FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bogomils" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bogomils

Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. In spite of all measures of repression, it remained strong and popular until the fall of Bulgaria in the end of XIV century. Gnosticism is a blanket term for various mostly mystical religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. // General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special esoteric knowledge, a key to transcendent understanding, that... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ...


It is difficult to ascertain whether the name was taken from the reputed founder of that movement, pope Bogumil or Bogomil, (Macedonian: поп Богомил) ('поп' means literally priest in Macedonian) or whether he assumed that name after it had been given to the whole sect. The word is a direct translation into Slavonic of Massaliani, the Syriac name of the sect corresponding to the Greek Euchites. The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century. They are also known as Pavlikeni, i.e. Paulicians. This name was derived from their respect for the apostle Paul, rather than from their third leader, the Armenian Paul, as Photius and Petrus Siculus affirm. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Euchites were a sect that separated from the Christian Eastern (Orthodox) Church in Mesopotamia, and then extended by Asia Minor and Thrace. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... Photius (b. ...


It is a complicated task to determine the true character and the tenets of any ancient sect, considering that almost all the information that has reached us has come from their opponents. The heretical literature has to a great extent either perished or been completely changed; but much has also survived in a modified written form or through oral tradition. Concerning the Bogomils something can be gathered from the information collected by Euthymius Zygadenus in the 12th century, and from the polemic Against the Heretics written in Slavonic by St Kozma during the 10th century. The old Slavonic lists of forbidden books of the 15th and 16th century also give us a clue to the discovery of this heretical literature and of the means the Bogomils employed to carry on their propaganda. Much may also be learnt from the doctrines of the numerous heretical sects which arose in Ruthenia after the 11th century. Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


The Bogomils were without doubt the connecting link between the so-called heretical sects of the East and those of the West. They were, moreover, the most active agents in disseminating such teachings in Ruthenia and among all the nations of Europe. They may have found in some places a soil already prepared by more ancient tenets which had been preserved in spite of the persecution of the official Church, and handed down from the period of primitive Christianity. In the 12th and 13th century the Bogomils were already known in the West as "Bulgari." In 1207 the Bulgarorum heresis is mentioned. In 1223 the Albigenses are declared to be the local Bougres, and at the same period mention is made of the "Pope of the Albigenses who resided within the confines of Bulgaria." The Cathars and Patarenes, the Waldenses, the Anabaptists, and in Ruthenia the Strigolniki, Molokani and Doukhobors, have all at different times been either identified with the Bogomils or closely connected with them. Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury June 17 by Pope Innocent III Births September 8 - King Sancho II of Portugal October 1 - King Henry III of England (d. ... Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Albigensians are the inhabitants of Albi, France. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... A Patarine or Patarene (Italian: Patarino, plural Patarini) was a member of an 11th century group of Milanese tradesmen. ... The Waldensians were followers of Peter Waldo (or Valdes or Vaudes); they called themselves the Poor men of Lyon, the Poor of Lombardy, or the Poor. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Strigolniki (singular Strigólnik–Стригольник in Russian) were followers of the first Russian heretical sect of the middle of the 14th and first half of the 15th century, established in Pskov and later in Novgorod and Tver. ... The Molokans (also called Doukhobors by non-Molokans) are a Biblically-centered religious movement, which came out of the movement of Spiritual Christians among the Russian peasants, who refused to join the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1600s. ... The Doukhobors (Russian Духоборы/Духоборцы) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...

