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Encyclopedia > Boer
This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). For the animal, see Boer goat.

Boer is the Dutch (and Afrikaans) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking pastoralists of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 1700s as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 1800s to settle in the Orange Free State, Transvaal (together known as the Boer Republics) and to a lesser extent Natal. Their primary motivation for leaving the Cape was to escape British rule as well as the constant border wars on the eastern frontier. The Boer goat was developed in South Africa in the early 1900s for meat production. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ...


The Trekboere, as they were originally known, are descended mainly from Dutch Calvinist, Flemish and Frisian Calvinist as well as French Huguenot, and German Protestant origins dating from the 1650s and into the 1700s. Minor numbers of Scandinavians, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, Scots, English, Irish, Welsh, Indian, Malay and Khoisan people were absorbed as well. The Trekboers were descendents of Dutch settlers, French Huguenot refugees, German Protestants, Friesians and smaller numbers of Belgians, Scandinavians, Scots, also some Indian slaves due to intermarriage, and an a mixture of Khoi and Malay due to absorption into the nascent Boer nation. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Scots (ethnic group). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The Welsh (Cymry) are an ethnic group or nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... The concept of a Malay race was proposed by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840). ... . ...


Those Trekboers who trekked into and occupied the eastern Cape were semi-nomadic. A significant number in the eastern Cape frontier later became Grensboere ("border farmers") who were the direct ancestors of the Voortrekkers. The Voortrekkers were those Boers (mainly from the eastern Cape) who left the Cape en masse in a series of large scale migrations later called the Great Trek beginning in 1835 as a result of British colonialism and constant border wars. When used in a historical context, the term Boer may refer to an inhabitant of the Boer Republics as well as those who were cultural Boers. The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the...


The Boer Nation (Boerevolk) of Southern Africa were a White indigenous nation in Africa [1] [2] [3] [4] which were internationally recognised as a nation in its own right for approximately two centuries. The Boer fought two wars against the British Empire in the 19th century in order to defend their self-proclaimed states, the republics of the Transvaal (the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, or ZAR), and the Orange Free State (OFS) against the threat of British imperialism. While a number of Boers became co-opted with the Afrikaner designation or simply later known as Afrikaans, there still exists a rump who continue to refer to themselves as Boers or the Boer nation. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... A family of white people Whites redirects here. ... Flag Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans (unofficial) Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger History  - Creation June 27, 1857  - First British annexation 1877  - End of first British annexation 1881  - Second Boer War October 11... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


The nations were devastated in the Second Boer War (1899 – 1902), and were forced, through concentration camps in which 27 000 non-combatant women and children were killed, and through the destruction of tens of thousands of farmsteads, livestock, and crops, to surrender to the United Kingdom administration and to have their country administered by the British Cape Colony government. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Royal Dutch Navy (Evacuation of Paul Kruger only) Commanders Redvers Buller Herbert Kitchener Frederick Roberts Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000...


Over time the obvious differences between Cape Afrikaner and Boer would subside and the terms "Boer" and "Afrikaner" would eventually be used as synonyms. Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn συν = plus and onoma όνομα = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ...


Some of these modern Boers argue that they were forced to accept the apartheid establishment and that they were suppressed whenever they attempted self-determination as was the case during the Boer Revolt or Maritz Rebellion in 1914 as well as their marginalization due to their poorer economic status and smaller numbers within the greater Afrikaner designation. The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Nationalism

The Boer nation was well-known for their strong nationalistic characteristics.[citation needed] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ...


Their nationalism was born of hundreds of years of fighting against imperialism, both Dutch and British, battling the harsh African climate, a strong sense of nationhood, as well as an often conservative Christian belief. As with any other ethnic group that has come from troubled land to troubled land many of them see it as their duty to educate future generations on their people's past. Many still celebrate traditional Boer events, such as commemorations of battles.


