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Encyclopedia > Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky

In office
January 30, 1648 – August 6, 1657
Preceded by Dmytro Hunia
Succeeded by Ivan Vyhovsky

Born 1595
Subotiv, near Chyhyryn, Ukraine
Died August 6, 1657
Chyhyryn, Ukraine
Nationality Ukrainian
Spouse Hanna Somkivna,
Motrona Czaplińska,
Hanna Zolotarenko,
Religion Greek Orthodox
Signature Bohdan Khmelnytsky's signature

Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmel'nyts'kyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. Bogdan Khmelnitsky) (born c. 1595 — died August 6, 1657) was a hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate of Ukraine. He led the uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth magnates (16481654) with the goal of creating an independent Ukrainian state. In 1654 he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia, which led to the eventual loss of Ukrainian independence first in the Russian Empire and later in the Soviet Union.[citation needed] Image File history File links BChmielnicki. ... Hetman of Ukraine, the title of the head of the Ukrainian state known as the Cossack Hetmanate. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Dmytro Hunia (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ) was elected hetman of the Zaporozhian Sich in 1638. ... Ivan Vyhovsky (Іван Виговський)(reigned 1657-1659) was a hetman (or otoman) of the Ukrainian Cossacks, and the successor to the famous hetman and rebel leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky (see Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks). ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Subotiv (Ukrainian: ) is a village (selo) in central Ukraine. ... Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Image File history File links Xm_avt2. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Tuhaj Bej Stefan Potocki Stefan Czarniecki Strength 3 000 - 1 500 (half forces changed sides) [1] 8 000 - 15 000 (growing throughout the battle)[1] Casualties heavy unknown Battle of Zhovti Vody (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; literally yellow waters... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Tuhaj Bej MikoÅ‚aj Potocki Marcin Kalinowski Strength 18 000 6 000 Battle of Korsun (Ukrainian: , Polish: ), (May 26, 1648) was the second significant battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. ... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army and the Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Tuhaj Bej WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Dominik ZasÅ‚awski-Ostrogski, MikoÅ‚aj Ostroróg, Aleksander Koniecpolski Strength 80,000 [1] 40,000[1] Casualties unknown heavy Battle of Pyliavtsi (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ); September 23, 1648) was the third... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Ä°slâm III Giray Jeremi WiÅ›niowiecki Strength 80,000 - 100,000 (or more) Cossacks 30,000 Tatars 15,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown Siege of Zbarazh (Polish: , Ukrainian: ) was the battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. ... Battle of Zboriv, also known as Battle of Zborów (August 15-August 16, 1649) was fought in the vicinity of Zboriv, as part of the Khmelnytsky Uprising, between a combined Cossack-Crimean force and an army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Khan Ä°slâm III Giray ToÄŸay bey Ivan Bohun King John II Casimir Jeremi WiÅ›niowiecki Stefan Czarniecki Marcin Kalinowski StanisÅ‚aw LanckoroÅ„ski Strength 100,000 Ukrainians 40,000 Tatars (est. ... The Battle of Batoh was a battle in 1652 in which Polish forces under Marcin Kalinowski were defeated by Cossacks commanded by Hetman Bohdan Chmielnicki. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... For the Ukrainian politician, see Vadym Hetman. ... Zaporizhia (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, Zaporizhzhia; Russian: Запоро́жье, Zaporozhye) is a historical region of Ukraine. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polish Magnate (17th century) Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus great, designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

a variant of Clan Syrokomla arms, self used by Khmelnytsky as a noble.
a variant of Clan Syrokomla arms, self used by Khmelnytsky as a noble.

Although there is no definite proof of the date of his birth, it has been suggested by Ukrainian historian Mykhaylo Maksymovych that his date of birth was likely 27 December 1595 (St. Theodore's [1] day). As it was the custom in the Orthodox Church, he was baptized with one of his middle names - Theodor, transformed into Ukrainian as Bohdan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Syrokomla - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Mykhaylo Maksymovych(1804-1873) was a famous Ukrainian naturalist, historian, and writer. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ...


The latest biography of Khmelnytsky by Smoliy and Stepankov, however, challenges the 27 December date and suggests that it is more likely that he was born on 9 November (feast day of St Zenoby[2], 30 October in Julian Calendar) and was baptised on 11 November (feast day of St. Theodore in the Catholic Church)[3] is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Khmelnytsky was probably[4] born in the village of Subotiv, near Chyhyryn in Ukraine at the estate of his father Mykhailo Khmelnytsky. Even though his father, Mykhailo Khmelnytsky, a courtier of Great Crown Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski, was of noble birth himself, and belonged to the Clan Massalski, Abdank or Syrokomla, there was and is still controversy as to whether Bohdan belonged to the szlachta himself.[5] This however didn't prevent Khmelnytsky from considering himself a noble and his father's status as a deputy Starosta (elder) of Chyhyryn helped him to be considered as such by others. Later on, however, during the Uprising he would stress his mother's Cossack roots and his father's exploits with the Cossacks of the Sich. Subotiv (Ukrainian: ) is a village (selo) in central Ukraine. ... Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... Hetmans coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Noble Family Żółkiewski Coat of Arms Lubicz Parents  ? Consorts  ? Children  ? Date of Birth 1547 Place of Birth Turynka near Lwów Date of Death October 7, 1620 Place of Death near Mohylowo, Podole StanisÅ‚aw Żółkiewski, (1547 – 7 October 1620) was a Polish noble (szlachcic) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth... Abdank - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Syrokomla - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Republic of the Two Nations, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów in Polish; Belarusian: Рэч Паспалі́тая) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, between 1569 and 1795. ... The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language) is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ...


There is also no concrete evidence in regard to Khmelnytsky's early education. Several historians believe he received his elementary schooling from a church clerk until he was sent to one of Kyiv's Orthodox fraternity schools. He continued his education in Polish at a Jesuit college, possibly in Jaroslaw, but more likely in Lviv, in the school founded by hetman Żółkiewski. He completed his schooling by 1620 and acquired a broad knowledge of world history and learned Polish and Latin. Later in addition to these languages he learned Turkish, Tatar, and French. Unlike many of the other Jesuit students, he did not embrace Roman Catholicism but remained Greek Orthodox. Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Jarosław is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,800 inhabitants (1995). ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