Contents


Doctrine

From the imperfect and conflicting data which are alone available one positive result can be gathered: that the Bogomils were both Adoptionists and Manichaeans. They had accepted the teaching of Paul of Samosata, though at a later period the name of Paul was believed to be that of the Apostle; and they were not quite free from the Dualistic principle of the Gnostics, at a later period too much identified with the teaching of Mani, by Photius, Petrus Siculus, and other authors. Both Paulicians and Manichaeans were dualists, but the former ascribed the creation of the world to the evil God; the latter, to the good God; and the former held the Scriptures in higher honor. They even condemned Mani, comparing him to Buddha. They rejected the Christianity of the orthodox churches and did not accept the docetic teaching of some of the other sects. Taking as our starting-point the teaching of the heretical sects in Ruthenia, notably those of the 14th century, which are a direct continuation of the doctrines held by the Bogomils, we find that they denied the divine birth of Christ, the personal coexistence of the Son with the Father and Holy Ghost, and the validity of sacraments and ceremonies. They rejected the title of theotokos (mother of God), and refused all veneration to Mary. The miracles performed by Jesus were interpreted in a spiritual sense, not as real material occurrences; the Church was the in-tenor spiritual church in which all held equal share. Baptism was only to be practised on grown men and women. The Bogomils repudiated infant baptism, and considered the baptismal rite to be of a spiritual character neither by water nor by oil but by self-abnegation, prayers and chanting of hymns. Adoptionism is a view held by some early medieval Christians, that Jesus was born a human only, and was not divine until his baptism, at which point he was adopted as the Son by God the Father. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Paul of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch (260-269), Life Paul was born at Samosata into a family of humble origin. ... Alternate meanings: See Apostle (Mormonism), The Apostle (1997 movie) The Twelve Apostles (in Greek απόστολος apostolos = someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... Mani (in Persian مانی), born in western Persia (approximately 210-276 A.D.), was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient gnostic religion that was once prolific but now considered extinct. ... Photius (b. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... In Christianity, Docetism is the belief, regarded by most theologians as heretical, that Jesus did not have a physical body; rather, that his body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Christ, is the English representation of the Greek word Χριστός (transliterated as Khristós), which means anointed. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos of St Theodore Theotokos is a Greek word that means God-bearer or Mother of God. It is a title assigned by the early Christian Church to Mary, the mother of Jesus, at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. ... In Christianity and Islam, Mary (Judæo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Arabic: Maryem, مريم) was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Joseph, awaiting the customary Home-Taking that would permit them to start living together... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with God, or to some deity or deities, or another form of spiritual entity, or otherwise, either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions. ... A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, either on a single pitch or with a simple notes and often including a great deal of repetition or statis. ... A hymn is a song specifically written as a song of praise, adoration or prayer, typically addressed to a god. ...


Karp Strigolnik, who in the 14th century preached the doctrine in Novgorod, explained that St Paul had taught that simpleminded men should instruct one another; therefore they elected their "teachers" from among themselves to be their spiritual guides, and had no special priests. Prayers were to be said in private houses, not in separate buildings such as churches. Ordination was conferred by the congregation and not by any specially appointed minister. The congregation were the "elect," and each member could obtain the perfection of Christ and become a Christ or "Chuist." Marriage was not a sacrament. The Bogomils refused to fast on Mondays and Fridays. They rejected monachism. They declared Christ to be the Son of God only through grace like other prophets, and that the bread and wine of the eucharist were not transformed into flesh and blood; that the last judgment would be executed by God and not by Jesus; that the images and the cross were idols and the veneration of saints and relics idolatry. The Strigolniki (singular Strigólnik–Стригольник in Russian) were followers of the first Russian heretical sect of the middle of the 14th and first half of the 15th century, established in Pskov and later in Novgorod and Tver. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... Paul is a popular male first name, from the Greek Paulos. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The Eucharist is either the celebration of the Christian sacrament commemorating Christ’s Last Supper, or the consecrated bread and wine of this sacrament. ... Idolatry is a term used by many religions to describe the worship of a false deity, which is an affront to their understanding of divinity. ...


These Paulician doctrines have survived in the great Ruthenian sects, and can be traced back to the teachings and practice of the Bogomils. But in addition to these doctrines of an adoptionist origin, they held the Manichaean dualistic conception of the origin of the world. This has been partly preserved in some of their literary remains, and has taken deep root in the beliefs and traditions of the Bulgarians, Macedonians and other nations with whom they had come into close contact. The chief literature of all the heretical sects throughout the ages has been that of apocryphal Biblical narratives, and the popes Jeremiah or Bogumil are directly mentioned as authors of such forbidden books "which no orthodox dare read." Though these writings are mostly the same in origin as are known from the older lists of apocryphal books, they underwent in this case a certain modification at the hands of their Bogomil editors, so as to be used for the propagation of their own specific doctrines.


