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Encyclopedia > Bogomilism
Part of a series on
Gnosticism

History of Gnosticism
Early Gnosticism
Syrian-Egyptic Gnosticism
Gnosticism in modern times This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Simple_crossed_circle. ... The History of Gnosticism is subject to a great deal of debate and interpretation. ... Early Gnosticism Ophites Cainites Carpocratians Borborites Thomasines ... Syrian-Egyptian Gnostic Schools were ancient Gnostic sects from around the middle east, with some Judaic influences. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Proto-Gnostics
Philo
Valentinius
Cerinthus
Basilides The death of Simon Magus. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... -Quevedo Valentinius, also called Valentinus (c. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Basilides redirects here. ...

Gnostic texts
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Codex Tchacos
Gnosticism and the New Testament
Gnostic Gospels Gnosticism used a number of religious texts that are preserved, in part or whole, in ancient manuscripts or are lost but mentioned critically in Patristic writings. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ... The Codex Tchacos is an ancient Egyptian Coptic papyrus document containing early Christian Gnostic texts: The Gospel of Judas The First Apocalypse of James The Letter of Peter to Philip A fragment of Allogenes It is important because it contains the first known surviving text of the Gospel of Judas... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... The Gnostic Gospels are a class of writings about the life of Jesus which are associated with the early mystical trend of Gnostic Christianity. ...

Related articles
Gnosis
Pythagoreanism
Neoplatonism and Gnosticism
Manichaeism
Esoteric Christianity
Theosophy
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Esoteric Christianity refers to the occult study and the mystic living of the esoteric knowledge related to what adherents view as the inner teachings of early Christianity, seen as a Mystery religion. ... Theosophy, literally god-wisdom (Greek: θεοσοφία theosophia), designates several bodies of ideas. ...

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For the Slavic name Bogomil - see here Look up Bogomil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Bogomilism (Bulgarian: Богомилство) is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic Church reform movement, which emerged in Bulgaria between 927 and 970 and spread into Byzantine Empire, Serbia, Bosnia, Italy and France. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A sect is generally a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Paulicianism was a Gnostic and Manichaean Christian sect that florished between 650 and 872 in Anatolia, outgoing from Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day Western Serbia and Northern Montenegro), Bosnia [1] (indistinct from Rascia until the 12th century), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and... This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Contents

Origin

The now defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine originated in the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927969) as a reaction against state and clerical oppression. In spite of all measures of repression, it remained strong and popular until the fall of Bulgaria in the end of the 14th century. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Bogomilism is the first significant Bulgarian "heresy" that came about in the first quarter of the 10th century in the area of today’s Plovdiv (Philippopolis). It was a natural outcome of many factors that had arisen till the beginning of 10th century. The forced Christianization of the Slavs and proto-Bulgarians by Tsar Boris I in 863 and the fact that the religion was practised in Greek, which only the ‘elite’ knew, resulted in a very superficial level of understanding of the religion, if any understanding at all. Another very important factor was the social discontent of the peasantry. Due to the constant wars during the time of the father of Tsar Peter I of Bulgaria, Simeon I, the lands near the Greek border (Thrace) were devastated, and the people living there were left without occupation. Moreover, the change of authority over these lands resulted in the unstable status of the peasantry. In short, the ones that struggled the most because of the strife for land were the peasants of Thrace. At the time of Tsar Peter I of Bulgaria, they were also subject to higher taxes, which was devastating for them. All these factors contributed to the general discontent of the peasantry at the beginning of the 10th century. Moreover, the church was very corrupt, and the ones trying to find comfort in it were very disappointed and failed to find consolation. Another factor was the existence of older Christian heresies in the Bulgarian lands. The most influential among those were Manichaeism and Paulicianism, which were considered very dualistic. Manichaeism’s origin is related to Zoroastrianism; that is why Bogomilism is sometimes indirectly connected to Zoroastrianism in the sense of its duality. The social discontent of the peasantry and the presence of the old Christian heresies created a new Christian heresy under the name of Bogomilism. Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Ancient Theater, Plovdiv International Fair, Plovdiv Plovdiv is a city in Bulgaria and the capital of the Plovdiv Oblast (district). ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Paulicianism was a Gnostic and Manichaean Christian sect that florished between 650 and 872 in Anatolia, outgoing from Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


