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Boeotia or Beotia (/bi'o.ʃʌ/, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. It is also a prefecture of modern Greece, see Boeotia Prefecture. This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Boeotia (Greek: Βοιωτία -Voiotía, also Viotia) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ...


The oldest city of Greece was sited there and was named Graia (Γραία) which means ancient or old. From the name of this city the word "Greece" derives. Aristotle said that this city was created before the deluge. The same assertion about the origins of Graia city was found also in an ancient marble, the Parian Chronicle, discovered in 1687 and dated in 267-263 B.C., that is currently kept in Oxford and on Paros. Reports about this ancient city can be found also in Homer, in Pausanias, in Thucydides etc. Aristotle (Ancient Greek: AristotelÄ“s 384–March 7 322 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher, who studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré The story of a Great Flood sent by God or the gods to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ... The Parian Marble or Parian Chronicle is a Greek chronological table, covering the years from 1581BC to 264BC. It is currently broken into two fragments: The larger fragment was brought to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford in 1627, where it currently resides. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Paros, or Paro (Greek: Πάρος), is an island of Greece in the Aegean Sea, one of the largest of the group of the Cyclades. ... The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... Pausanias was Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto Thucydides (between 460 and 455 BC–circa 400 BC, Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. ...


The main and most important city during history was Thebes of which it is said it was related to the Egyptian Thebes. Thebes was the birthplace of the legendary hero Hercules. Ancient Thebes was destroyed totally by Alexander the Great. Thebes (in modern Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, in ancient Greek and Katharevousa: — Thēbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... Hercules and Cacus, by Baccio Bandinelli, 1525 - 1534. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ...


Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth, extending westwards between Thessaly and Peloponnesus to the Isthmus of Corinth; the strategic strength of its frontiers; and the ease of communication within its extensive area. On the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development. The Boeotian people, although they included great men like Pindar, Hesiod, Epaminondas, Pelopidas and Plutarch, were proverbially dull. The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ... Pindar Pindar (or Pindarus / Pindaros) (522 BC – 443 BC), considered the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Hesiod (Hesiodos, ), the early Greek poet and rhapsode, presumably lived around 700 BC. Historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer, and some authors have even brought them together in an imagined poetic contest. ... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... Pelopidas (d. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ...


In Greek mythology, Boeotia plays a prominent part. Of the two great centres of legends, Thebes, with its Cadmean population, figures as a military stronghold, and Orchomenus, the home of the Minyae, as an enterprising commercial city. The importance of the latter has been confirmed by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas"). The Boeotian population seems to have entered the land from the north at a date possibly before the Dorian invasion. With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, and the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation. Perseus with the head of Medusa. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Cadmusis my pimp, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia and brother of Europa. ... Orchomenus is an ancient city of Boeotia in Greece, which was the setting for many early Greek Myths. ... See Minyan (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term. ... The Dorians were one of the ancient Hellenic tribes acknowledged by Greek writers. ...

Boeotian cup painted with birds, ca.560–540 BC, found in Thebes, Greece
Boeotian cup painted with birds, ca.560–540 BC, found in Thebes, Greece

In historical times, the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital; other major towns were Orchomenus, Plataea, and Thespiae. It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities successfully resisted this policy, and only allowed the formation of a loose federation which, initially, was merely religious. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2390x1990, 3413 KB) Description Description: Boeotian cup with birds, ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2390x1990, 3413 KB) Description Description: Boeotian cup with birds, ca. ... Plataea is an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes. ... Thespiae was an ancient Greek city in Boeotia. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ...


While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians, generally acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the cities was a serious check on the nation's development. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century. Previous to this, its people are chiefly known as the makers of a type of geometric pottery, similar to the Dipylon ware of Athens. In about 519 BC, the resistance of Plataea to the federating policy of Thebes led to the interference of Athens on behalf of the former; on this occasion, and again in 507 BC, the Athenians defeated the Boeotian levy. Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Plataea is an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...


During the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Thebes assisted the invaders. In consequence, for a time, the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken from Thebes, but in 457 BC the Spartans reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression after the Battle of Tanagra. Athens retaliated by a sudden advance upon Boeotia, and after the victory at the Battle of Oenophyta took control of the whole country except the capital. For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies; but in 447 BC the people revolted, and after a victory at the Battle of Coronea regained their independence. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Events King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 462 BC 461 BC 460 BC 459 BC 458 BC - 457 BC - 456 BC 455 BC... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... The Battle of Tanagra took place in 457 BC between Athens and Sparta. ... The Battle of Oenophyta took place between Athens and the Boeotian city-states in 457 BC. In this period between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War, alliances and leagues sprang up and collapsed, although there was very little prolonged warfare. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 452 BC 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC - 447 BC - 446 BC 445 BC... The Battle of Coronea took place between the Athenian-led Delian League and the Boeotian League in 447 BC. In 457 BC the Athenians had taken control of Boeotia at the Battle of Oenophyta, and spent the next ten years attempting to consolidate the Leagues power. ...