Service with the Cossacks

Part of a series of articles on
Cossacks
Cossack hosts
Don · Ural · Terek · Kuban · Orenburg ·Astrakhan · Siberian · Baikal · Amur · Semirechye · Ussuri
Other groups
Azov · Black Sea · Bug · Caucasus Line · Danube (Sich)· Danube (Host) · Hetmanate · Tatar Cossacks · Nekrasov · Turkey · Jewish Cossacks · Zaporozhia
History of the Cossacks
Colonisation of Siberia · Khmelnytsky Uprising · Treaty of Hadiach · Bulavin Rebellion · Pugachev's Rebellion · 1st Cavalry Army · Decossackization · Betrayal of the Cossacks · XVth SS Cossack Cavalry Corps · 1st Cossack Division
Famous Cossacks
Andrei Shkuro · Bohdan Khmelnytsky · Ivan Mazepa · Ivan Sirko · Pyotr Krasnov . Stenka Razin · Yemelyan Pugachev · Yermak Timofeyevich
Cossack terms
Ataman · Hetman · Papakha · Plastun · Shashka · Stanitsa
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Upon completion of his studies in 1617, Bohdan entered into service with the Cossacks. As early as 1619 he was sent along with his father to Moldavia, as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth entered into war with the Ottoman Empire. His first military engagement was a tragic one. During the battle of Cecora (Ţuţora) on 17 September 1620, his father was killed, and young Khmelnytsky among many others, including future hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, was captured by the Turks. He spent the next two years in captivity in Constantinople, as a prisoner of a Turkish Pasha.[6] This article needs cleanup. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Cossack host or Cossack voisko (Казачье войско, kazachye voysko, sometimes incorrectly translated as Cossack Army) was an administrative subdivision of Cossacks in Imperial Russia. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... The Ural Cossack Host was a cossack host formed from the Ural Cossacks -- those cossacks settled by the Ural River. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... The Orenburg Cossack Host (Оренбургское казачье войско in Russian), a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province (todays Orenburg Oblast, part of the Chelyabinsk Oblast and Bashkortostan). ... Astrakhan Cossack Host (Астраханское казачье войско in Russian) was a Cossack host of Imperial Russia drawn from the Cossacks of the Lower Volga region, who had been patrolling the banks of the Volga River from the time of Russias annexation of Astrakhan in 1556. ... Siberian Cossacks were Cossacks who settled in the Siberian region of Russia. ... Baikal Cossacks were cossacks of the Transbaikal Cossack Host (Russian: Забайкальское казачье войско), a Cossack host formed in 1851 in the areas beyond Lake Baikal (hence, Transbaikal). ... The Amur Cossack Host (Амурское казачье войско in Russian), a Cossack host created in the Amur region and Primorye in the 1850s on the basis of the Cossacks relocated from the Transbaikal region and freed miners of Nerchinsk region. ... Semirechye Cossask Host (Russian: ) was a Cossack host in Imperial Russia, located in Semirechye Oblast (today comprising most of Kyrgyzstan as well as Almaty oblysy, Taldy-Korgan (Taldyqorghan) oblysy, and parts of the Taraz oblysy and Semey oblysy in Kazakhstan) with the center in Verny. ... Ussuri Cossack Host (Russian: Уссури́йское каза́чье во́йско) was a Cossack Host in Imperial Russia, located in Primorye south of Khabarovsk along the Ussuri River, the Sungari River, and around the Khanka Lake. ... Azov Cossack Host was a Cossack host created in 1828 of Trans-Danubian Sich Cossacks (Задунайская Сечь) returned under the Russian patronage during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 under the command of kosh ataman Osip Hladkiy (Осип Михайлов Гладкий). When the war ended, they were given land between Berdyansk and Mariupol. ... Caucasus Line Cossack Host (Черноморское казачье войско) was a Cossack host created in 1787 in Southern Ukraine from former Zaporozhians. ... The Bug Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a Cossack host, which used to be located along the Southern Buh River. ... Caucasus Line Cossack Host (Кавказское линейное казачье войско) was a Cossack host created in 1832 in the Northern Caucasus. ... The Danubian Sich (Danube Sich, Trans-Danube Sich, Zadunayska Sich) was a fortified settlement (sich) of Zaporozhian Cossacks who fled in the territory of the Ottoman Empire after their home Zaporizhian Sich was overwhelmed by the Russian army in 1775, see, see Zaporozhian Host: Russian rule. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... Nekrasov Cossacks, Nekrasovite Cossacks, Nekrasovites, Nekrasovtsy (Russian: ) are descendants of Don Cossacks which, after the defeat of the Bulavin Rebellion fled to Kuban (in September 1708), headed by Ignat Nekrasov, hence the name. ... Of the different branches of Cossacks, the only one that would allow Jews into their society were the Cossacks of Ukraine. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... The History of the Cossacks spans several centuries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being. ... The Bulavin Rebellion, also called the Astrakhan Rebellion (Russian: Булавинское восстание), is the name given to a violent civil uprising in Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1709. ... It has been suggested that Yemelyan Pugachev be merged into this article or section. ... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ... In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... Combatants Lienz Cossacks Allied Forces Strength >50,000 Casualties 45,000 - 50,000 repatriated The Betrayal of Cossacks refers to the forced transfer of Cossacks who fought against Allied forces in World War II to the Soviet Union after the war, including those who were never Soviet citizens (having left... The XVth Cossack Cavalry Corps was a German cavalry corps during World War II. By the end of the war the Corps was placed under the Waffen-SS administration. ... Russian Cossacks in Wehmacht uniform The 1st Cossack Division (German: ) is a Russian Cossack division within the German WW II Army. ... Andrei Shkuro Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Shkura) (Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро (Шкура) in Russian) (January 19, 1887 (O.S.: January 7) – January 17, 1947) was a Lieutenant General (1919) of the White Army. ... Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Ukrainian: historically spelled as Mazeppa; circa 1644—1709), Cossack Hetman (Ataman) of the Hetmanate in Left-bank Ukraine, in 1687–1708. ... Ataman Ivan Sirko Ukrainian hryvnia coin depicting Ivan Sirko Ivan Sirko (Ukrainian: Іван Сірко)(born near 1610 died in 1680), Cossack military leader, Koshovyi Otaman of the Zaporozhian Host and author of the famous Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks that inspired a major painting by the 19th-century artist Ilya Repin. ... Ataman Pyotr Krasnov Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Петр Николаевич Краснов in Russian) (September 22 (10 O.S.), 1869 — January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counterrevolutionary White movement afterwards. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... Yermak Yermak Timofeyevich (Russian: Ерма́к Тимофе́евич, also Ermak) (born between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585), Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia. ... Ataman Krasnoschekov by Alexei Antropov, 1761 Ataman (variants: wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian), ватаман (Russian, regional), отаман (Ukrainian)) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. ... For the Ukrainian politician, see Vadym Hetman. ... Papakha (Russian: ) is a high fur hat, usually made of karakul sheep skin, worn by many peoples of the Caucasus, Don Cossacks and Russian army. ... Plastun or plastoon (Ukrainian, Russian: ) was originally a Cossack of dismounted scouting and sentry military units in Black Sea Cossack Host and later in Kuban Cossack Host in 19-20th ceturies. ... A Cossack from Orenburg, with a shashka at his side Shashka is a special kind of sabre and a very sharp type of single edged, single handed and guardless sword. ... Stanitsa (Russian: , pronounces stah-nee-tsah) is a village inside a Cossack host or Cossack voisko (Казачье войско, kazachye voysko, sometimes incorrectly translated as Cossack Army). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire Commanders StanisÅ‚aw Żółkiewski Iskander Pasha Strength ~10. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Noble Family Koniecpolski Coat of Arms Pobóg Parents Aleksander Koniecpolski Anna Sroczycka Consorts Katarzyna Żółkiewska (1615) Krystyna Lubomirska (1619) Zofia OpaliÅ„ska (1656) Children Aleksander Koniecpolski Date of Birth 1590/1594 Place of Birth Koniecpol Date of Death March 11, 1646 Place of Death Brody StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski, (1590... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paÅŸa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ...