It is difficult to ascertain whether the name was taken from the reputed founder of that movement, priest Bogumil or Bogomil, (Bulgarian: поп Богомил - 'поп' [pop] means literally priest – father – in Bulgarian) or whether he assumed that name after it had been given to the whole sect. The word is a direct translation into Slavonic of Massaliani, the Syriac name of the sect corresponding to the Greek Euchites. The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century. Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Euchites were a sect that separated from the Christian Eastern (Orthodox) Church in Mesopotamia, and then extended by Asia Minor and Thrace. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


It is a complicated task to determine the true character and the tenets of any ancient sect, considering that almost all the information that has reached us comes from their opponents. Much of the heretical literature has either perished or been completely changed, but some has survived in a modified written form or through oral tradition. Concerning the Bogomils, something can be gathered from the information collected by Euthymius Zygadenus in the 12th century, and from the polemic Against the Newly-Appeared Heresy of the Bogomils written in Slavonic by Presbyter Cosmas, a 10th century Bulgarian official. The old Slavonic lists of forbidden books of the 15th and 16th century also give us a clue to the discovery of this heretical literature and of the means the Bogomils employed to carry on their propaganda. Much may also be learned from the doctrines of the numerous heretical sects which arose in Medieval Russia after the 11th century. Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


The Bogomils were undoubtedly the connecting link between the so-called heretical sects of the East and those of the West. They were, moreover, the most active agents in disseminating such teachings in Russia and among all the nations of Europe. They may have found in some places a soil already prepared by more ancient tenets which were preserved in spite of the persecution of the institutional Church and handed down from the period of primitive Christianity. In the 12th and 13th century, the Bogomils were already known in the West as "Bulgari", i.e. Bulgarians (българи). In 1207 the Bulgarorum heresis is mentioned. In 1223 the Albigenses are declared to be the local Bougres, and in the same period mention is made of the "Pope of the Albigenses who resided within the confines of Bulgaria" (see also Nicetas, Bogomil bishop). The Cathars and Patarenes, the Waldenses, the Anabaptists, and in Russia the Strigolniki, Molokani and Doukhobors, have all at different times been either identified with the Bogomils or closely connected with them. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... Events Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury June 17 by Pope Innocent III Births September 8 - King Sancho II of Portugal October 1 - King Henry III of England (d. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Albigenses were a group named for Albi, a city in southern France. ... Nicetas, known only from Latin sources who call him papa Nicetas, is said to have been the Bogomil bishop of Constantinople. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... A Patarine or Patarene (Italian: Patarino, plural Patarini) was a member of an 11th century group of Milanese tradesmen. ... The Waldensians were followers of Peter Waldo (or Valdes or Vaudes); they called themselves the Poor men of Lyon, the Poor of Lombardy, or the Poor. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Strigolniki (singular Strigólnik–Стригольник in Russian) were followers of the first Russian heretical sect of the middle of the 14th and first half of the 15th century, established in Pskov and later in Novgorod and Tver. ... The Molokans (also called Doukhobors by non-Molokans) are a Biblically-centered religious movement, which came out of the movement of Spiritual Christians among the Russian peasants, who refused to join the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1600s. ... The Doukhobors (Duchobozetz, Duchobortzi) (Russian: ) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...


Doctrine

From the imperfect and conflicting data which are available, one positive result can be gathered: that the Bogomils were both Adoptionists and Manichaeans. They had accepted the teaching of Paul of Samosata, though at a later period the name of Paul was believed to be that of the Apostle; and they were not quite free from the Dualistic principle of the Gnostics, at a later period too much identified with the teaching of Mani, by Photius, Petrus Siculus, and other authors. They rejected the Christianity of the orthodox churches and did not accept the docetic teaching of some of the other sects. Taking as our starting-point the teaching of the heretical sects in Ruthenia, notably those of the 14th century, which are a direct continuation of the doctrines held by the Bogomils, we find that they denied the divine birth of Christ, the personal coexistence of the Son with the Father and Holy Ghost, and the validity of sacraments and ceremonies. They rejected the title of theotokos (mother of God), and refused all veneration to Mary. The miracles performed by Jesus were interpreted in a spiritual sense, not as real material occurrences; the Church was the in-tenor spiritual church in which all held equal share. Baptism was only to be practised on grown men and women. The Bogomils repudiated infant baptism, and considered the baptismal rite to be of a spiritual character neither by water nor by oil but by self-abnegation, prayers and chanting of hymns. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (1985 × 1434 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (1985 × 1434 pixel, file size: 1. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 35 km² Population 75,000 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 30 Mayor Tahir Lendo (SDA) Website http://www. ... Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Paul of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch (260-269), Life Paul was born at Samosata into a family of humble origin. ... St. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... Photius (b. ... Petrus Siculus was either a monk or a learned nobleman, who in A. D. 870 was sent as a legate from the Byzantine emperor Basil I to the Paulicians, negotiating for an exchange of prisoners. ... In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek [dokeō], to seem) is the belief that Jesus physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, either on a single pitch or with a simple notes and often including a great deal of repetition or statis. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


