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Encyclopedia > Bodybuilding
Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing
Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing

Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. Someone who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. As a sport, called competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their aesthetic appearance. The muscles are revealed through a combination of fat loss, oils, and tanning (or tanning lotions) which combined with lighting make the definition of the muscle group more distinct. Famous bodybuilders include Alex Rodham, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dorian Yates, Mike Mentzer, Lou Ferrigno, Steve Reeves, Jack LaLanne, Serge Nubret, Larry Scott, Dave Draper, Ronnie Coleman, and Jay Cutler. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Gustavo Badell at the 2006 San Francisco Pro Gustavo Badell (b. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A complete weight training workout can be performed with a pair of adjustable dumbbells and a set of weight disks (plates). ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... Tan can mean several things: tan is shorthand in mathematics for the tangent trigonometric function. ... Typical bottle of tanning lotion. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Dorian Yates (born April 19, 1962 in Sutton Coldfield, England), is the most successful professional British bodybuilder to date and has won the Mr. ... Mike Mentzer (b. ... Lou Ferrigno at Comicon 2007 Louis Jude Ferrigno (born November 9, 1951[1]) is an American bodybuilder and actor. ... Stephen L. Reeves (January 21, 1926 – May 5, 2000), was a bodybuilder, actor, and author. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Serge Nubret (born October 6, 1938) is a professional French bodybuilder. ... Larry Scott as Mr. ... David Draper (born April 16, 1942) bodybuilder, actor and author, nicknamed The Blond Bomber. Draper was born in Secaucus, New Jersey. ... Ronald Dean Coleman (Born:May 13, 1964 in Monroe, Louisiana, USA) is an American bodybuilder and an eight-time Mr. ... Professional Bodybuilder Jay Cutler poses Jay Cutler (born Jason Isaac Cutler August 3, 1973 in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA) is an IFBB American bodybuilder, who currently holds the title of Mr. ...

Contents

History

Early years

Eugen Sandow
Eugen Sandow

The "Early Years" of Bodybuilding are considered to be the period between 1880 and 1930. Image File history File links Falk,_Benjamin_J._(1853-1925)_-_Eugen_Sandow_(1867-1925). ... Image File history File links Falk,_Benjamin_J._(1853-1925)_-_Eugen_Sandow_(1867-1925). ...


Bodybuilding (the art of displaying the muscles) did not really exist prior to the late 19th century, when it was promoted by a man from Prussia named Eugen Sandow,[1] who is now generally referred to as "The Father of Modern Bodybuilding". He is credited as being a pioneer of the sport because he allowed an audience to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well developed physique, those men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through his manager, Florenz Ziegfeld. He became so successful at it, he later created several businesses around his fame and was among the first to market products branded with his name alone. As he became more popular, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses (machined dumbbells, spring pulleys and tension bands). Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Eugen Sandow Eugen Sandow (born Friederich Wilhelm Mueller on April 2, 1867 in Königsberg, East Prussia, died on October 14, 1925) was a pioneering bodybuilder of the Victorian era and is often refered to as the Father of Modern Bodybuilding. Sandow had been a great admirer of Greek and... 1928 Time cover featuring Ziegfeld Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. ... A pair of spinlock dumbbells with 2 kg plates. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ...


Sandow was a strong advocate of "the Grecian Ideal" (this was a standard where a mathematical "ideal" was set up and the "perfect physique" was close to the proportions of ancient Greek and Roman statues from classical times). This is how Sandow built his own physique and in the early years, men were judged by how closely they matched these "ideal" proportions. Sandow organised the first bodybuilding contest on 14 September 1901 called the "Great Competition" and held in the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK. Judged by himself, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle the contest was a huge success and was sold out and hundreds of physical culture enthusiasts were turned away. The trophy presented to the winner was a bronze statue of Sandow himself sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham, England. The most prestigious bodybuilding contest today is the Mr. Olympia, and since 1977, the winner has been presented with the same bronze statue of Sandow he himself presented to the winner at the first contest.[2] is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “Albert Hall” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... // Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859–7 July 1930) was a Scottish born author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... This article is about the English city. ... Mr. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


On 16 January, 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The winner was Al Treloar and he was declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World". Treloar won a $1,000 cash prize, a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks later, Thomas Edison made a film of Al Treloar's posing routine. Edison also made two films of Sandow a few years before, making him the man who made the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century, Bernarr Macfadden and Charles Atlas, continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America and the man whom Charles Atlas credited with his success in his statement: "Everything that I know I learned from A. P. (Alois) Swoboda."[citation needed] Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Macfadden posing as David in 1905. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alois P. Swoboda (1873-1938) was a pioneer of American Physical Culture at the turn of the century. ...


