, and the Giant Mountains within the Sudeten mountains. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Bohemian Forest in the afternoon Bohemian Forest at noon The Bohemian forest is a low mountain range in Central Europe. ... Winter scene in the Ore Mountains. ... Aerial view over Karkonosze Karkonosze (Polish name, pronounced kár-ko-no-she; Krkonoše in Czech; Riesengebirge in German) or Giant Mountains are part of the Sudetes Mountains in central Europe. ... A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie Åšnieżka/Sněžka/Snow Mountain Destroyed forest on the top of Wielka Sowa The Sudetes (IPA: ), also called Sudeten (in German; pronounced: ) or Sudety (pronounced in Czech, in Polish), is a mountain range in Central Europe. ...

Contents

History

Further information: History of the Czech lands and History of Czechoslovakia
Historical map with Bohemia proper outlined in pink, Moravia in yellow, and Austrian Silesia in orange.
Historical map with Bohemia proper outlined in pink, Moravia in yellow, and Austrian Silesia in orange.

The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Bohemians & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 – 658) Moravian principality (late 8th century – 833) in... With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I, the independent country of Czechoslovakia (Slovak: Česko-Slovensko, Czech: Československo) was formed, encouraged by, among others, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2537x1906, 2339 KB) Description: Historical map of Bohemia (Bohemia proper - pink, Moravia - yellow, Austrian/Bohemian Silesia - orange) Source: German Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1892 Author: Photo made by User:SebastianBreier License: Public Domain, because copyright expired File links The following pages link... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2537x1906, 2339 KB) Description: Historical map of Bohemia (Bohemia proper - pink, Moravia - yellow, Austrian/Bohemian Silesia - orange) Source: German Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1892 Author: Photo made by User:SebastianBreier License: Public Domain, because copyright expired File links The following pages link... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (Polish Śląsk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ...

Ancient Bohemia

Roman authors provide the first clear reference to this area as Boiohaemum, from Germanic Boi-Heim, "home of the Boii", a Celtic people. As part of the territory often crossed during the Migration Period by major Germanic and Slavic tribes, the western half was conquered and settled from the 1st century BC by Germanic (probably Suebic) peoples including the Marcomanni. This precipitated some of the Boii to take flight and undergo a migration away towards the West to modern Switzerland and southeastern Gaul. Those Boii that remained in the eastern part were eventually absorbed by the Marcomanni. After migration of part of the Marcomanni, renamed the Bavarians (Baiuvarum), to the southwest the Bohemia was partially repopulated around the sixth century by the Slavic precursors of today's Czechs. The exact share of Slavic blood influx is an object of debates. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βοιοι) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various times in Transalpine Gaul (modern France) and Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), as well as in Pannonia (today Western Hungary), Bohemia, Moravia and western Slovakia and also Transylvania (from 1st century to 18... This article is about the European people. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... Czechs (Czech: Češi) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic. ...


Přemysl dynasty

The Coat of arms of the King (and Kingdom) of Bohemia.
The Coat of arms of the King (and Kingdom) of Bohemia.