Karp Strigolnik, who in the 14th century preached the doctrine in Novgorod, explained that St. Paul had taught that simpleminded men should instruct one another; therefore they elected their "teachers" from among themselves to be their spiritual guides, and had no special priests. Prayers were to be said in private houses, not in separate buildings such as churches. Ordination was conferred by the congregation and not by any specially appointed minister. The congregation were the "elect," and each member could obtain the perfection of Christ and become a Christ or "Chuist." Marriage was not a sacrament. The Bogomils refused to fast on Mondays and Fridays. They rejected monasticism. They declared Christ to be the Son of God only through grace like other prophets, and that the bread and wine of the eucharist were not transformed into flesh and blood; that the last judgment would be executed by God and not by Jesus; that the images and the cross were idols and the veneration of saints and relics idolatry. The Strigolniki (singular Strigólnik–Стригольник in Russian) were followers of the first Russian heretical sect of the middle of the 14th and first half of the 15th century, established in Pskov and later in Novgorod and Tver. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


These Pauline doctrines have survived in the great Russian sects, and can be traced back to the teachings and practice of the Bogomils. But in addition to these doctrines of an adoptionist origin, they held the Manichaean dualistic conception of the origin of the world. This has been partly preserved in some of their literary remains, and has taken deep root in the beliefs and traditions of the Bulgarians and other nations with substantial Bogomil followings. The chief literature of all the heretical sects throughout the ages has been that of apocryphal Biblical narratives, and the popes Jeremiah or Bogumil are directly mentioned as authors of such forbidden books "which no orthodox dare read." Though these writings are mostly of the same origin as those from the older lists of apocryphal books, they underwent a modification at the hands of their Bogomil editors, so as to be useful for the propagation of their own specific doctrines.


In its most simple and attractive form—one at the same time invested with the authority of the reputed holy author--their account of the creation of the world and of man; the origin of sin and redemption, the history of the Cross, and the disputes between body and soul, right and wrong, heaven and hell, were embodied either in "Historiated Bibles" (Palcyaf) or in special dialogues held between Christ and his disciples, or between renowned Fathers of the Church who expounded these views in a simple manner adapted to the understanding of the people (Lucidaria).


The Bogomils taught that God had two sons, the elder Satanail and the younger Michael. The elder son rebelled against the father and became the evil spirit. After his fall he created the lower heavens and the earth and tried in vain to create man; in the end he had to appeal to God for the Spirit. After creation Adam was allowed to till the ground on condition that he sold himself and his posterity to the owner of the earth. Then Michael was sent in the form of a man; he became identified with Jesus, and was "elected" by God after the baptism in the Jordan. When the Holy Ghost (again Michael) appeared in the shape of the dove, Jesus received power to break the covenant in the form of a clay tablet (hierographon) held by Satanail from Adam. He had now become the angel Michael in a human form; as such he vanquished Satanail, and deprived him of the termination -il = God, in which his power resided. Satanail was thus transformed into Satan. Through his machinations the crucifixion took place, and Satan was the originator of the whole Orthodox community with its churches, vestments, ceremonies, sacraments and fasts, with its monks and priests. This world being the work of Satan, the perfect must eschew any and every excess of its pleasure. But the Bogomils did not go as far as to recommend asceticism. Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