In its most simple and attractive form--one at the same time invested with the authority of the reputed holy author--their account of the creation of the world and of man; the origin of sin and redemption, the history of the Cross, and the disputes between body and soul, right and wrong, heaven and hell, were embodied either in "Historiated Bibles" (Palcyaf) or in special dialogues held between Christ and his disciples, or between renowned Fathers of the Church who expounded these views in a simple manner adapted to the understanding of the people (Lucidaria).


The Bogomils taught that God had two sons, the elder Satanail and the younger Michael. The elder son rebelled against the father and became the evil spirit. After his fall he created the lower heavens and the earth and tried in vain to create man; in the end he had to appeal to God for the Spirit. After creation Adam was allowed to till the ground on condition that he sold himself and his posterity to the owner of the earth. Then Michael was sent in the form of a man; he became identified with Jesus, and was "elected" by God after the baptism in the Jordan. When the Holy Ghost (again Michael) appeared in the shape of the dove, Jesus received power to break the covenant in the form of a clay tablet (hierographon) held by Satanail from Adam. He had now become the angel Michael in a human form; as such he vanquished Satanail, and deprived him of the termination -il = God, in which his power resided. Satanail was thus transformed into Satan. Through his machinations the crucifixion took place, and Satan was the originator of the whole Orthodox community with its churches, vestments, ceremonies, sacraments and fasts, with its monks and priests. This world being the work of Satan, the perfect must eschew any and every excess of its pleasure. But the Bogomils did not go as far as to recommend asceticism. This article is about the biblical Adam and Eve. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, in which the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (שָׂטָן Standard Hebrew Satan, Latin Sátanas, Tiberian Hebrew Śāṭān; Aramaic שִׂטְנָא Śiṭnâ: both words mean Adversary; accuser) is an angel, demon, or minor god in many religions. ... Asceticism’ is a word used to denote a simple life which is characterized by kindness, un-advertised good-deeds, inner peace, deep self-reflection, the pursuit of psychological, emotional, and physical well-being, spirituality, and the rejection of ownership of material objects above minimalist needs. ...


They held the "Lord's Prayer" in high respect as the most potent weapon against Satan, and had a number of conjurations against "evil spirits." Each community had its own twelve "apostles," and women could be raised to the rank of "elect." The Bogomils wore garments like mendicant friars and were known as keen missionaries, travelling far and wide to propagate their doctrines. Healing the sick and exorcising the evil spirit, they traversed different countries and spread their apocryphal literature along with some of the books of the Old Testament, deeply influencing the religious spirit of the nations, and preparing them for the Reformation. They accepted the four Gospels, fourteen Epistles of Paul, the three Epistles of John, James, Jude, and an Epistle to the Laodiceans, which they professed to have. They sowed the seeds of a rich religious popular literature in the East as well as in the West. The Historiated Bible, the Letter from Heaven, the Wanderings through Heaven and Hell, the numerous Adam and Cross legends, the religious poems of the "Kalflki perehozhie" and other similar productions owe their dissemination to a large extent to the activity of the Bogomils of Bulgaria, and their successors in other lands. The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the charity of the people for their livelihood. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Exorcism is the practice of evicting or destroying demons or other evil spiritual entities which are supposed to have possessed (taken control of) a person, a building, etc. ... This article is about the paranormal. ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures (also called the Hebrew Bible) constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah) is the principal port city of Syria. ...