During the Reform Process, to end Apartheid, many Boers, particularly in the rural, farming communities such as Ventersdorp, Witbank and Goedgevonden, were members of conservative, Boer nationlist groups, the two most prominent being the gentle oppossers of the reform process, the Afrikaner Volksfront, and the paramilitary, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging often reported as being neo- nazi, or AWB as they are commonly known. These parties used the term Afrikaner and not Boer for the names of their organizations as they were promoting a conservative political alliance among the greater White Afrikaans population and were not stressing cultural differences. The Afrikaner Volksfront or AVF (Afrikaner Peoples Front) was a separatist umbrella organisation uniting a number of right-wing Afrikaner organisations in South Africa in the transitional period while multi-party negotiations were held in the run-up to the democratic elections on 27 April 1994. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ...


This surge in nationalism stemmed from a fear of Zimbabwe- style land reforms and anti- white violence perpetrated by blacks and supported by a black regime. The tactics of these organisations only fuelled the dislike for Boers amongst many non- whites, and even some whites, and made more room for sweeping generalisations about them. Giving credibility to the use of the term Boer as an ethnic slur rather than a simple fact, regarding someone's heritage.


Boer Diaspora

After the second Anglo-Boer War, a Boer diaspora occurred. Starting in 1903 the largest group emigrated to the Patagonia region of Argentina. Another group emigrated to British-ruled Kenya, from where most returned to South Africa during the 1930s, while a third group under the leadership of General Ben Viljoen emigrated to Mexico and to New Mexico and Texas in the south-western USA.


Modern usage

In more recent times, mainly during the apartheid reform and post-1994 eras, a number of white Afrikaans-speaking people, mainly with "conservative" political views and of trekker descent, have preferred to be called "Boers", rather than "Afrikaners". They feel that there were many people of Voortrekker descent who were not co-opted or assimilated into what they see as the Cape-based Afrikaner identity which began emerging after the Second Anglo-Boer War and the subsequent establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Certain Boer Nationalists have asserted that they do not consider themselves a right-wing element of the political spectrum. [5] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The Voortrekker Monument built in 1949. ... Under the Union of South Africa and after that under the Republic of South Africa, the old Cape Colony became the Cape of Good Hope Province (though it was commonly known as the Cape Province). ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... National motto: Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Official languages Afrikaans, Dutch and English. ...


They contend that the Boers of the South African (ZAR) and Orange Free State republics were recognized as a separate people or cultural group under international law by the Sand River Convention (which created the South African Republic in 1852) [6], the Bloemfontein Convention (which created the Orange Free State Republic in 1854), the Pretoria Convention (which re-established the independence of the South African Republic 1881), the London Convention (which granted the full independence to the South African Republic in 1884) and the Vereeniging Peace Treaty, which formally ended the Second Anglo-Boer War on 31 May 1902. Others contend, however, that these treaties dealt only with agreements between governmental entities and do not imply the recognition of a Boer cultural identity per se. Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Vereeniging was a treaty signed on 31 May 1902 to end the Second Boer War between the Boers and the United Kingdom. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Nonetheless, the Boer cultural grouping which began among the trekking pastoralists of the eastern Cape frontier to the modern day descendants of the Voortrekkers is a distinct cultural group which was historically and culturally set apart from those White Afrikaans speakers who remained in the Western Cape region.


The supporters of these views feel that the Afrikaner designation (or label) was used from the 1930s onwards as a means of unifying (politically at least) the white Afrikaans speakers of the Western Cape with those of Trekboer and Voortrekker descent (whose ancestors began migrating eastward during the 1690s and throughout the 1700s and later northward during the Great Trek of the 1830s) in the north of South Africa, where the Boer Republics were established. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Trekboers in the Karoo. ...


The supporters of the "Boer" designation view the Afrikaner designation as an artificial political label which usurped their history and culture turning "Boer" achievements into "Afrikaner" achievements. They feel that the Western-Cape based Afrikaners — whose ancestors did not trek eastwards or northwards — took advantage of the republican Boers' destitution following the Anglo-Boer War and later attempted to assimilate the Boers into a new politically based cultural label as "Afrikaners."