They held the "Lord's Prayer" in high respect as the most potent weapon against Satan, and had a number of conjurations against "evil spirits." Each community had its own twelve "apostles," and women could be raised to the rank of "elect." The Bogomils wore garments like mendicant friars and were known as keen missionaries, travelling far and wide to propagate their doctrines. Healing the sick and exorcising the evil spirit, they traversed different countries and spread their apocryphal literature along with some of the books of the Old Testament, deeply influencing the religious spirit of the nations, and preparing them for the Reformation. They accepted the four Gospels, fourteen Epistles of Paul, the three Epistles of John, James, Jude, and an Epistle to the Laodiceans, which they professed to have. They sowed the seeds of a rich, popular religious literature in the East as well as the West. The Historiated Bible, the Letter from Heaven, the Wanderings through Heaven and Hell, the numerous Adam and Cross legends, the religious poems of the "Kaliki perehozhie" and other similar productions owe their dissemination to a large extent to the activity of the Bogomils of Bulgaria, and their successors in other lands. The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the charity of the people for their livelihood. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Exorcism is the practice of evicting or destroying demons or other evil spiritual entities which are supposed to have possessed (taken control of) a person, a building, etc. ... This article is about the paranormal. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah) is the principal port city of Syria. ...


The essence of Bogomilism is the duality in the creation of the world. This is exactly why it is considered a heresy. Bogomils explained the earthly sinful corporeal life as a creation of Satan, an angel that was sent to the Earth. Due to this duality, their doctrine rejects everything that is socially created and that does not come from the soul, the only divine possession of the human. Therefore, the established Church, the state, and the hierarchy is totally undermined by Bogomilism. Its followers refuse to pay taxes, to work, or to fight for their state. The whole social system is overthrown, which on its part suggests disorder and propels destructivity for the state.


History

According to Slavonic documents, the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968). According to another source, the founder was called Jeremiah (or there was another priest associated with him by the name of Jeremiah). This was the beginning of a revival of the sect, which proved loyal to the empire.


The Slavonic sources are unanimous on the point that his teaching was Manichaean. A Synodikon from the year 1210 adds the names of his pupils or "apostles," Mihail, Todur, Dobri, Stefan, Vasilie and Peter. Zealous missionaries carried their doctrines far and wide. In 1004, scarcely 25 years after the introduction of Christianity into Kievan Rus, we hear of a priest Adrian teaching the same doctrines as the Bogomils. He was imprisoned by Leontius, Bishop of Kiev. In 1125, the Church in the south of Rus had to combat another heresiarch named Dmitri. The Church in Bulgaria also tried to extirpate Bogomilism. Several thousand went in the army of Alexios I Komnenos against the Norman, Robert Guiscard; but, deserting the emperor, many of them (1085) were thrown into prison. Efforts were again put forth for their conversion; and for the converts the new city of Alexiopolis was built, opposite Philippopolis. When the Crusaders took Constantinople (1204), they found some Paulicians, whom the historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin calls Popelicans. The popes in Rome whilst leading the Crusade against the Albigenses did not forget their counterpart in the Balkans and recommended the annihilation of the heretics. Events End of the reign of Emperor Tsuchimikado, emperor of Japan Emperor Juntoku ascends to the throne of Japan Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy in 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan about 1210 Beginning of Delhi Sultanate Births... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I... Norman conquests in red. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... Geoffrey of Villehardouin (in French Geoffroi de Villehardouin) (1160–c. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ...


The Legend of Saint Gerard discloses that followers of Bulgarian Bogomilism were present during the early 11th century in Ahtum's realm, which comprised present day Banat. They invoked Archangel Uriel, whose name is common in amulets and magic rituals. Voivodship (Duchy) of Ahtum Ahtum (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: Ахтум; Hungarian: Ajtony; also spelled Ohtum or Achtum) was an early 11th century voivod (duke) of Banat (now mostly divided between Romania and Serbia) and a descendant of Glad, another local duke and governor in the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... Dyonisius: Fresco depicting archangel Uriel. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) consists of any object intended to bring good luck and/or protection to its owner. ... Rituals was an American soap opera that ran in syndication from September 1984 to September 1985 in 260 25 minutes episodes. ...