History

The founder of the sect was a certain Constantine, who hailed from Mananalis, a dualistic community near Samosata. He studied the Gospels and Epistles, combined dualistic and Christian doctrines, and, upon the basis of the former, vigorously opposed the formalism of the church. Regarding himself as called to restore the pure Christianity of Paul, he adopted the name Silvanus, one of Paul's disciples, and about the year 660 founded his first congregation at Kibossa in Armenia. Twenty-seven years afterwards he was stoned to death by order of the emperor. Simeon, the court official who executed the order, was himself converted, and, adopting the name Titus, became Constantine's successor, but was burned to death in 690 (the punishment pronounced upon the Manichaeans). The adherents of the sect fled, with the Armenian Paul at their head, to Episparis. He died in 715, leaving two sons, Gegnaesius (whom he had appointed his successor) and Theodore. The latter, giving out that he had received the Holy Ghost, rose up against Gegnaesius, but was unsuccessful. Gegnaesius was taken to Constantinople, appeared before Emperor Leo III, was declared innocent of heresy, returned to Episparis, but, fearing danger, went with his adherents to Mananalis. His death (in 745) was the occasion of a division in the sect; Zacharias and Joseph being the leaders of the two parties. The latter had the larger following and was succeeded by Baanies, 775. Samosata, meaning sun, was an ancient city whose ruins still exist at the modern Turkish city of Samsat. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Silas or Silvanus (flourished 1st century) was an early Christian who was a companion of Paul and Peter. ... Centuries: 6th century 7th century 8th century Decades: 610s - 620s - 630s - 640s - 650s - 660s - 670s - 680s - 690s - 700s - 710s Years: 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 Events: The Synod of Whitby Categories: 660s ... Events Beginning of Wu Zetians Zhou Dynasty in China. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Leo III (disambiguation). ... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. ...


The sect grew in spite of persecution, receiving additions from the opponents of image-worship. The Bogomil propaganda follows the mountain chains of central Europe, starting from the Balkans and continuing along the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps and the Pyrenees, with ramifications north and south (Germany, England and Spain). In the middle of the 8th century the emperor Constantine Copronymus settled a number of Armenian Paulicians in Thrace. These were noted heretics and were persecuted by the Greek Church with fire and sword. Baanes, an immoral man, was supplanted by Sergius, 801, who was very active for thirty-four years, and received into the number of the saints. His activity was the occasion of renewed persecutions on the part of Emperor Leo V. Obliged to flee, Sergius and his followers settled at Argaum, in that part of Armenia which was under the control of the Saracens. At the death of Sergius, the control of the sect was divided between several leaders. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ... This article is about the Byzantine Emperor. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ...


The empress Theodora killed, drowned or hanged no fewer than 100,000 Paulicians in Grecian Armenia. Under Karbeas, who fled with the residue of the sect, two cities, Amara and Tephrica, were built. His successor, Chrysocheres, devastated many cities; in 867 advanced as far as Ephesus, and took many priests prisoners. In 868 the emperor, Basil I, despatched Petrus Siculus to arrange for their exchange. His sojourn of nine months among the Paulicians gave him an opportunity to collect many facts, which he preserved in his ..." History of the empty and vain heresy of the Manichæans, otherwise called Paulicians"). The propositions of peace were not accepted, the war was renewed, and Chrysocheres killed. In 970 the emperor John Tzimisces, himself of Armenian origin, transplanted no less than 200,000 Armenian Paulicians to Europe and settled them in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis in Thrace, which henceforth became the centre of a far-reaching propaganda. Settled along the Balkans as a kind of bulwark against the invading Bulgars, the Armenians on the contrary soon fraternized with the newcomers, whom they converted to their own views; even a prince of the Bulgarians adopted their teaching. According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968). According to another source the founder was called Jeremiah (or there was another priest associated with him by the name of Jeremiah). This was the beginning of a revival of the sect, which proved loyal to the empire. Theodora was the wife of the Byzantine emperor Theophilus. ... Species see text Amara (Bonelli, 1810) is a large genus of carabid beetles (family Carabidae), mostly holarctic, but a few species are neotropical or occurring in eastern Asia. ... Events September: Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Ephesus (Greek: Έφεσσος) was one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster river flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... John I, last name Kourkouas and surnamed Tzimisces (Greek: Ioannes Tzimisces Kourkouas, written Ιωάννης «Τζιμισκής» Κουρκούας), lived c. ... Ancient Theater, Plovdiv International Fair, Plovdiv Plovdiv is a city in Bulgaria and the capital of the Plovdiv Oblast (district). ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and Turkic over time. ...