While there is no concrete evidence as to how he returned to Ukraine, most historians believe he either escaped or his ransom was paid. Sources vary as to by whom — his mother, friends, the Polish king — but perhaps by Krzysztof Zbaraski, ambassador of the Rzeczpospolita to the Ottomans, who in 1622 paid 30,000 thalers in ransom for all prisoners of war captured at the Battle of Cecora. Upon return to Subotiv, Khmelnytsky took over the running of his father's estate and became a registered Cossack in the Chyhyryn Regiment. In the meantime, his widowed mother married again, to Belarusian noble Vasyl Stavetsky, and moved to his estate, leaving Bohdan in charge of Subotiv. In a year she had another son, Hryhoriy, who curiously enough later preferred to take his mother's name and was known as Hryhoriy Khmelnytsky. For a short time he also served as a koniuszy to hetman Mikołaj Potocki, but relatively quickly they parted their ways after a personal conflict. Bohdan Khmelnytsky later married Hanna Somkivna, a daughter of a rich Pereyaslavl Cossack and they settled in Subotiv. By the second half of the 1620s they already had three daughters: Stepanida, Olena, and Kateryna. His first son Tymish (Tymofiy) was born in 1632, and another son Yuriy was born in 1640. Noble Family Zbaraski Coat of Arms Korybut Parents Janusz Zbaraski Anna Czetwertyńska Consorts  ?. likely none Children  ?, likely none Date of Birth 1580 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death March 3, 1627 Place of Death  ? Krzysztof Zbaraski (1580 - 6 March 1627, sometimes mistakenly written as Krzysztof Zbarski) was a Polish member... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Registered Cossacks (Polish: Kozacy rejestrowi) is the term used for Cossacks (mostly from the Zaporizhian Sich) who were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth armies. ... Koniuszy (corresponds to the Master of the Horse) was a office of nobility (szlachta) in Poland since the 11th Century. ... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms PiÅ‚awa Parents Jakub Potocki Jadwiga Prusinowska Consorts Zofia Firlej Elżbieta Kazanowska Children with Zofia Firlej Piotr Potocki Stefan Potocki MikoÅ‚aj Potocki Marianna Potocka Wiktoria Potocka Henryk Potocki with Elżbieta Kazanowska Jakub Potocki Joanna Potocka Dominik Potocki Date of Birth 1595... Pereyaslavl can refer to: Pereyaslavl-Zalessky - a town in the Yaroslavl Oblast in Russia (was Pereyaslavl until the 15th century). ... Tymofiy Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky or Tymish Khmelnytsky (Тимофій, Тиміш, Тимош Хмельницький; 1632 - September 15, 1653) was the eldest son of Cossack hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Yurii Khmelnytsky Yurii Khmelnytsky (Ukrainian: Юрій Хмельницький) (1641–1685), son of the famous Bohdan Khmelnytsky, was a Cossack political and military leader. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...


During this time Bohdan Khmelnytsky was running his estate and advanced in his service in the Regiment. He first became a sotnyk and later advanced to the rank of a regiment scribe. He certainly had significant negotiation skills and commanded respect of his fellow Cossacks as on 30 August 1637 he was included in a delegation to Warsaw to plead the Cossacks' case before the Polish King Władysław IV. Serving in the army of a Polish magnate and great commander, hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, he participated in a rather successful campaign as the Commonwealth army, part of which was Bohdan's regiment, scored a decisive victory over the Tatars in 1644. During this time, as some archival documents show, he also had a meeting in Warsaw with the French ambassador Count De Bregie, during which he discussed the possibility of Cossack participation in war in France. Sources vary as to whether in April of 1645 he traveled to France (to Fontainebleau) to discuss further details of Cossack service in France; this claim is supported by Ukrainian historiography but disputed by Polish scholarship.[7] In October 1644 around two thousand Polish infantry soldiers (some scholars think they were Cossacks, but the French sources do not actually name them as such) went to France by sea via Gdansk and Calais, where they participated in the siege and capture of Dunkerque. However, no records show that Bohdan Khmelnytsky was among them. Sotnyk (Ukrainian: ), was a military rank among the Ukrainian Cossack starshyna (officers) and Ukrainian Insurgent Army. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 16351 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Cecylia Renata Ludwika Maria Gonzaga Children with Cecylia Renata Zygmunt... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1 035 000 1761/km² Founded... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Location within France Dunkirk ( French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ...


The Czapliński Affair

In the meantime another trouble was brewing at home. Upon the death of magnate Stanisław Koniecpolski, advocate of fair treatment of Cossacks, his successor Aleksander redrew the maps of his possessions and laid claim to Khmelnytsky's estate, which he claimed was his. In his attempt to find protection from the powerful magnate, Khmelnytsky wrote numerous appeals and letters to different representatives of the Polish crown — but to no avail. At the end of 1645 the Chyhyryn starost (elder) Daniel Czapliński officially received authority from Koniecpolski to seize the Subotiv estate. In summer of 1646 Khmelnytsky, using his favorable standing at the Polish court, arranged an audience with King Władysław IV to plead his case. Władysław, who wanted Cossacks on his side in the wars he planned, gave him a royal charter, which protected his rights to the estate. However, such was the structure of the Commonwealth at that time, and the lawlessness of its eastern realms, that even the King was not able to avert the confrontation with the local magnates. In the beginning of 1647 Daniel Czapliński openly started to harass Khmelnytsky in an attempt to force him off the land. On two occasions Subotiv was raided: considerable property damage was done and Khmelnytsky's son Yuriy was badly beaten. Finally in April 1647, Czapliński completely forced Khmelnytsky off the land and made him move with his large family to a relative's house in Chyhyryn. This article needs cleanup. ... For other people with the name of Aleksander Koniecpolski, see Aleksander Koniecpolski Noble Family Koniecpolski Coat of Arms Pobóg Parents Stanisław Koniecpolski Krystyna Lubomirska Consorts Joanna Barbara Zamoyska Children with Joanna Barbara Zamoyska Stanisław Koniecpolski Date of Birth 1620 Place of Birth Podhorce Date of Death March 30, 1659 Place... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In May of 1647 Khmelnytsky arranged a second audience with the King to plead his case, but found the King unwilling to go into an open confrontation with a powerful magnate. In addition to the loss of the estate, his first wife Hanna died, leaving him alone with the children. While he promptly remarried to Motrona, his second wife, he was still unsuccessful in all of his attempts to find justice in regard to his estate. During this time, he met several higher Polish officials to discuss the Cossacks' issue of the war with the Tatars and used this occasion again to plead his case with Czapliński, still unsuccessfully. 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