They freed themselves from the rule of the Avars during the eastern Frankish campaigns (under Charlemagne) against the Avars in the late eighth century. Initially, a part of Greater Moravia, Bohemia came under the rule of the Dukes of Bohemia (the Přemyslid dynasty), after the former was broken up in 907 AD having ultimately succumbed, weakened by years of internal conflict and constant warfare, to the continual incursions of the invading nomadic Magyars. Later, Bohemia was granted the March of Moravia by Otto the Great to Boleslaus I for his aid in the defeat and subsequent retreat of the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld. With Bohemia's conversion to Christianity in the ninth century, close relations were forged with the East Frankish kingdom, then part of the Carolingian empire, later to become the Holy Roman Empire of which the Kingdom of Bohemia had been an autonomous part. The jurisdiction of the Holy Roman Empire was made definitive when Jaromír of Bohemia was granted fief of the Kingdom of Bohemia by the German & Italian King Henry II with the promise that he hold it as a vassal once he re-occupied Prague with a German army in 1004, ending the rule of Boleslaw I of Poland. Image File history File links Wappen_Königreich_Böhmen. ... Image File history File links Wappen_Königreich_Böhmen. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... PÅ™emyslid coat of arms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Otto I at his victory over Berengar of Friuli Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the... Boleslaus I can refer to: Boleslaus I of Poland Boleslaus I of Bohemia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Belligerents East Francia Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties and losses about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Jaromir, Duke of Bohemia (died November 4, 1035) was the second son of Boleslav II the Pious. ... Rulers with the title Henry II include: Henry II of Castile Henry II of England Henry II of France Henry II of Germany, also Holy Roman Emperor Henry II of Navarre Henry II, Duke of Saxony Henry II of Jerusalem (also Henry II of Cyprus) Henry II, Duke of Bavaria... BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: ; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 - June 17, 1025), in the past also known as BolesÅ‚aw I the Great, in Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wielki), of the Piast Dynasty — son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa — ruled...


The first to use the title of "King of Bohemia" were the Přemyslid dukes Vratislav II (1085) and Vladislav II (1158), but their heirs again used the title of duke. The title of king became hereditary (1198) under Ottokar I. His grandson Ottokar II (king from 1253–1278) founded a short-lived empire which covered modern Austria and Slovenia. The mid-thirteenth century saw the beginning of substantial German immigration as the court sought to replace losses from the brief Mongol invasion of Europe in 1241. The Germans settled primarily along the northern, western, and southern borders of Bohemia, although many lived in towns throughout the kingdom. Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Vratislav II (died January 14, 1092) was the first king of Bohemia. ... Vladislav II (c. ... This article is about the nobility title. ... Image:Plat p20 lic 20l. ... Ottokar II of Bohemia Areas ruled by Ottokar II Otakar II (also spelled Ottokar or PÅ™emysl Otakar/Ottokar) (c. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ...


Luxembourg dynasty

The House of Luxembourg accepted the invitation to the Bohemian throne with the crowning of John I of Bohemia in 1310. His son, Charles IV became King of Bohemia in 1346 and founded Charles University in Prague, central Europe's first university, two years later. His reign brought Bohemia to its peak both politically and in total area, resulting in his being the first King of Bohemia to also be elected as Holy Roman Emperor. Under his rule the Bohemian crown controlled such diverse lands as Moravia, Silesia, Upper Lusatia and Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, an area around Nuremberg called New Bohemia, Luxembourg, and several small towns scattered around Germany. The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... John I, Count of Luxemburg John the Blind (Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Czech: Jan Lucemburský) (10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309, King of Bohemia, and titular King of Poland from 1310. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Nürnberg redirects here. ...


Hussite Bohemia

During the ecumenical Council of Constance in 1415, Jan Hus, the rector of Charles University and a prominent reformer and religious thinker, was sentenced to be burnt at the stake as a heretic. The verdict was passed despite the fact that Hus was granted formal protection by Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg prior to the journey. Hus was invited to attend the council to defend himself and the Czech positions in the religious court, but with the emperor's approval, he was executed on July 6, 1415. The execution of Hus, as well as a papal crusade against followers of Hus, forced the Bohemians to defend themselves. Their stubborn defense and rebellion against Roman Catholics became known as the Hussite Wars. The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called...


The uprising against imperial forces was led by a former mercenary, Jan Žižka of Trocnov. As the leader of the Hussite armies, he utilized innovative tactics and weapons, such as howitzers, pistols (from Czech píšťala, the flute), and fortified wagons, which were revolutionary for the time and established Žižka as a great general who never lost a battle. Jan Žižka (or John Zizka of Trocnov or Johann Ziska Czech: Jan Žižka z Trocnova) (c. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... The Hussite Wagenburg For the trailer park Wagenburg, see trailer park. ...