The Bogomils spread westwards and settled first in Serbia; but at the end of the 12th century Stefan Nemanja, king of Serbia, burned them, persecuted them and expelled them from the country. Large numbers took refuge in Bosnia, where they were known under the name of Patarenes or Patareni. There, they were also brought into connection with the indigenous Bosnian Church, which was also considered heretical by the Pope and Byzantines, but was not actually Bogomil in nature. From Bosnia, their influence extended into Italy (Piedmont). The Hungarians undertook many crusades against the heretics in Bosnia, but towards the close of the 15th century, the conquest of that country by the Turks put an end to their persecution. It is alleged that a large number of the Bosnian Paterenes, and especially the nobles, embraced Islam. Few or no remnants of Bogomilism have survived in Bosnia. The Ritual in Slavonic written by the Bosnian Radoslav, and published in vol. xv. of the Starine of the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, shows great resemblance to the Cathar ritual published by Cunitz, 1853. See F Rački, "Bogomili i Paternai" in Rad, vols. vii., viii. and x. (Agram, 1870); Dollinger, Beiträge zur Ketzergeschichte des Mittelalters, 2 vols. (Munich, 1890). Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Stefan Nemanja (Old Church Slavonic: Стѣфань, Serbian: Стефан Немања, pronounced ) (1109-13 February 1199) was a Medieval Serb nobleman, descended from the Vukanović who was Grand Prince (Serbian: Велики Жупан) of the medieval Serb state of Rascia (Рашка) in 1166-1199. ... Coat of arms of Serbia This is a list of Serbian monarchs. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Bas-relief of Franjo Rački Franjo Rački (November 25, 1828 – February 13, 1894) was a Croatian historian, politician and writer. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ...


In 970 the emperor John I Tzimiskes transplanted no less than 200,000 Armenian Paulicians to Europe and settled them in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis (today's Plovdiv in Thrace). Under Turkish rule, the Armenian Paulicians lived in relative safety in their ancient stronghold near Philippopolis, and further northward. Linguistically, they were assimilated into the Bulgarians, by whom they were called pavlikiani. In 1650, the Roman Catholic Church gathered them into its fold. No less than fourteen villages near Nicopolis, in Moesia, embraced Catholicism, as well as the villages around Philippopolis. A colony of Paulicians in the Wallachian village of Cioplea near Bucharest also followed the example of their brethren across the Danube. Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Ancient Theater, Plovdiv International Fair, Plovdiv Plovdiv is a city in Bulgaria and the capital of the Plovdiv Oblast (district). ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Nicopolis (meaning in Greek: city of victory; see also List of traditional Greek place names) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


In the 18th century, the Paulician people from around Nicopolis were persecuted by the Turks, presumably on religious grounds, and a good part of them fled across the Danube and settled in the Banat region that was part of the Austrian Empire at the time, and became known as Banat Bulgarians. There are still over ten thousand Banat Bulgarians in Banat today in the villages of Dudestii Vechi, Vinga, Brestea and also in the city of Timişoara, with a few in Arad; however, they no longer practice their religion, having converted to Roman Catholicism. There are also a few villages of Paulicians in the Serbian part of Banat, especially the villages of Ivanovo and Belo Blato, near Pančevo. Nicopolis (meaning in Greek: city of victory; see also List of traditional Greek place names) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Dudestii Vechi city hall The title of this article is incorrect because of technical limitations. ... Vinga is a small town in Arad county, Romania. ... BreÅŸtea (Banat Bulgarian: Brešćа) is a village in the commune of Denta, TimiÅŸ County, Romania. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ... Arad may refer to: the following places in the Transylvania Arad, Romania, the main city of Arad County. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... map of Pančevo municipality, showing the location of Ivanovo Ivanovo (Serbian: Ivanovo or Иваново, Hungarian: Sándoregyháza) is a village located in the Pančevo municipality, in the South Banat District of Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Church of Assumption in Pančevo Pančevo Banatsko Novo Selo Kačarevo Jabuka Glogonj Dolovo Starčevo Omoljica Ivanovo Banatski Brestovac Municipality of Pančevo ● Pančevo (Панчево) is a city and municipality located in Serbia at 44. ...