When he found no support from the Polish officials, he found it in his Cossack friends and subordinates. The case of a Cossack being unfairly treated by the Poles found a lot of support not only in his Chyhyryn regiment, but also with others including the Sich. All through the autumn of 1647 Khmelnytsky traveled from one regiment to another, and had numerous consultations with Cossack leaders throughout Ukraine. His activity raised suspicion among the Polish authorities already used to Cossack revolts; he was promptly arrested. Koniecpolski even issued an order for his execution but the Chyhyryn Cossack polkovnyk who held Khmelnytsky was persuaded to release him. Not willing to tempt fate any further, Khmelnytsky headed for the Zaporozhian Sich with a group of his supporters. Sich can mean one of several things: Zaporizhian Sich, the fortified capital of Zaporizhian Cossacks in 16th to 18th century Ukraine. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ...


The Uprising

" Bohdan Khmelnytsky (left) with Tugay Bey (right) at Lviv", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw.
" Bohdan Khmelnytsky (left) with Tugay Bey (right) at Lviv", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw.
Main article: Khmelnytsky Uprising

While it might appear that the Czapliński Affair caused the Uprising, it was only an impetus that brought a successful and talented Cossack to the forefront of popular discontent among the people of Ukraine. While the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth remained a union of two nations: of Poland and Lithuania, a sizeable population of Orthodox Ruthenians remained ignored. That left them oppressed by the Polish magnates and their wrath was directed at the Poles' Jewish traders, who often ran their estates for them. The advent of the Counter-Reformation further worsened the relationship between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Many of the Orthodox Ukrainians saw the Union of Brest as a threat to their Orthodox faith, and coupled with the frequent abuse of the Orthodox clergy this added the religious dimension to the conflict. This could have been one of the many other frequent Cossack revolts that had been put down by the authorities, but the stature, the skill and the respect of the seasoned 50-year-old negotiator and warrior Khmelnytsky made all the difference. Download high resolution version (537x800, 167 KB)Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tuhaj Bej at Lwow painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (537x800, 167 KB)Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tuhaj Bej at Lwow painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tugay Bey, part of Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tugay Bey at Lwów, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw (see full picture here). ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская у́нія, Ukrainian: Берестейська унія, Polish: ) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of...


Initial successes

Flag of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Bohdan (Б) Khmelnytsky (Х), hetman (Г) of Army (В) of Zaporozhia (З) and of his (Е) king's (К) majesty (МЛС) of Rzech Pospolita.
Flag of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Bohdan (Б) Khmelnytsky (Х), hetman (Г) of Army (В) of Zaporozhia (З) and of his (Е) king's (К) majesty (МЛС) of Rzech Pospolita.

At the end of the year Khmelnytsky finally made his way to the south, to the estuary of the Dnieper river. On 25 January 1648 his small (300–500-man) detachment, with the help of registered Cossacks who went to his side, disarmed the small Polish detachment guarding the area and took over the Zaporozhian Sich — much to the jubilation of many of the Cossacks. An attempt to retake the Sich by the Poles was decisively fought off as more registered Cossacks joined his forces. At the end of January 1648 a Cossack Rada was called and Khmelnytsky was unanimously elected a hetman. A feverish activity followed. Cossacks were sent with hetman's letters to many regions of Ukraine calling on Cossacks and Orthodox peasants to join the rebellion, the defence of Khortytsia was improved, arrangements were made to acquire and make weapons and anmunition, and emissaries were sent to the Khan of Crimea, İslâm III Giray. For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This article is about the river. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cossack Rada (Ukrainian: , Kozatska Rada) was a general cossack meeting often military in nature. ... For the Ukrainian politician, see Vadym Hetman. ... Khortytsya view from space. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Ä°slâm III Giray (Crimean Tatar: ) (1604–1654) — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1644–1654. ...

History of Ukraine  v  d  e 

Initially, Polish authorities took the news of Khmelnytsky's arrival at the Sich and reports about the rebellion quite lightly. The two sides exchanged lists of demands: the Poles asked for Cossacks to surrender the mutinous leader and disband, while Khmelnytsky and the Rada demanded that the Commonwealth restore the Cossacks' ancient rights, stop the advance of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, yield the right to appoint Orthodox leaders of the Sich and of the Registered Cossack regiments, and remove the Commonwealth troops from Ukraine.[8] These demands of Khmelnytsky were taken as an affront by the Polish magnates and an army headed by Stefan Potocki moved in the direction of the Sich. Had the Cossacks stayed at Khortytsia they might have been defeated as in many other rebellions. But this time, instead of waiting for the Poles, Khmelnytsky marched against them. The two armies met on 16 May 1648 at Zhovti Vody, where, aided by the Tatars of Tugay Bey, the Cossacks inflicted their first crushing defeat on the Commonwealth. This was repeated soon after, with the same success, at the Battle of Korsuń on 26 May 1648. What made these Cossack successess different was the diplomatic and military skill of Khmelnytsky: under his leadership, the Cossack army moved to battle positions following his plans, Cossacks were proactive and decisive in their maneuver and attacks, and most importantly, he not only managed to persuade large contingents of registered Cossacks to switch to his side, but also got the support of the Crimean Khan — his crucial ally for the many battles to come. History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Reconstruction of a Trypillia hut, in the Trypillia museum, Ukraine. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... Catacomb culture, ca. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Zarubintsy culture was one of the major archaeological cultures which flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper Dnieper and Pripyat Rivers, stretching west towards the Vistula Basin from the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC until the 2nd century AD. It was identified ca 1899... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... White Croatia is the area of modern-day Poland, Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Slovakia from which the White Croats migrated in the 7th century into Dalmatia, Croatia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... The Ruin (Ukrainian: ) is a period of Ukrainian history from the death of hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 and until ascension of hetman Ivan Mazepa in 1687. ... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a historical name of a part of Ukraine on the right bank of the Dnipro, consisting of the modern day Volyn, Rivne, Vinnitsa, Zhytomyr, Kirvohrad and Kyiv region as well as part of the Cherkaska and Ternopil region. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnipro River, comprising the modern-day regions of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy and the eastern part of the Kyiv and Cherkasy regions, in Russian histories... Sloboda Ukraine (Russian: Слободская Украина) or Slobozhanshchina (Слобожанщина) was a historical region (17th–18th centuries) on the frontier of Muscovy and Imperial Russia, settled by Ukrainian Cossacks that were fugitives from Poland, as well as by peasants and townspeople. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Zaporizhia (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, Zaporizhia; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields or Savage Steppe), Russian: Запоро́жье, Zaporozhye) is a historical region which is situated about the Dnieper River, below the Dnieper rapids (porohy, poroża), (now Ukraine), hence the name, translated as territory beyond the rapids. During the 16th to 18th... The Danubian Sich (Danube Sich, Trans-Danube Sich, Zadunayska Sich) was a fortified settlement (sich) of Zaporozhian Cossacks who fled in the territory of the Ottoman Empire after their home Zaporizhian Sich was overwhelmed by the Russian army in 1775, see, see Zaporozhian Host: Russian rule. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article covers the history of the administrative division of Russia from 1708 to 1743. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... One of the underlying themes of Ukrainian history of the early 20th century has been the quest for an independent nation. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: or ЗУНР, ZUNR; also translated West Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... The Directorate, or Directory (Директория, Dyrektoriya), was a government of the Ukrainian National Republic formed in 1918 in rebellion against Skoropadskys Hetmanate. ... Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army. ... Flag Map of the areas claimed by the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Republic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Ukrainian Peoples Republic West Ukrainian Peoples Republic German Empire (1918) Poland (1920) Ukrainian SSR Russian SFSR Makhnovshchyna (allied with the Bolsheviks until 1920) White Movement German Empire (1917) Poland (1918-1919) France (1919) The Ukrainian War of Independence was a conflict between Bolshevik, White Russian, Ukrainian, Polish... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the country. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Khortytsya view from space. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Tuhaj Bej Stefan Potocki Stefan Czarniecki Strength 3 000 - 1 500 (half forces changed sides) [1] 8 000 - 15 000 (growing throughout the battle)[1] Casualties heavy unknown Battle of Zhovti Vody (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; literally yellow waters... Tugay Bey, part of Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tugay Bey at Lwów, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw (see full picture here). ... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Tuhaj Bej MikoÅ‚aj Potocki Marcin Kalinowski Strength 18 000 6 000 Battle of Korsun (Ukrainian: , Polish: ), (May 26, 1648) was the second significant battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Royal dynasty. ...


Establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate

Coat of arms of the Cossack Hetmanate.
Coat of arms of the Cossack Hetmanate.

On Christmas of 1648, Khmelnytsky made a triumphant entry into Kyiv, where he was hailed as "the Moses, savior, redeemer, and liberator of the people from Polish captivity ... the illustrious ruler of Rus." In February 1649, during negotiations in Pereiaslav with a Polish delegation headed by senator Adam Kysil, Khmelnytsky declared that he was "the sole autocrat of Rus" and that he had "enough power in Ukraine, Podilia, and Volhynia ... in his land and principality stretching as far as Lviv, Chełm, and Halych."[9] It became clear to the Polish envoys that Khmelnytsky had positioned himself not just as a leader of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, but of Ukraine, and stated his claims to the heritage of the Rus. A Vilnius panegyric in Khmelnytsky's honor (16501651) explained it this way: "While in Poland it is King Jan II Casimir Vasa, in Rus it is Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky."[10] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Pereyaslav is the former name of towns in Ukraine and Russia: Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical arms of Podolia The region of Podolia (Polish: Podole, Ukrainian: Podillya) lies in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine that correspond to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat City County Gmina CheÅ‚m Established 10th century City Rights 1392 Government  - Mayor Agata Fisz Area  - City 35. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see John of Poland. ...


After the period of initial military successes the state-building process began. His leadership was demonstrated in all areas of state-building: in the military, administration, finance, economics, and culture. With political acumen he made the Zaporozhian Host under the leadership of its hetman the supreme power in the new Ukrainian state, and unified all the spheres of Ukrainian society under his authority. Khmelnytsky built a new government system and developed military and civilian administration. In this book, Fukuyama advocates a liberal-democratic approach in assisting failed states to re-align themselves with the modern day global community. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ...


During this time a new generation of statesmen and military leaders came to the forefront: Ivan Vyhovsky, Pavlo Teteria, Danylo Nechai and Ivan Nechai, Ivan Bohun, Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky. From Cossack polkovnyks, officers, and military commanders, a new elite within the Cossack Hetman state was born. Throughout the years, this elite preserved and maintained the autonomy of the Cossack Hetmanate in the face of Russia's attempt to curb it. But it was also instrumental in the onset of the period of Ruin that followed and eventually destroyed most of the achievements of the Khmelnytsky era. Ivan Vyhovsky (Іван Виговський)(reigned 1657-1659) was a hetman (or otoman) of the Ukrainian Cossacks, and the successor to the famous hetman and rebel leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky (see Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks). ... Hetman Teteria Pavlo Teteria (Ukrainian: Павло Тетеря) was hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine in years 1663–1665. ... Ivan Bohun Ivan Bohun fighting Poles in Berestechko battle Ivan Bohun or Ivan Bogun (Ukrainian: ) (died in 1664), was a Ukrainian Cossack military leader. ... Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky (Ukrainian: ) (died in 1679), was a Ukrainian Cossack, polkovnyk, a skilled warrior and a shrewd politician. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... The Ruin (Ukrainian: ) is a period of Ukrainian history from the death of hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 and until ascension of hetman Ivan Mazepa in 1687. ...

Bohdan Khmelnytsky's banner that was taken at the battle of Berestechko. It was later taken by the Swedes in Warsaw 1655 and is now to be seen at Armémuseum, Stockholm, Sweden.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky's banner that was taken at the battle of Berestechko. It was later taken by the Swedes in Warsaw 1655 and is now to be seen at Armémuseum, Stockholm, Sweden.

Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Khan İslâm III Giray Toğay bey Ivan Bohun King John II Casimir Jeremi Wiśniowiecki Stefan Czarniecki Marcin Kalinowski Stanisław Lanckoroński Strength 100,000 Ukrainians 40,000 Tatars (est. ...