After Žižka's death, Prokop the Great took over the command for the army, and under his lead the Hussites were victorious for another ten years, to the sheer terror of Europe. The Hussite cause gradually splintered into two main factions, the moderate Utraquists and the more fanatic Taborites. The Utraquists began to lay the ground work for an agreement with the Catholic church and found the more radical views of the Taborites distasteful. Additionally, with general war weariness and yearning for order, the Utraquists were able to eventually defeat the Taborites in the Battle of Lipany in 1434. Sigismund said after the battle that "only the Bohemians could defeat the Bohemians." Prokop the Great (Czech: Prokop Veliký; d. ... The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... The Taborites (Czech Táborité, singular Táborita) were members of a religious protestant community centered on the Bohemian city of Tábor during the Hussite Wars in the 15th century. ... The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... Battle of Lipany, Hussite Wars, 1434. ...


Despite an apparent victory for the Catholics, the Bohemian Utraquists were still strong enough to negotiate freedom of religion in 1436. This happened in the so-called Basel Compacts, declaring peace and freedom between Catholics and Utraquists. It would only last for a short period of time, as Pope Pius II declared the Basel Compacts to be invalid in 1462. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Latin Aeneas Sylvius), (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was Pope from 1458 until his death. ...


In 1458, George of Podebrady was elected to ascend to the Bohemian throne. He is remembered for his attempt to set up a pan-European "Christian League", which would form all the states of Europe into a community based on religion. In the process of negotiating, he appointed Leo of Rozmital to tour the European courts and to conduct the talks. However, the negotiations were not completed, because George's position was substantially damaged over time by his deteriorating relationship with the Pope. George of Podebrady - statue in Kunštát (Czech Republic). ...


Habsburg Monarchy

After the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria became King of Bohemia and the country became a constituent state of the Habsburg Monarchy. Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...


Bohemia enjoyed religious freedom between 1436 and 1620, and became one of the most liberal countries of the Christian world during that period of time. In 1609, Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II who made Prague again the capital of the Empire at the time, himself a Roman Catholic, was moved by the Bohemian nobility to publish Maiestas Rudolphina, which confirmed the older Confessio Bohemica of 1575. Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


After Emperor Ferdinand II began oppressing the rights of Protestants in Bohemia, the resulting Czech rebellion resulted in the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War in 1618. Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate, a Protestant, was elected by the Bohemian nobility to replace Ferdinand on the Bohemian throne, and was known as the Winter King. Frederick's wife, the popular Elizabeth Stuart and subsequently Elizabeth of Bohemia, known as the Winter Queen or Queen of Hearts, was the daughter of King James I of England. However, after Frederick's defeat in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, 26 Bohemian estates leaders together with the Jan Jesenius, rector of the Charles University of Prague were executed on the Prague's Old Town Square and the rest were exiled from the country; their lands were then given to Catholic loyalists (mostly of Bavarian and Saxon origin), this ended the pro-reformation movement in Bohemia and also ended the role of Prague as ruling city of the Empire. Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Frederick V, Elector Palatine Frederick V, Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia (August 16, 1596 – November 29, 1632) was son and heir of Frederick IV, Elector Palatine and of Louise Juliana von Orange-Nassau. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... Jan Jesenius (also written as Jessenius or known as Ján Jesenský; 1566, WrocÅ‚aw – 1621, Prague) was a medieval physician, politician and philosopher of Slovak origin. ... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Until the so-called "renewed constitution" of 1627, the German language was established as a second official language in the Czech lands. The Czech language remained the first language in the kingdom. Both German and Latin were widely spoken among the ruling classes, although German became increasingly dominant, while Czech was spoken in much of the countryside.


The formal independence of Bohemia was further jeopardized when the Bohemian Diet approved administrative reform in 1749. It included the indivisibility of the Habsburg Empire and the centralization of rule; this essentially meant the merging of the Royal Bohemian Chancellery with the Austrian Chancellery. The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...