In the Peloponnesian War the Boeotians fought zealously against Athens. Though slightly estranged from Sparta after the peace of Nicias, they never abated their enmity against their neighbours. They rendered good service at Syracuse and at the Battle of Arginusae; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at the Battle of Delium over the Athenian army (424 BC), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency. Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War DERRICK BARKLEM IS STEALING THIS SHIZZLE! The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BCE during the Peloponnesian War. ... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC...


About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army. A safeguard against undue encroachment on the part of the central government was provided in the councils of the individual cities, to which all important questions of policy had to be submitted for ratification. These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the prytaneis of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to vote on all new measures. The prytaneis (literally presidents) of ancient Athens were members of the boule chosen to perform executive tasks during their term (a prytany), which lasted about two months and then was rotated to other members of the boule. ...


Boeotia took a prominent part in the war of the Corinthian League against Sparta, especially at Haliartus and the Battle of Coronea (395-394 BC). This change of policy seems due mainly to the national resentment against foreign interference. Yet disaffection against Thebes was now growing rife, and Sparta fostered this feeling by stipulating for the complete independence of all the cities in the peace of Antalcidas (387). In 374 BC Pelopidas restored the Theban dominion and their control was never significantly challenged again. The League of Corinth was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC to facilitate his use of Greek military forces in his war against Persia. ... The Battle of Coronea can refer to: Battle of Coronea (447 BC) Battle of Coronea (394 BC) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 379 BC 378 BC 377 BC 376 BC 375 BC - 374 BC - 373 BC 372 BC 371... Pelopidas (d. ...


Boeotian contingents fought in all the campaigns of Epaminondas against the Spartans, most notably at the Battle of Leuctra in 371, and in the later wars against Phocis (356-346); while in the dealings with Philip of Macedon the cities merely followed Thebes. The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land. The sovereign power was vested in the popular assembly, which elected the Boeotarchs (between seven and twelve in number), and sanctioned all laws. After the battle of Chaeroneia, in which the Boeotian heavy infantry once again distinguished itself, the land never rose again to prosperity. For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... Combatants Thebes Sparta Commanders Epaminondas Cleombrotus I † Strength 6,000–7,000 10,000–11,000 Casualties Unknown About 2,000 {{{notes}}} Leuctra was a vildlage of Boeotia in the territory of Thespiae, chiefly noticeable for the battle fought in its neighborhood in 371 BC between the Thebans and the... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -s, also Phokida, Phokis) is an ancient district of central Greece. ... Philip II of Macedon (Macedonia) (382 BC - 336 BC), King of Macedon (ruled 359 BC - 336 BC), was the father of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Philip III of Macedon. ... Two famous ancient battles were fought at Chaeronea in Boeotia: Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Battle of Chaeronea (86 BC) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The destruction of Thebes by Alexander the Great (335 BC) seems to have removed the political energy of the Boeotians. They never again pursued an independent policy, but followed the lead of protecting powers. Though military training and organization continued, the people proved unable to defend the frontiers, and the land became more than ever the "dancing-ground of Ares". Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about 245 BC) Boeotia was generally loyal to Macedon, and supported its later kings against Rome. Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod. The death-blow to the country's prosperity was given by the devastations during the First Mithridatic War. Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC - 335 BC - 334 BC 333 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC 246 BC - 245 BC - 244 BC 243 BC... The Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the Macedonian kingdom and today copyrighted by the World Intellectual Property Organization as a Greek emblem of state [1]. Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... For the honorific title, see Augustus (honorific). ... Template:Μετάφραση Achaea (Greek: , Achaïa; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a province on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the south to a narrow strip of fertile land on the north, bordering the Gulf of Corinth... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ...

Contents


Pejorative term

As a result of Athens' proud assertion of its cultural superiority, first of all compared to its closest, rural neighbours (bad luck for them, there was no convincing reason), the word Boeotian or Beotian, the adjective derived from and word for the inhabitants of Boeotia, has been adopted in many classical and antique languages as a pejorative term for backward people, simpletons etc.


Natives of Beotia

  • Hesiod

Hesiod (Hesiodos, ), the early Greek poet and rhapsode, presumably lived around 700 BC. Historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer, and some authors have even brought them together in an imagined poetic contest. ...

See also

Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Boeotia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1200 words)
Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth, extending westwards between Thessaly and Peloponnesus to the Isthmus of Corinth; the strategic strength of its frontiers; and the ease of communication within its extensive area.
Athens retaliated by a sudden advance upon Boeotia, and after the victory at the Battle of Oenophyta took control of the whole country except the capital.
Boeotia took a prominent part in the war of the Corinthian League against Sparta, especially at Haliartus and the Battle of Coronea (395-394 BC).
Boeotia Prefecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (266 words)
Boeotia (Greek: Βοιωτία -Voiotía, also Viotia) is one of the prefectures of Greece.
Its area was known in ancient times as Boeotia.
Its longest river, the Cephissus valley is in the central part is where most of the low-lying areas of Boeotia lie.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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