Complications

Khmelnytsky's initial successes were followed by a series of setbacks as neither Khmelnytsky nor the Commonwealth had had enough strength to stabilize the situation or to inflict a defeat on the enemy. What followed was the period of intermittent warfare and several peace treaties, which neither side put much faith in or cared to abide by. From the spring of 1649 on, the situation turned for the worse for the Cossacks, as the frequency of Polish attacks increased and they were becoming more and more successful. The resulting Treaty of Zboriv on August 18, 1649 was unfavourable for the Cossacks. This was followed by another defeat at the battle of Berestechko on June 18, 1651, where the Tatars betrayed him again and even held the hetman captive. The result was not only a crushing defeat and a high number of casualties (estimated to be around 30,000 Cossacks), but also the unfavourable Treaty of Bila Tserkva. That treaty was soon violated, and in the years that followed the two sides were almost in the perpetual state of warfare. In this situation the Crimean Tatars played a decisive role — not allowing either side to prevail. It was in their interests to keep both Ukraine and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from getting too strong and becoming an effective power in the region.[11] // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Treaty of Zboriv was signed on August 17, 1649 after the Polish army was defeated in the Battle of Zboriv by the Cossacks, led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Combatants Zaporozhian Cossack Army Crimean Tatars Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Commanders Bohdan Khmelnytsky Khan Ä°slâm III Giray ToÄŸay bey Ivan Bohun King John II Casimir Jeremi WiÅ›niowiecki Stefan Czarniecki Marcin Kalinowski StanisÅ‚aw LanckoroÅ„ski Strength 100,000 Ukrainians 40,000 Tatars (est. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Treaty of Bila Tserkva was a peace treaty between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ukrainian Cossacks in the aftermath of the Battle of Berestechko. ... Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ...


Under the circumstances, Khmelnytsky started looking for another foreign ally. Even though the Cossacks established their de facto independence from Poland, the new state needed legitimacy that was essential in 17th century Europe, and this legitimacy could be provided by a foreign monarch. In search of a protectorate, Khmelnytsky approached the Ottoman sultan in 1651 and formal embassies were exchanged. The Turks offered vassalship similar to their other arrangements with contemporary Crimea, Moldavia and Walachia. However, the idea of a union with the Muslim monarch didn't rest well with the general populace and the Cossacks from whom Khmelnytsky drew his support. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The other possible ally was Orthodox Russia. They, however, remained quite cautious and stayed away from the hostilities in Ukraine. In spite of numerous envoys and calls for help from Khmelnytsky in the name of the shared Orthodox faith, the Tsar preferred to wait until the threat of a Cossack-Ottoman union in 1653 finally forced him to action.[11] The idea that the Tsar might be favourable to taking Ukraine under his hand was communicated to the hetman and the diplomatic activity intensified. Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ...


Union with Russia

Main article: Treaty of Pereyaslav

After a series of negotiations, it was agreed that Ukraine would accept the tsar's overlordship. To finalize the treaty, a Russian embassy led by boyar Vasili Buturlin came to Pereyaslav, where on January 18, 1653 the Cossack Rada was called and the treaty concluded. There is still no unanimity among historians as to the true intentions of both Russia and Khmelnytsky in signing this agreement. For Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich the treaty legitimized Moscow's claims to the territory of Kievan Rus and strengthened his influence in the region. For Khmelnytsky the Treaty of Pereyaslav offered first and foremost a legitimate monarch's protection and support from a friendly Orthodox power. There have been a number of conflicting opinions as to what kind of union Khmelnytsky had in mind, whether it was to be a military union, a suzerainty or a complete incorporation of Ukraine into the Tsardom of Russia.[12] Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ... Pereyaslav is the former name of towns in Ukraine and Russia: Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid_17th century. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ...


That both sides had somewhat different idea of the treaty and the union, is exemplified by an incident during the oath of allegiance to the Tsar: the treaty was almost broken when the Moscow envoy refused to reciprocate with an oath from the ruler to his subjects as was the custom with the Polish king. At one point Khmelnytsky even stormed out of the church and threatened to cancel the entire treaty. It was only after some consideration that this demand on the part of the Cossacks was rescinded and the treaty stayed. Both sides, however, had different ends in mind and in the case of Ukraine as whole, whatever liberties were allowed to Khmelnytsky due to his stature, they were denied to his successors. That in the end led to the eventual complete incorporation of Ukraine into the Tsardom of Russia and later into the Russian Empire. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


Final years

Church of Subotiv (Ukraine) where Khmelnytsky was buried.
Church of Subotiv (Ukraine) where Khmelnytsky was buried.

As a result of the Treaty of Pereyaslav the geopolitical map of the region had changed — a new player, Russia entered the scene and the Cossacks' former allies, the Tatars, went to the Polish side. That intensified the conflict, as the Tatars were now unrestrained in their warfare against Khmelnytsky. Tatar raids depopulated whole areas of Ukraine. Cossacks aided by the Tsar's army took revenge on Polish possessions in Belarus and in the spring of 1654 drove them from much of the country. To complicate the situation even further, another power entered the scene — Sweden. They were the old adversaries of both Poland and Russia, and at the initial stages they concentrated most of their attacks against the Commonwealth. That put Khmelnytsky into a delicate situation in regard to the Tsar, as he had been negotiating with the Swedes for some time, coordinating their attacks on the Commonwealth. In 1656 with the Commonwealth on the brink of collapse, the ruler of Transylvania, George II Rákóczi, also joined in. Under blows from all sides the Commonwealth only survived by a miracle. Image File history File links Subotiv_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Subotiv_Ukraine. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... George II Rákóczi (January 30, 1621–June 7, 1660), was the eldest son of George I and Susannah Lorantffy. ...


Not satisfied with their spoils in Poland and Lithuania, the Swedes turned against their old enemy Russia. This complicated matters even further for Khmelnytsky, as his ally was now fighting his overlord. In addition to diplomatic tensions between the Tsar and Khmelnytsky, a number of other disagreements between the two surfaced, notably in regard to Russian officials' interference in the finances of the Hetmanate and in the newly liberated Belarus. One thing that infuriated the hetman the most was the separate treaty the Tsar concluded with the Poles in Vilnius in 1656. The Hetman's emissaries were not even allowed to attend the negotiations. That prompted Khmelnytsky to write an irate letter to the Tsar accusing him of breaking the Pereyaslav agreement. Another interesting point in the letter was that in his anger Khmelnytsky compared Swedes to the Tsar, claiming that the former were more honourable and trustworthy than the latter.[11] This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ...


In addition to diplomatic tensions with Russia, the Cossack army with their Transylvanian allies in Poland suffered a number of setbacks. As a result Khmelnytsky even had to deal with Cossack rebellion at home. Troubling news also came from Crimea as Tatars in alliance with Poland were preparing for a new invasion of Ukraine. Though already ill, Khmelnytsky continued to conduct diplomatic activity, at one point even receiving the Tsar's envoys in his bed.[6] On July 22 he suffered cerebral hemorrhage, became paralyzed, and died at 5 A.M. on July 27, 1657. His funeral was held on August 23, and his body was taken from his capital Chyhyryn to his estate at Subotiv for burial in his ancestral church. In 1664 a Polish noble Stefan Czarniecki captured Subotiv and ordered the bodies of the hetman and his son Tymish to be exhumed and desecrated.[13] An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Noble Family Czarniecki Coat of Arms Łodzia Parents  ? Consorts  ? Children  ? Date of Birth 1599 Place of Birth Czarnce, Poland Date of Death July 18, 1665 Place of Death  ? Stefan Czarniecki, Stephen Czarniecki (1599-July 18, 1665) Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth general and nobleman (szlachcic). ... Tymofiy Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky or Tymish Khmelnytsky (Тимофій, Тиміш, Тимош Хмельницький; 1632 - September 15, 1653) was the eldest son of Cossack hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky. ...