At the end of the eighteenth century, the Czech national revivalist movement, in cooperation with part of the Bohemian aristocracy, started a campaign for restoration of the kingdom's historic rights, whereby the Czech language was to replace German as the language of administration. The enlightened absolutism of Joseph II and Leopold II, who introduced minor language concessions, showed promise for the Czech movement, but many of these reforms were later rescinded. During the Revolution of 1848, many Czech nationalists called for autonomy for Bohemia from Habsburg Austria, but the revolutionaries were defeated. The old Bohemian Diet, one of the last remnants of the independence, was dissolved, although the Czech language experienced a rebirth as romantic nationalism developed among the Czechs. 1648 – 1740 In 1683, Leopold I (1656-1705) defeated the Turks and paved the way for the restoration of the Kingdom of Hungary to its previous territorial dimensions. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburgs Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1861, a new elected Bohemian Diet was established. The renewal of the old Bohemian Crown (Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, and Duchy of Silesia) became the official political program of both Czech liberal politicians and the majority of Bohemian aristocracy ("state rights program"), while parties representing the German minority and small part of the aristocracy proclaimed their loyalty to the centralistic Constitution (so-called "Verfassungstreue"). After the defeat of Austria in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Hungarian politicians achieved the Ausgleich (compromise) which created Austria-Hungary in 1867, ostensibly creating equality between the Austrian and Hungarian halves of the empire. An attempt of the Czechs to create a tripartite monarchy (Austria-Hungary-Bohemia) failed in 1871. However, the "state rights program" remained the official platform of all Czech political parties (except for social democrats) until 1918. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Twentieth century

Bohemia within Czechoslovakia in 1928.
Bohemia within Czechoslovakia in 1928.

After World War I, Bohemia (as the biggest and most populated land) became the core of the newly-formed country of Czechoslovakia, which combined Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Upper Hungary (present-day Slovakia) and Carpathian Ruthenia into one state. Under its first president, TomᚠMasaryk, Czechoslovakia became a rich and liberal democratic republic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x497, 89 KB)Map of Czechoslovakia (self made) Note: The provinces shown on the map were introduced by Act No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x497, 89 KB)Map of Czechoslovakia (self made) Note: The provinces shown on the map were introduced by Act No. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (Polish Śląsk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj... Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, portrait by Josef Jindřich Šechtl, 1918 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (IPA: ), sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, (March 7, 1850 - September 14, 1937) was an advocate of Czechoslovak independence during WW I and became the first President of Czechoslovakia. ...


Following the Munich Agreement in 1938, the border regions of Bohemia inhabited predominantly by ethnic Germans (the so-called Sudetenland) were annexed to Nazi Germany; this was the only time in Bohemian history that its territory was divided. The remnants of Bohemia and Moravia were then annexed by Germany in 1939, while the Slovak lands became the Slovak Republic, a client state of Nazi Germany. From 1939 to 1945 Bohemia (without the Sudetenland) formed with Moravia the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren). After World War II ended in 1945, the vast majority of remaining Germans were expelled. After World War II Czechoslovakia was re-established. In 1946, the Communist Party[citation needed] strongly subsidized by the Soviet Union (due to an agreement amongst the Allies, Patton's armies did not enter Prague and the city had to liberate itself before being officially liberated by the Soviet Red Army) won elections. In February 1948 the Communists ousted the remaining democratic ministers in a coup d´état from the government and abolished democratic freedoms. For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Before the 1938 German annexation of the Sudetenland, roughly 20% of the population in Czechoslovakia had been ethnic Germans. ...

The Bohemian town of Karlovy Vary.
The Bohemian town of Karlovy Vary.