See also

Afrikaners are a European ethnic group primarily associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... A filling station in Soweto said to have been bombed by the so-called Boeremag. ... Boer music is a type of South African instrumental folk music. ... Trekboers in the Karoo. ... Flag The Natalia Republic was located in the southern half of this region Capital Pietermaritzburg Language(s) Dutch, Zulu Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic Prime Minister  - 1839 – 1843 Andries Pretorius Historical era 19th century  - Republic founded October 12, 1839  - Battle of Blood River December 16, 1838  - Alliance with Zulu... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Flag Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881  - Second Boer War October 11, 1899  - Treaty... Iron Crosses Day at Polokwane in memory of the farmers killed in South Africa. Since the end of apartheid in South Africa in 1994, many farmers have been killed throughout the country. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Volkstaat (Afrikaans for Peoples state) is a proposal for the establishment of an independent state or autonomous homeland in South Africa for the Afrikaner minority to obtain self determination. ... The Voortrekker Monument built in 1949. ...

Notable Boers

Andries Hendrik Potgieter (19 December 1792 - 16 December 1852) was a Voortrekker leader. ... The Voortrekker Monument built in 1949. ... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ... Christiaan de Wet, 1900 Christiaan de Wet Statue of Christiaan de Wet before the old Raadsaal, Bloemfontein Christiaan Rudolf de Wet (7 October 1854 - 5 February 1922) was a Boer general and politician. ... Dirkie Uys (1823 - 1838) was a Voortrekker hero during the Great Trek. ... Koos de la Rey (Jacobus Herculaas de la Rey) (22 October 1847 - 15 September 1914) was a Boer general during the Second Boer War and is widely regarded as being one of the greatest military leaders during that conflict. ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, not to be confused with the Republic of South Africa, occupied the area later known as the province of Transvaal, first from 1857 to 1877, and again, after a successful Afrikaner rebellion against British rule... Petrus Jacobus Joubert Petrus Jacobus Joubert (January 20, 1834 - March 28, 1900), commandant-general of the South African Republic from 1880 to 1900, was born at Cango, in the district of Oudtshoorn, Cape Colony, a descendant of a French Huguenot who fled to South Africa soon after the revocation of... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rachel de Beer (1831 - 1843) (sometimes known by the diminutive form, Racheltjie) is an Afrikaner heroine, who offered up her life at the age of 12 in order to save that of her brother. ... Sarel Cilliers was a Voortrekker leader and a preacher. ... This article may not give enough verifiable information about the subject, or may not sufficiently explain its importance. ... Eugène Ney TerreBlanche (born 1944) is an Afrikaner white supremacist who founded the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ...

References

Boerevolk still independent entity: BVS

  1. ^ Oliver Ransford. The Great Trek.
  2. ^ Sidney & Shirley Robbins. The Devil's Annexe. A Continent in Agony.
  3. ^ Swaziland Digital Archives.
  4. ^ Siyabona Africa Travel (Pty) Ltd South Africa.
  5. ^ Dr. Tobias Louw. Open Letter to the Institute for Security Studies.
  6. ^ The Sand River Convention.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Breeds of Livestock - Goats (356 words)
The name is derived from the Dutch word "boer" meaning farmer and was probably used to distinguish the native goats from the Angora goats which were imported into South Africa during the 19th century.
The Boer goat is primarily a meat goat with several adaptations to the region in which it was developed.
The Boer goat is being used very effectively in South Africa in combination with cattle due to its browsing ability and limited impact on the grass cover.
Boer goat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1421 words)
The Boer goat was probably bred from the indigenous goats of the Namaqua Bushmen and the Bantu tribes, with some crossing of Indian and European bloodlines being possible.
Boer goats can be raised effectively in combination with cattle due their preference browse and the resulting limited impact on the grass cover.
Boer goats tend to gain weight at about the same rate as their sire, so a buck from a proven fast growing bloodline will command the highest price, as its offspring will tend to also be fast growers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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