Khmelnytsky remembered

A five Ukrainian hryvnia banknote depicting Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
The statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in front of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, Ukraine.
The statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in front of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, Ukraine.

It is hard to overestimate Khmelnytsky's contribution and role in the history of Eastern Europe. He not only shaped the future of Ukraine but significantly changed the balance of power in Eastern Europe. As with any other prominent personality his role in the events and his actions were viewed differently by his various contemporaries, and even now different people sometimes have quite opposing views on his legacy. Hryvnia with Bohdan Chmielnicki File links The following pages link to this file: Bohdan Khmelnytsky Hryvnia Categories: Currency images ... Hryvnia with Bohdan Chmielnicki File links The following pages link to this file: Bohdan Khmelnytsky Hryvnia Categories: Currency images ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1707 pixels, file size: 390 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Kiev Image courtesy LiveJournal user: , daland. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1707 pixels, file size: 390 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Kiev Image courtesy LiveJournal user: , daland. ... Hagia Sophia or Saint Sophia (Άγια Σοφία in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin, Ayasofya in Turkish) can refer to: Wisdom as a sacred entity, personalized as a woman especially in Eastern Orthodoxy; or any church devoted to her: Hagia Sophia, the Church of the Holy Wisdom in Istanbul, Turkey (formerly Constantinople), now... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ...


Khmelnytsky in Ukrainian history

In Ukraine, Khmelnytsky is generally regarded as a national hero and a father of the nation. A city and a region of the country bear his name. His image is prominently displayed on Ukrainian banknotes and his monument in the centre of Kyiv is the focal point of the Ukrainian capital. There have also been several issues of the Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky — one of the highest decorations in Ukraine and in the former Soviet Union. With all this positive appreciation of his legacy, even in Ukraine it is far from being unanimous. He is mostly criticised for his union with Russia, which in the view of some, proved to be disastrous for the future of the country. This particular view, among others, was expressed by a prominent Ukrainian poet, Taras Shevchenko, who was one of Khmelnytsky's very vocal and harsh critics.[14] Furthermore his local reputation was damaged by his alliance with the Crimean Tatars, which permitted the latter to take a large number of Ukrainian peasants as slaves (this may be interpreted as an illustration of the relative indifference of the cossacks as a military caste toward the 'kholopy', the lowest stratum of the Ukrainian people). The traces of this are still found in folk songs. On the balance, the view of his legacy in present-day Ukraine is more positive than negative, with some critics admitting that the union with Russia was dictated by necessity and an attempt to survive in those difficult times. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... Modern Ukrainian Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky 3rd class The Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky (Ukrainian: Орден Богдана Хмельницького Russian: Орден Богдана Хмельницкого) is a Soviet and later Ukrainian award, named after Bogdan Khmelnitsky, first established on October 10, 1943 (during World War II) by a Decision of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the USSR and re... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Taras Shevchenko Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1814 [O.S. February 25] – March 10, 1861 [O.S. February 26]) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. ...


Khmelnytsky in Polish history

Until recently Khmelnytsky's role in the history of Poland was viewed mostly in a negative light. The rebellion of 1648 proved to be the end of the Golden Age of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the beginning of its demise. Even though it would survive the rebellion and the period of Deluge that followed, within a hundred years it would be no more — its remains would be divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in the partitions of Poland. Many blamed Khmelnytsky for the decline of the Commonwealth. Some offered a rather simplified role of Khmelnytsky in the events: for example prominent Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel With Fire and Sword (Polish: Ogniem i mieczem) offered a view that Khmelnytsky was mostly motivated by his personal animosity and stirred up a rebellion to avenge his personal grudges. This book was written with a clearly stated intent of raising the national spirit in partitioned Poland, and shows the story of Khmelnytsky and the Cossacks from the point of view of the Polish nobles (szlachta). Thus it glorifies the Polish side while vilifying the rebels. This view is contrasted with a far more comprehensive appreciation of Khmelnytsky's legacy by Polish historians, like Ludwik Kubala, who in his works compared him with Oliver Cromwell.[15] A more balanced appreciation prevails — that the fundamental ills of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth resulted in the rebellion that Khmelnytsky led. The film version of With Fire and Sword (1999) also offered a more balanced, contemporary view on the Ukrainian hetman in Poland. 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... Movie poster With Fire and Sword (Polish Ogniem i mieczem) is a historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1884, and made into a movie (With Fire and Sword - the movie) in 1999. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Ludwik Kubala (1838-1918) was a Polish historian. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Khmelnytsky in Russian and Soviet history

Original model of Mikhail Mikeshin's Khmelnytsky Monument
Original model of Mikhail Mikeshin's Khmelnytsky Monument

In their assessment of Khmelnytsky's legacy the official Russian historiography stressed the fact that Khmelnytsky entered into union with Moscow's Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich with an expressed desire to "re-unify" Ukraine with Russia. This view corresponded with the official theory of Moscow being an heir of the Kievan Rus and thus a gatherer of its former territories. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mikhail Mikeshin Model for the Memorial to Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Kiev State Russian Museum, photography is mine Hhotography File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mikhail Mikeshin Model for the Memorial to Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Kiev State Russian Museum, photography is mine Hhotography File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Mikeshins monument to the Millennium of Russia, in Veliky Novgorod. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid_17th century. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


In this light Khmelnytsky was viewed as a national hero of Russia for bringing Ukraine into the "eternal union" of all Russias — Great, Little and White Russia. As such, he was much respected and venerated in Imperial Russia. His role was presented as a model for all Ukrainians to follow — to aspire for closer ties with Great Russia. This view was expressed in a monument commissioned by the Russian nationalist Mikhail Yuzefovich, which was installed in the center of Kiev.[16][17] Mikhail Vladimirovich Yuzefovich (Russian: ) (1802—1889) — deputy curator of the Kiev school district, chairman of the Kiev archaeological commission and an author of the Ems Ukase that further restricted the use of Ukrainian language in print. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


The original variant of the monument (created by sculptor Mikeshin) appeared too xenophobic even for the Russian authorities, as it was to depict a vanquished Pole, Jew, and a Catholic priest under the hoofs of the horse. A more moderate version was installed, but the inscription on the monument read "To Bogdan Khmelnitsky from one and indivisible Russia."[18] Xenophobia means fear of strangers or the unknown and comes from the Greek ξενοφοβια, xenophobia, literally meaning fear of the strange. It is often used to describe fear of or dislike of foreigners, but racism in general is sometimes described as a form of xenophobia, as are such prejudices as... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church and other Catholic Churches includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ...