Name

The name of the movement was bulgarus in Latin (meaning "Bulgarian"), which included Paulicians, Cathars, Patarenes and Albigenses. It became boulgre, later bougre in Old French meaning "heretic, traitor". It entered German as Buger meaning "peasant, blockhead" (and went on to English as bugger) and the French term also entered old Italian as buggero and Spanish as bujarrón, both in the meaning of "sodomite", since it was supposed that heretics would approach sex (just like everything else) in an "inverse" way. The word went on towards Venetian Italian as buzerar, meaning "to do sodomy" (sex with an animal). This word entered German again (see reborrowing) as Buserant and went on to Hungarian as buzeráns, becoming buzi around the 1900s, a form still in use as a sexual slur for male homosexuals. Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... A Patarine or Patarene (Italian: Patarino, plural Patarini) was a member of an 11th century group of Milanese tradesmen. ... Albigenses were a group named for Albi, a city in southern France. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Reborrowing is the process where a word travels from one language to another and then back to the originating language in a different form or with a different meaning. ... A sexual slur is a term of disparagement used to refer to members of a given sexual minority, gender, sex, or sexual orientation in a derogatory or pejorative manner. ...


Bogomilism in the modern and popular culture

In Foucault's Pendulum, a novel by the Itaian writer and philosopher Umberto Eco, the plot concerning a widespread secret and mystic conspiracy has its ground in the disappearance of the Bogomils after the fall of the Second Bulgarian Empire under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Foucaults Pendulum (original title: Il pendolo di Foucault) is a novel by Italian novelist and philosopher Umberto Eco. ... The Italians are a Latin ethnic group primarily associated with Italy and the Italian language. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ...


The Secret Book is a Macedonian feature film combining the detective, thriller and conspiracy fiction genres, based on fictional story of the quest for the original Slavic language "Secret Book", written by the Bogomils in Bulgaria and carried to Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The Secret Book is a Macedonian feature film combining the detective, thriller and conspiracy fiction genres, based on Secret Book (French: Le Livre Secret, Macedonian: Тајната книга), a real mystical book written by the Bogomils with Glagolitic letters (the first Slav alphabet, made by Sts. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ... Particularly since the 1960s, conspiracy theory has been a popular subject of fiction. ...


References

  • J. C. Wolf, Historia Bogomilorum (Wittenberg, 1712)
  • Euthymius Zygabenus, Narratio de Bogomilis, ed. Gieseler (Göttingen, 1842)
  • C. J. Jirecek, Geschichte d. Bulgaren (Prague, 1876), S. 155, 174-175
  • L. P. Brockett, The Bogomils of Bulgaria and Bosnia: The Early Protestants of the East (s.l., 1879); http://www.rastko.org.yu/rastko-bl/istorija/bogumili/lbrockett-bogomils.html
  • V. Sharenkoff, A Study of Manicheism in Bulgaria (New York, 1927).
  • D. Obolensky, The Bogomils: A Study in Balkan Neo-Manichaeism (Cambridge, 1948), reprint New York, 1978
  • S. Runciman, The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy (Cambridge, 1947)
  • E. v. Ivánka, "Gerardus Moresanus, der Erzengel Uriel und die Bogomilen," Orientalia Christiana Periodica, XXI,1-2 (1955) (Miscellanea Georg Hofmann S.J.), S. 143-146
  • M. Loos, Dualist Heresy in the Middle Ages (Dordrecht, 1974)
  • K. Papasov, Christen oder Ketzer - die Bogomilen (Stuttgart, 1983)
  • D. Angelov, Bogomilstvoto (Stara Zagora, 1995)
  • [(J. Meiers)], Archbishop Ancient Order of Bogomil, of Americas'.
  • J. Ivanov, Bogomilski knigi i legendi (Sofija, 1925). French translation by M. Ribeyrol, Livres et Légendes bogomiles (Paris, 1976).

Johann Christoph Wolf (born at Wernigerode, February 21, 1683; died at Hamburg, July 25, 1739) was a German Christian Hebraist and polyhistor. ... Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler (March 3, 1792-July 8, 1854), was a German church historian. ...

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Paulicianism was a Gnostic and Manichaean Christian sect that florished between 650 and 872 in Anatolia, outgoing from Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. ... First page of the Novgorod Codex Novgorod Codex (Russian Новгородский кодекс) is a name for the oldest book of Rus’, unearthed on July 13, 2000 in Novgorod. ...

External links

  • The Bogomils of Bulgaria and Bosnia

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bogomilism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2029 words)
Bogomilism is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the local Slavonic Church reform movement in Bulgaria and Bosnia-Herzegovina between 950 and 1396.
The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century.
The Bogomils repudiated infant baptism, and considered the baptismal rite to be of a spiritual character neither by water nor by oil but by self-abnegation, prayers and chanting of hymns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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