Beginning in 1949, Bohemia ceased to be an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia, as the country was divided into administrative regions. Between 1949 and 1989 Czechoslovakia (from 1960 officially called Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic) became a Soviet satellite even though there wasn't a Soviet army present (interestingly enough, surrounding countries including Austria were occupied by the Red Army) until Czechoslovak Communist Party started to reform and democratize itself in 1968. This "Prague Spring" process was stopped abruptly by an invasion of 'brotherly' armies of Warsaw Pact in August 1968. In 1989, Agnes of Bohemia became the first saint from a Central European country to be canonized by Pope John Paul II before the "Velvet Revolution" later that year. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 (the "Velvet Divorce"), the territory of Bohemia became part of the new Czech Republic. Czech Republic Karlovy Vary Karlovy Vary 59. ... The Czech Republic consists of 13 kraje (singular - kraj; usually translated as Regions with capital R) and one capital city (hlavní mÄ›sto), marked by a *: South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj) Central Bohemian Region (StÅ™edočeský kraj) Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj) Vysočina Region (Kraj... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Agnes of Bohemia Saint Agnes of Bohemia (Czech ) (or Agnes of Prague) was the first saint from a Central European country to be canonized by Pope John Paul II before the 1989 Velvet Revolution. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Non-violent protesters face armed policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government there;[1] it is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989. ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ...


The Czech constitution from 1992 refers to the "citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia" and proclaims continuity with the statehood of the Bohemian Crown. Bohemia is not currently an administrative unit of the Czech Republic. Instead, it is divided into the Prague, Central Bohemian, Plzeň, Karlovy Vary, Ústí nad Labem, Liberec, and Hradec Králové Regions, as well as parts of the Pardubice, Vysočina, South Bohemian and South Moravian Regions. Bohemia is usually referred to as paradise and compared to the Bahamas and their mamas. For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Statistics Capital: Prague Area:11,014 km² Population:1,128,674 (2002) Map Central Bohemian Region ( Czech: Středočeský kraj) is an administrative unit ( Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the central part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Plzeň Region (Czech: Plzeňský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) in the western part of Bohemia in the Czech Republic. ... Carlsbad Region (Czech: Karlovarský kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the westernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Ústí nad Labem Region (Czech: Ústecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Liberec Region (Czech: Liberecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the northernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Hradec Králové Region (Czech: Královéhradecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... The Czech Republic consists of 13 kraje (singular - kraj; usually translated as Regions with capital R) and one capital city (hlavní mÄ›sto), marked by a *: South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj) Central Bohemian Region (StÅ™edočeský kraj) Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj) Vysočina Region (Kraj... Pardubice Region (Czech: Pardubický kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mainly in the eastern part of its historical region of Bohemia, with a small part in northwestern Moravia. ... Vysočina Region (Czech: kraj Vysočina), also known as Jihlava Region, is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and partly in the south-west of the historical region of Moravia. ... South Bohemian Region (in Czech Jihočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mostly in the southern part of its historical region of Bohemia, with a small part in southwestern Moravia. ... South Moravian Region (Czech: Jihomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia. ...


See also

Bohemia became a part of the Habsburg Lands (later - after 1810 - unofficially known as the Austrian Empire) in 1526 ( when the young Bohemian king, Ludvik, died in the well-known Battle of Mohacs against Turks), when Bohemian Parliament voted for Ferdinand of Habsburg as the king of Bohemia. ... The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Bohemians & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 – 658) Moravian principality (late 8th century – 833) in... The Lands of the Czech /Bohemian/ Crown (Czech země Koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... German Bohemia (German: ; Czech: ) is a historical region in Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... Lech by Walery Eljasz-Radzikowski (1841-1905) Duke Czech Lech, Czech and Rus oaks in Rogalin, Poland According to an old legend, Lech, Czech and Rus were eponymous brothers who founded the three Slavic nations: Poland (poetically also known as Lechia), Bohemia (Čechy – now the major part of the Czech...

References

  1. ^ There is no distinction in the Czech language between adjectives referring to Bohemia and to the Czech Republic; i.e. český means both Bohemian and Czech.
  2. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05

Czech (pronounced ; čeština IPA: in Czech) is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian (Kashubian), and Lusatian Sorbian. ...

External links

  • Bohemia
  • "Bohemia – what did it mean to be Bohemian?" on BBC Radio 4’s In Our Time featuring Norman Davies, Karin Friedrich and Robert Pynsent


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