The view of Khmelnytsky as a prominent, positive figure in the Russian history is further displayed in Mikeshin's Monument to the Millennium of Russia in Novgorod, where Khmelnytsky is shown as one of Russia's prominent figures.[19] Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...


Soviet historiography followed in many ways the Imperial Russian theory of "re-unification" while adding the class struggle dimension to the story. Thus, Khmelnytsky was not only praised for "re-unifying" Ukraine with Russia, but also for organizing the class struggle of oppressed Ukrainian peasants against Polish and Jewish exploiters. An example of how the picture was altered again and again after each person fell out of favor with the Soviet regime. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ...


Khmelnytsky in Jewish history

Khmelnitsky role in the atrocities that resulted from the Cossack-Polish war of 1648 is a highly controversial issue. See Main Article for further information. Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ...

Preceded by
Post created
Hetman of Ukraine
16481657
Succeeded by
Yuriy Khmelnytsky

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hetman of Ukraine, the title of the head of the Ukrainian state known as the Cossack Hetmanate. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Yurii Khmelnytsky Yurii Khmelnytsky (Ukrainian: Юрій Хмельницький) (1641–1685), son of the famous Bohdan Khmelnytsky, was a Cossack political and military leader. ...

See also

Modern Ukrainian Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky 3rd class The Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky (Ukrainian: Орден Богдана Хмельницького Russian: Орден Богдана Хмельницкого) is a Soviet and later Ukrainian award, named after Bogdan Khmelnitsky, first established on October 10, 1943 (during World War II) by a Decision of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the USSR and re... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... Night view of Bogdan Khmelnitsky Bridge Krasnoluzhsky Bridge used to carry the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway across the Moskva River between Luzhniki District and Berezhkovskaya Embankment. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Movie poster With Fire and Sword (Polish Ogniem i mieczem) is a historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1884, and made into a movie (With Fire and Sword - the movie) in 1999. ...

References

  1. ^ "Житие и страдание святого преподобномученика и исповедника Феодора и брата его преподобного Феофана1 начертанных" http://www.pravoslavie.uz/Jitiya/12/27FeodorNachertanniy.htm and http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=736
  2. ^ Страдание святого священномученика Зиновия епископа Эгейского, и сестры его Зиновии &#8224 Православные имена - Pravoslavie.name
  3. ^ Смолій В.А., Степанков В.С. "Богдан Хмельницький", Альтернативи, ISBN 966-7217-76-0, 2003
  4. ^ While Subotiv or Chyhyryn are the most common places cited is the most common given as a reference to his place of birth, some other historians, like Stanisław Barącz, support the view that he was born in Zhovkva (Żółkiew)
  5. ^ Whether Khmelnytsky was or wasn't a noble is uncertain to this day. Certainly he himself claimed nobility when it suited him, and it wasn't often disputed by his contemporaries. Chmielnicki himself once wrote in the letter to king Jan Kazimierz that he was 'born Chmielnicki' - however that surname was never associated with the Abdank Coat of Arms he used. His father, a noble himself, was married to a Cossack woman and according to the Polish Statute of 1505 that might have put Bohdan's szlachta status under scrutiny. There are other theories; that his father or grandfather were stripped of their noble status, or perhaps most controversial, the theory of 19th century Polish historian Tomasz Padurra, who based on unknown sources claimed that Chmielnicki's father was a Jewish convert to Catholicism.
  6. ^ a b V. A. Smoliy, V. S. Stepankov. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Sotsialno-politychnyi portret. page 51. Lebid. Kyiv. 1995.
  7. ^ V. A. Smoliy, V. S. Stepankov. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Sotsialno-politychnyi portret. page 70, Lebid, Kyiv. 1995.
  8. ^ V. A. Smoliy, V. S. Stepankov. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Sotsialno-politychnyi portret. page 91, Lebid, Kyiv. 1995
  9. ^ V. A. Smoliy, V. S. Stepankov. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Sotsialno-politychnyi portret. page 203, Lebid, Kyiv. 1995
  10. ^ Display Page
  11. ^ a b c Orest Subtelny. Ukraine. A history. University of Toronto press. p. 133. 1994. ISBN 0-8020-0591-0.
  12. ^ Display Page
  13. ^ Some Ukrainian historians dispute the fact of his grave being desecrated. In 1973 an expedition investigated the site of the church and discovered remains of people that had not been found before.
  14. ^ Олексій КОНОВАЛ
  15. ^ Розділ XI. Володимир Голобуцький. Запорозьке козацтво
  16. ^ Ems Ukase
  17. ^ Mikhail Yuzefovich was also known for his contribution to the Ems Ukase, which further restricted the use of Ukrainian in Ukraine.
  18. ^ "Вашъ Кіевъ" :: Старый Киев :: история Киева
  19. ^ The Monument to the Millennium of Russia / «Velikiy Novgorod» - City portal

Subotiv (Ukrainian: ) is a village (selo) in central Ukraine. ... Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. ... Government Country Oblast Raion Ukraine Lviv Oblast Zhovkivskyi Raion Founded 1597 City rights 1603 Geographical characteristics Area  - City 7. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna Teresa... Abdank - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... The Ems Ukase or Ems Ukaz, named after the city of Bad Ems, Germany, where it was promulgated, was a secret ukase of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents. ...

Further reading

  • Orest Subtelny. Ukraine. A history. University of Toronto press. 1994. ISBN 0-8020-0591-0.
  • V. A. Smoliy, V. S. Stepankov. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Sotsialno-politychnyi portret. Second Edition. Lebid, Kyiv. 1995. ISBN 5-325-00721-1.

Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ...

External links

Bulava-mace traditional symbol of the supreme power of Ukrainian Hetmans. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bohdan Khmelnytsky - Conservapedia (463 words)
Bohdan Zynovi Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, Polish: Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki) (1595-August 6, 1657) was the hetman of the Ukrainian Kozaks.
Khmelnytsky's reputation gradually rose, and in 1638 he visited Warsaw as part of a Kozak emissary delegation to petition the Polish King Władysław IV Vasa to grant the Kozaks their ancient rights.
Khmelnytsky is one of the main characters in the Polish novel With Fire and Sword (Polish: Ogniem i mieczem) by Henryk Sienkiewicz.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1001 words)
Khmelnytsky was probably born in Chyhyryn, in Ukraine; it is unclear whether to a family of Ruthenian nobility or to Polish nobility of Abdank Coat of Arms who had immigrated to Ukraine from Masovia.
Khmelnytsky was educated by the Jesuits in Lviv.
Although Khmelnytsky's personal resentment influenced his ultimate decision to rid Ukraine of Polish domination, it seems that his ambition to secure the Nobles' privileges and the Cossacks' independance, was the main motive that led him to instigate an uprising of the Ruthenian people against them, known after him as the Chmielnicki Uprising.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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