Other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman (writer of some of the earliest bodybuilding instruction books), Seigmund Breitbart (famous Jewish bodybuilder), Georg Hackenschmidt, George F. Jowett, Maxick (a pioneer in the art of posing), Monte Saldo, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort (Strongfortism), Gustav Fristensky (the Czech champion), and Alan C. Mead, who became an impressive muscle champion despite the fact that he lost a leg in the Great War. Hackenschmidt in 1903 Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt (August 2, 1878 in Tartu, Estonia - February 19, 1968 in London, England) was an early 20th-century strongman and professional wrestler. ...


The "Golden Age"

The period of around 1940 to 1970 is often referred to as the "Golden Age" of bodybuilding because of changes in the aesthetic for more mass, as well as muscular symmetry and definition, which characterised the "early years". This was due in large part to the advent of World War II, which inspired many young men to be bigger, stronger and more aggressive in their attitudes. This was accomplished by improved training techniques, better nutrition and more effective equipment. Several important publications came into being, as well, and new contests emerged as the popularity of the sport grew. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


This period of bodybuilding was typified at Muscle Beach in Venice, California. Famous names in bodybuilding from this period included Steve Reeves (notable in his day for portraying Hercules and other sword-and-sandal heroes), Reg Park, John Grimek, Larry Scott, Bill Pearl, and Irvin "Zabo" Koszewski. Muscle Beach, Venice Muscle Beach, in the United States is an area in Venice, California on Ocean Front Walk two blocks north of Venice Boulevard, that is set up by the city as an outdoors weightlifting gym. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hercules and the Nemean Lion (detail), silver plate, 6th century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). ... D. W. Griffith set out to depict the splendor of ancient Babylon in Intolerance. ... A British bodybuilder from the 1950s. ... John Grimek is one of the earliest great bodybuilders, and is the only man ever to win the AAU Mr. ... Bill Pearl (b. ...


The rise in popularity of the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) added a bodybuilding competition to their existing weightlifting contest in 1939 - and the following year this competition was named AAU Mr. America. Around the mid-1940s most bodybuilders became disgruntled with the AAU since they only allowed amateur competitors and they placed more focus on the Olympic sport of weightlifting. This caused brothers Ben and Joe Weider to form the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) - which organized their competition IFBB Mr. America, which was open to professional athletes. - The Amateur Athletic Union, widely known as the AAU, was formed in United States. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AAU Mr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A weightlifter about to jerk 180 kg[1] Weightlifting is a sport in which competitors attempt to lift heavy weights mounted on steel bars called barbells, the execution of which is a combination of power, flexibility, technique, mental and physical strength. ... Ben Weider (born February 1, 1924) is a Canadian businessman from Montreal well-known in two areas, sports and Napoleonic history. ... Josef E. Joe Weider (born November 29, 1922 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is the co-founder of the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) along with brother Ben Weider and creator of the Mr. ... The International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) is a bodybuilding organization founded in 1946 by Ben and Joe Weider. ... IFBB Mr. ...


In 1950, another organization, the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA) started their NABBA Mr. Universe contest in the UK. Another major contest, Mr. Olympia was first held in 1965 - and this is currently the most prestigious title in bodybuilding. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA) is an organisation founded in 1950 to promote bodybuilding in the United Kingdom. ... The Universe Championships is an annual bodybuilding event organised by the National Amateur Body Building Association (NABBA). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially contests were only for men, but the NABBA added Miss Universe in 1965 and Ms. Olympia was started in 1980. (For more, see female bodybuilding.) Ms. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Lenda Murray, 8 times Ms. ...


1970s onwards

In the 1970s, bodybuilding had major publicity thanks to Arnold Schwarzenegger and the 1977 film Pumping Iron. By this time the IFBB dominated the sport and the AAU took a back seat. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... IFBB Logo The International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) is a bodybuilding organization founded in 1946 by Ben and Joe Weider. ...