The Slavonic sources are unanimous on the point that his teaching was Manichaean. A Synodikon from the year 1210 adds the names of his pupils or "apostles," Mihail, Todur, Dobri, Stefan, Vasilie and Peter. Zealous missionaries carried their doctrines far and wide. In 1004, scarcely 25 years after the introduction of Christianity into Ruthenia, we hear of a priest Adrian teaching the same doctrines as the Bogomils. He was imprisoned by Leontie, Bishop of Kyiv. In 1125 the Church in the south of Ruthenia had to combat another heresiarch named Dmitri. The Church in Bulgaria also tried to extirpate Bogomilism. Several thousand went in the army of Alexius Comnenus against the Norman, Robert Guiscard; but, deserting the emperor, many of them (1085) were thrown into prison. Efforts were again put forth for their conversion; and for the converts the new city of Alexiopolis was built, opposite Philippopolis. When the Crusaders took Constantinople (1204), they found some Paulicians, whom the historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin calls Popelicans. The popes in Rome whilst leading the Crusade against the Albigenses did not forget their counterpart in the Balkans and recommended the annihilation of the heretics. Events End of the reign of Emperor Tsuchimikado of Japan Emperor Juntoku ascends to the throne of Japan Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy in 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan about 1210 Beginning of Delhi Sultanate Births May... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Norman may refer to: The Norman language The Norman people Norman architecture, the Romanesque architecture erected by the Normans. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, sacked and conquered the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Geoffrey of Villehardouin (in French Geoffroi de Villehardouin) (1160–c. ... The Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) was a brutal 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered heretical. ...


The Bogomils spread westwards, and settled first in Serbia; but at the end of the 12th century Stephen Nemanya, king of Serbia, persecuted them and expelled them from the country. Large numbers took refuge in Bosnia, where they were known under the name of Patarenes or Patareni. There they were also brought into connection with the indigenous Bosnian Church, which was also considered heretical by the Pope and the Byzantium, but was not actually Bogomil in nature. From Bosnia their influence extended into Italy (Piedmont). The Hungarians undertook many crusades against the heretics in Bosnia, but towards the close of the 15th century the conquest of that country by the Turks put an end to their persecution. It is alleged that a large number of the Bosnian Paterenes, and especially the nobles, embraced Islam. Few or no remnants of Bogomilism have survived in Bosnia. The Ritual in Slavonic written by the Bosnian Radoslav, and published in vol. xv. of the Starine of the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, shows great resemblance to the Cathar ritual published by Cunitz, 1853. See F Rački, "Bogomili i Paternai" in Rad, vols. vii., viii. and x. (Agram, 1870); Dollinger, Beiträge zur Ketzergeschichte des Mittelalters, 2 vols. (Munich, 1890). Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  â€“ Density  7. ... King Stefan Nemanja Stefan Nemanja (Cyrillic Стефан Немања), Stefan I (ca 1113-February 13, 1199 or 1200) was the Grand Župan of RaÅ¡ka (Rascia), located in the central west region of the Balkans from 1166 to 1199. ... Coat of Arms of Serbia This is a list of Serbian monarchs. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... The Bosnian Church was an indigenous church of Bosnia which existed in the Middle Ages. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Islam   listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... Zagreb (pronounced ZA-greb) is the capital city of Croatia. ...


Under Turkish rule the Bogomils lived unmolested as Pavlikeni in their ancient stronghold near Philippopolis, and farther northward. In 1650 the Roman Catholic Church gathered them into its fold. No less than fourteen villages near Nicopolis embraced Catholicism, and a colony of Pavlikeni in the village of Cioplea near Bucharest followed the example of their brethren across the Danube. Ancient Theater, Plovdiv International Fair, Plovdiv Plovdiv is a city in Bulgaria and the capital of the Plovdiv Oblast (district). ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... Nicopolis (meaning in Greek: city of victory) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. ... Bucharest (Romanian: BucureÅŸti) is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania, located in the southeast of the country, on the DâmboviÅ£a river. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078  m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500  m³/s Area watershed 817,000  km² Origin  Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg...