The National Physique Committee (NPC) was formed in 1981 by Jim Manion, who had just stepped down as chairman of the AAU Physique Committee. The NPC has gone on to become the most successful bodybuilding organization in the U.S., and is the amateur division of the IFBB. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the decline of AAU sponsored bodybuilding contests. In 1999, the AAU voted to discontinue its bodybuilding events. The National Physique Committee (NPC) is the largest amateur bodybuilding organization in the United States. ...


This period also saw the rise of anabolic steroids used both in bodybuilding and many other sports. To combat this, and to be allowed to be an IOC member, the IFBB introduced doping tests for both steroids and other banned substances. Although doping tests occurred, the majority of professional bodybuilders still used anabolic steroids for competition. During the 1970s the use of anabolic steroids was openly discussed partly due to the fact they were legal.[3] However the U.S. Congress in the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled substance act (CSA). Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


In 1990, wrestling promoter Vince McMahon announced he was forming a new bodybuilding organization, the World Bodybuilding Federation (WBF). McMahon wanted to bring WWF-style showmanship and bigger prize money to the sport of bodybuilding. McMahon signed 13 competitors to lucrative long-term contracts, something virtually unheard of in bodybuilding up until then. Most of the WBF competitors immediately abandoned the IFBB. In response to the WBF's formation, IFBB president Ben Weider blacklisted all the bodybuilders who had signed with the WBF. The IFBB also quietly stopped testing their athletes for anabolic steroid use since it was difficult to compete thus with a new organization which did not test for steroids. In 1992, Vince McMahon instituted drug testing for WBF athletes because he and the WWF were under investigation by the federal government for alleged involvement in anabolic steroid trafficking. The result was that the competitors in the 1992 WBF contest looked sub-par, according to some contemporary accounts. McMahon formally dissolved the WBF in July, 1992. Reasons for this probably included lack of income from the pay-per-view broadcasts of the WBF contests, slow sales of the WBF's magazine Bodybuilding Lifestyles (which later became WBF Magazine), and the expense of paying multiple 6-figure contracts as well as producing two TV shows and a monthly magazine. However, the formation of the WBF had two positive effects for the IFBB athletes: (1) it caused IFBB founder Joe Weider to sign many of his top stars to contracts, and (2) it caused the IFBB to raise prize money in its sanctioned contests. Joe Weider eventually offered to accept the WBF bodybuilders back into the IFBB for a fine of 10% of their former yearly WBF salary. Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 25, 1945) is an American wrestling promoter, occasional professional wrestler, on-screen personality, former play-by-play announcer, and film producer. ... WBF Logo The World Bodybuilding Federation (WBF) was a bodybuilding organization founded in 1990 by Vince McMahon that lasted until 1992. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... A blacklist is a list or register of people who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, or mobility. ...


In the early 2000s, the IFBB was attempting to make bodybuilding an Olympic sport. It obtained full IOC membership in 2000 and was attempting to get approved as a demonstration event at the Olympics which would hopefully lead to it being added as a full contest. This did not happen. Olympic recognition for bodybuilding remains controversial since some argue that bodybuilding is not a sport because the actual contest does not involve athletic effort. Also, some still have the misperception that bodybuilding necessarily involves the use of anabolic steroids, which are prohibited in Olympic competitions. Proponents argue that the posing routine requires skill and preparation, and bodybuilding should therefore be considered a sport. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 2003, Joe Weider sold Weider Publications to AMI, which owns The National Enquirer. Ben Weider is still the president of the IFBB. In 2004, contest promoter Wayne DeMilia broke ranks with the IFBB and AMI took over the promotion of the Mr. Olympia contest. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the technology tabloid website, see The Inquirer. ...


Areas of Bodybuilding

Professional bodybuilding


In the modern bodybuilding industry "Professional" generally means a bodybuilder who has won qualifying completions as an amateur and has earned a 'pro card' from the IFBB. Professionals earn the right to compete in sanctioned competitions including the Arnold Classic and the Night of Champions. Placings at such competitions in turn earn them the right to compete at the Mr. Olympia; the title is considered to be the highest accolade in the professional bodybuilding field. The Arnold Classic is an annual bodybuilding competition, named after Arnold Schwarzenegger, that takes place in late February or early March in Columbus, Ohio, United States. ... Night of Champions (NOC) is a bodybuilding contest held every year in New York City, USA. It began in 1978 and is considered one of the top pro-bodybuilding events - with the top 5 finalists qualifying for the Mr. ...


Natural bodybuilding

Main article: Natural bodybuilding

In natural contests bodybuilders are routinely tested for illegal substances and are banned for any violations from future contests. Testing can be done on urine samples, but in many cases a less expensive polygraph (lie detector) test is performed instead. What qualifies as an "illegal" substance, in the sense that it is prohibited by regulatory bodies, varies between natural federations, and does not necessarily include only substances that are illegal under the laws of the relevant jurisdiction. Anabolic steroids, Prohormone and Diuretics are generally banned in natural organizations. Natural bodybuilding organizations include NANBF (North American Natural Bodybuilding Federation), and the NPA (Natural physique association). Natural bodybuilders assert that their method is more focused on competition and a healthy lifestyle than other forms of bodybuilding. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. ... A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ...


Teenage bodybuilding


Bodybuilding also has many competition categories for young entrants. Many current professional bodybuilders started when they were teenagers. Bodybuilders such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lee Priest and Jay Cutler all started competing when they were teenagers. Today many teenagers compete in bodybuilding competitions. Lee Andrew Priest McCutcheon, also known as “The Blond Myth” (born July 6, 1972 in Newcastle, Australia) is an IFBB professional bodybuilder. ...

A female Bodybuilder lifting
A female Bodybuilder lifting

Female bodybuilding Image File history File links Lyen_wong_wiki. ... Image File history File links Lyen_wong_wiki. ...

Main article: Female bodybuilding

In the 1970s, women began to take part in bodybuilding competitions, and was extremely popular for a time. More than ever women are training with weights for exercise purposes with desire for a more attractive body and to prevent bone loss.[4] Many women however still fear that weight training will make them "bulky" and believe weight training is only for men. However strength training has many benefits for women including increased bone mass and prevention of bone loss as well as increased muscle strength and balance.[5][6] In recent years, the related areas of fitness and figure competition have gained in popularity, providing an alternative for women who choose not to develop the level of muscularity necessary for bodybuilding. The first Ms. Olympia contest in 1980, won by Rachel McLish, would resemble closely what is thought of today as a fitness and figure competition. Lenda Murray, 8 times Ms. ... Fitness and figure competition are physique events for women that bear a close resemblance to female bodybuilding, but with significantly less emphasis on muscle size. ... Rachel McLish (born Rachel Elizondo on June 21, 1958 in Harlingen, Texas) is an American bodybuilder. ...


Competition

A bodybuilder posing on stage during competition
A bodybuilder posing on stage during competition

For biographies of professional bodybuilders see list of female bodybuilders, list of male professional bodybuilders, and Category:Professional bodybuilders Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Noted female bodybuilders include: Erika Andersch Rebekka Armstrong Lisa Aukland Fannie Barrios Nicole Bass Christa Bauch Kay Baxter Shelley Beattie Stacey Bentley Juliette Bergmann Laura Binetti Kim Birtch Andrulla Blanchette Chris Bongiovanni Th-resa Bostick Yvette Bova Debbie Bramwell Pavla Brantalova Marissa Brown Sharon Bruneau Tatina Butler Dayana Cadeau Maria... This is a list of male professional bodybuilders. ...


In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders aspire to develop and maintain an aesthetically pleasing (by bodybuilding standards) body and balanced physique. The competitors show off their bodies by performing a number of poses - bodybuilders spend time practicing their posing as this has a large effect on how they are judged. The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... A posedown (or the posedown) is the term commonly used to describe a period during bodybuilding contests when contestants pull a variety of poses to demonstrate their physique and muscular development, often including all contestants on stage together attempting to out do their fellow competitors. ...


A bodybuilder's size and shape are far more important than how much he or she can lift. The sport should therefore not be confused with strongman competition or powerlifting, where the main point is on actual physical strength, or with Olympic weightlifting, where the main point is equally split between strength and technique. Though superficially similar to the casual observer, the fields entail a different regimen of training, diet, and basic motivation. In the 19th century, the term strongman refers to an exhibitor of strength (before strength sports were codified into weightlifting, powerlifting etc. ... The bench press is one of the three events of powerlifting. ... Physical strength is the ability of a person or animal to exert force on physical objects using muscles. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ...