In the 18th century the Pavlikeni people from around Nicopolis were persecuted by the Turks, presumably on religious grounds, and a good part of them fled across the Danube into, what is today, Romania. They settled in the Banat region that was under the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time. There are still over ten thousand Pavlikeni in Banat today in the villages of Dudestii Vechi, Vinga, Brestea and also in the city of Timisoara and a few in Arad; however, they no longer practice their religion. There is also a village of Pavlikeni in the Serbian Banat called Ivanovo. Nicopolis (meaning in Greek: city of victory) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078  m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500  m³/s Area watershed 817,000  km² Origin  Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ and CaraÅŸ-Severin), the western part to Serbia-Montenegro (the Serbian... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ and CaraÅŸ-Severin), the western part to Serbia-Montenegro (the Serbian... Dudestii Vechi city hall The title of this article is incorrect because of technical limitations. ... Map of Romania showing Timisoara Timişoara  listen (Hungarian: Temesvár, German: Temeschwar or Temeschburg, Serbian: Temišvar, Turkish: Tamışvar) is a city in western Romania, in the Banat region, Timiş county, population 329,554 in 2000. ... Arad is: Arad County is located in the Western corner of Transylvania, Romania. ... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ and CaraÅŸ-Severin), the western part to Serbia-Montenegro (the Serbian...


Name

The name of the movement was bulgarus in Latin (meaning "Bulgarian") which included Cathars, Patarenes and Albigenses. It became boulgre, later bougre in Old French meaning "heretic, traitor". It entered German as Buger meaning "peasant, blockhead" (and went on to English as bugger) and the French term also entered old Italian as bugero in the meaning of "sodomite" since it was supposed that heretics would make sex (just like everything else) in an "inverse" way. The word went on towards Venetian Italian as buzerar, meaning "to do sodomy" (anal sex between men). This word entered German again as Buserant and went on to Hungarian as buzeráns, becoming buzi around the 1900s, which form is still in use as a sexual slur for male homosexuals. Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... A Patarine or Patarene (Italian: Patarino, plural Patarini) was a member of an 11th century group of Milanese tradesmen. ... Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

  • Source (in Hungarian)

Bibliography

  • Euthymius Zygadenus, Narratio de Bogomilis, ed. Gieseler (Göttingen, 1842)
  • JC Wolf, Historia Bogomiorum (Wittenberg, 1712)
  • "Slovo svyatago Kozmyi na eretiki," in Kukuljevit Sakcinski
  • Arkiv zapovyestnicu jugoslavensku, vol. iv. pp. 69-97 (Agram, 1859)
  • CJ Jirniek, Geschichte d. Bulgaren, pp. 155, 174-175 (Prague, 1876)
  • Korolev, "Dogmatichesko-to uchenie na Bogomiltie," in Periodichesko spisanie, vols. vii.-viii. pp. 75-106 (Braila, 1873)
  • A Lombard, Pauliciens, Bulgares et Bons-hommes (Geneva, 1879)
  • Episcoptil Melchisedek, L'ipovenisnzul, pp. 265 sqq. (Bucharest, 187f)
  • FC Conybeare, The Key of Truth, pp. 73 sqq. and specially pp. 238 sqq. (Oxford, 1898).
  • Herzog, "Paulicians," Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 2. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. pp.1776-1777.
  • Nina G. Garsoian, The Paulician Heresy. A Study in the Origin and Development of Paulicianism in Armenia and the Eastern Provinces of the Byzantine Empire. Publications in Near and Middle East Studies. Columbia University, Series A 6. The Hague: Mouton, 1967. pp.296.

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica and the foreward to An Attic Philosopher, Current Literature Publishing Company, New York, 1910, which are in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents, in many ways, the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External link

  • Myth about Bogomils

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bogomilism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2029 words)
Bogomilism is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the local Slavonic Church reform movement in Bulgaria and Bosnia-Herzegovina between 950 and 1396.
The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century.
The Bogomils repudiated infant baptism, and considered the baptismal rite to be of a spiritual character neither by water nor by oil but by self-abnegation, prayers and chanting of hymns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m