Contest preparation

The general strategy adopted by most present-day competitive bodybuilders is to make muscle gains for most of the year (known as the "off-season") and approximately 3-4 months from competition attempt to lose body fat (referred to as "cutting"). In doing this some muscle will be lost but the aim is to keep this to a minimum. There are many approaches used but most involve reducing calorie intake and increasing cardio, while monitoring body fat percentage. In biochemistry, fat is a generic term for a class of lipids. ... Body fat percentage is an estimate of the fraction of the total body mass that is adipose tissue (or referred to as Fat Mass), as opposed to lean body mass (muscle, bone, organ tissue, blood, and everything else) or referred to as Fat Free Mass. ...


In the week leading up to a contest, bodybuilders will begin increasing their water intake so as to deregulate the systems in the body associated with water flushing. They will also increase their sodium intake. At the same time they will decrease their carbohydrate consumption in an attempt to "carb deplete". The goal during this week is to deplete the muscles of glycogen. Two days before the show, sodium intake is reduced by half, and then eliminated completely. The day before the show, water is removed from the diet, and diuretics may be introduced. At the same time carbohydrates are re-introduced into the diet to expand the muscles. This is typically known as "carb-loading." The end result is an ultra-lean bodybuilder with full hard muscles and a dry, vascular appearance. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A diuretic is any drug that tends to increase the flow of urine from the body (diuresis). ...


Prior to performing on stage, bodybuilders will apply various products to their skin to improve their muscle definition - these include fake tan commonly called "pro tan" (to make the skin darker) and various oils (to make the skin shiny). They will also use weights to "pump up" by forcing blood to their muscles to improve size and vascularity. Sunless tanning (also known as indoor tanning) refers to applying chemicals on the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a traditional suntan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ...


Strategy

Bodybuilder posing.
Bodybuilder posing.

Bodybuilders use three main strategies to maximize muscle hypertrophy: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ... Resistance training has two different, sometimes confused meanings - a more broad meaning that refers to any training that uses a resistance to the force of muscular contraction (better termed strength training), and elastic or hydraulic resistance, which refers to a specific type of strength training that uses elastic or hydraulic... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

Weight training

Weight training causes micro-tears to the muscles being trained; this is generally known as microtrauma. These micro-tears in the muscle contribute to the soreness felt after exercise, called delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). It is the repair to these micro-trauma that result in muscle growth. Normally, this soreness becomes most apparent a day or two after a workout.[7] A complete weight training workout can be performed with a pair of adjustable dumbbells and a set of weight disks (plates). ... gay ... Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 to 3 days. ...


Nutrition

The high levels of muscle growth and repair achieved by bodybuilders require a specialized diet. Generally speaking, bodybuilders require more calories than the average person of the same height to support the protein and energy requirements needed to support their training and increase muscle mass. A sub-maintenance level of food energy is combined with cardiovascular exercise to lose body fat in preparation for a contest. The ratios of food energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats vary depending on the goals of the bodybuilder.[8]


Carbohydrates play an important role for bodybuilders. Carbohydrates give the body energy to deal with the rigors of training and recovery. Bodybuilders seek out low-glycemic polysaccharides and other slowly-digesting carbohydrates, which release energy in a more stable fashion than high-glycemic sugars and starches. This is important as high-glycemic carbohydrates cause a sharp insulin response, which places the body in a state where it is likely to store additional food energy as fat rather than muscle, and which can waste energy that should be directed towards muscle growth. However, bodybuilders frequently do ingest some quickly-digesting sugars (often in form of pure dextrose or maltodextrin) after a workout. This may help to replenish glycogen stores within the muscle, and to stimulate muscle protein synthesis.[9] Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Maltodextrin is a moderately sweet polysaccharide used as a food additive, unrelated to barley malt. ...


Protein is probably one of the most important parts of the diet for the bodybuilder to consider. Functional proteins such as motor proteins which include myosin, kinesin, and dynein generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles. Current advice says that bodybuilders should consume 25-30% of protein per total calorie intake to further their goal of maintaining and improving their body composition.[10] This is a widely debated topic, with many arguing that 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight is ideal, some suggesting that less is sufficient, and others recommending 1.5, 2, or more.[11][12][13][14] It is believed that protein needs to be consumed frequently throughout the day, especially during/after a workout, and before sleep.[15] There is also some debate concerning the best type of protein to take. Chicken, beef, pork, fish, eggs and dairy foods are high in protein, as are some nuts, seeds, beans and lentils. Casein or whey are often used to supplement the diet with additional protein. Whey protein is the type of protein contained in many popular brands of protein supplements, and is preferred by many bodybuilders because of its high Biological Value (BV) and quick absorption rates. Bodybuilders usually require higher quality protein with a high BV rather than relying on protein such as soy, which is often avoided due to its estrogenic properties.[16] Still, some nutrition experts believe that soy, flax seeds and many other plants that contain the weak estrogen-like compounds or phytoestrogens can be used beneficially as phytoestrogens compete with this hormone for receptor sites in the male body and can block its actions. This can also include some inhibition of pituitary functions while stimulating the P450 system (the system that eliminates chemicals, hormones, drugs and metabolic waste product from the body) in the liver to more actively process and excrete excess estrogen.[17][18] This is a list of gene families or gene complexes, that is sets of genes which occur across a number of different species which often serve similar biological functions. ... Myosin is a motor protein filament found in muscle tissue. ... The kinesin dimer attaches to, and moves along, microtubules. ... Dynein is a motor protein (also called molecular motor or motor molecule) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Casein is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ... Whey protein is the name for a collection of globular proteins that can be isolated from whey, a by-product of cheese manufactured from cows milk. ... Biological Value or BV is a common method for measuring protein quality and biological utilization rates of protein for human and animal consumption. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal cells and bodies. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ...


Bodybuilders usually split their food intake for the day into 5 to 7 meals of roughly equal nutritional content and attempt to eat at regular intervals (normally between 2 and 3 hours). This process used to be considered a mechanism for increasing basal metabolic rate when compared to less frequent meals with the same energy content, but short-term research on non-bodybuilding subjects suggests that this may not be the case.[19][20] Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ...


Dietary supplements

The important role of nutrition in building muscle and losing fat means bodybuilders may consume a wide variety of dietary supplements.[21] Various products are used in an attempt to augment muscle size, increase the rate of fat loss, improve joint health and prevent potential nutrient deficiencies. Scientific consensus supports the effectiveness of only a small number of commercially available supplements when used by healthy, physically active adults[citation needed]. Creatine is probably the most widely used performance enhancing legal supplement. Creatine works by turning into creatine phosphate, which provides an extra phosphorus molecule in the regeneration of ATP. This will provide you with more energy, that lasts longer during short, intense bits of work like weight training. Many supplements come in capsule form. ... In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 as a product taken by the mouth that contains a dietary ingredient that is intended as a supplement to the diet. ...


Performance enhancing substances

Some bodybuilders choose to use drugs to gain an advantage in hypertrophy, especially in professional competitions. Although these substances are illegal without prescription in many countries, in professional bodybuilding anabolic steroids and precursor substances such as prohormones are used very frequently. Anabolic steroids cause muscle hypertrophy of both types (I and II) of muscle fibers caused likely by an increased synthesis of muscle proteins. Some negative side-effects accompany steroid abuse, such as hepatotoxicity, gynecomastia, acne, male pattern baldness and a temporary decline in the body's own testosterone production, which can cause testicular atrophy.[22][23][24] Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. ... A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ... Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) is chemical-driven liver damage. ... Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, pronounced is the development of abnormally large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement, which can sometimes cause secretion of milk. ... Baldness (formally alopecia) is the state of lacking hair where it usually would grow, especially on the head. ... The testicle (from Latin testis, meaning witness [1], plural testes) or ballock is the male generative gland in animals. ... Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. ...


Growth Hormone (GH) and insulin are also used. GH is relatively expensive compared to steroids, while insulin is very readily available yet fatal if misused. See Growth hormone treatment for bodybuilding. Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Growth hormone has attracted increasing interest and use by amatuer and professional bodybuilders, as well as professional athletes to increase performance and muscle growth. ...


Rest

Although muscle stimulation occurs in the gym lifting weights, muscle growth occurs afterward during rest. Without adequate rest and sleep, muscles do not have an opportunity to recover and build. About eight hours of sleep a night is desirable for the bodybuilder to be refreshed, although this varies from person to person. Additionally, many athletes find a daytime nap further increases their body's ability to build muscle. Some bodybuilders take several naps per day, during peak anabolic phases. Modern indoor gymnasium with pull-down basketball hoops. ...


Overtraining

Main article: Overtraining

Overtraining refers to when a bodybuilder has trained to the point where his workload exceeds his recovery capacity. There are many reasons that overtraining occurs, including lack of adequate nutrition, lack of recovery time between workouts, insufficient sleep, and training at a high intensity for too long (a lack of splitting apart workouts). Training at a high intensity too frequently also stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) and can result in a hyper-adrenergic state that interferes with sleep patterns.[25] To avoid overtraining, intense frequent training must be met with at least an equal amount of purposeful recovery. Timely provision of carbohydrates, proteins, and various micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, even nutritional supplements are acutely critical. Overtraining is a common problem in weight training, but it can also be experienced by runners and other athletes. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...


It has been argued that overtraining can be beneficial. One article published by Muscle & Fitness magazine stated that you can "Overtrain for Big Gains". It suggested that if one is planning a restful holiday and they do not wish to inhibit their bodybuilding lifestyle too much, they should overtrain before taking the holiday, so the body can rest easily and recuperate and grow. Overtraining can be used advantageously, as when a bodybuilder is purposely overtrained for a brief period of time to super compensate during a regeneration phase. These are known as "shock micro-cycles" and were a key training technique used by Soviet athletes.[26] However, the vast majority of overtraining that occurs in average bodybuilders is generally unplanned and completely unnecessary.[27] Muscle & Fitness is an American bodybuilding magazine. ...


See also

For a list of words used in bodybuilding, see the Bodybuilding category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in fiction and in fact, as it is expressed in art and literature in the physiques and feats of female athletes, martial artists, and other powerfully built women, and in gender-related and sexual orientations. ... Athletic Training is an allied health care profession recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) that specializes in the prevention, evaluation, treatment, management and rehabilitation of athletic related injuries and illnesses. ... Many supplements come in capsule form. ... Body image is a persons perception of his or her own physical appearance. ... “Exercise” redirects here. ... Exercise equipment in a gymnastic-hall Exercise equipment is any object used in exercise. ... Exercise physiology is the identification of physiological mechanisms underlying physical activity, the comprehensive delivery of treatment services concerned with the analysis, improvement, and maintenance of health and fitness, rehabilitation of heart disease and other chronic diseases and/or disabilities, and the professional guidance and counsel of athletes and others interested... General Fitness is much more then just looking good. ... Noted female bodybuilders include: Erika Andersch Rebekka Armstrong Lisa Aukland Fannie Barrios Nicole Bass Christa Bauch Kay Baxter Shelley Beattie Stacey Bentley Juliette Bergmann Laura Binetti Kim Birtch Andrulla Blanchette Chris Bongiovanni Th-resa Bostick Yvette Bova Debbie Bramwell Pavla Brantalova Marissa Brown Sharon Bruneau Tatina Butler Dayana Cadeau Maria... Health and fitness magazines usually cover physical fitness and well-being, nutrition, beauty, strength. ... This is a list of male professional bodybuilders. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder in which an individual becomes obsessed that they are not muscular enough. ... The muscular system is the biological system of an organism that allows it to move. ... Physical Culture Physical Culture, (or Physie - pronounced fizzy) is a sport for girls and women from 4 years up which aims to build confidence, good posture, strength, grace, and flexibility through exercise. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bodybuilding In bodybuilding, striations are the tiny grooves of muscle across major muscle groups characteristic of a well-developed body. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sports Nutrition is a multi-disciplinary field of study that incorporates exercise physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, integrative physiology, and cell/molecular biology. ...

References

  1. ^ Homepage Sandow: Historic Photographs of Early Bodybuilders - The Sandow Museum: History of Bodybuilding - A Tribute to Eugen Sandow.
  2. ^ The Mr. Olympia Bodybuilding Contest Trophy and Medal - I.F.B.B.: THE STORY OF THE MR. OLYMPIA TROPHY BY DAVID L. CHAPMAN. BIOGRAPHER OF EUGEN SANDOW. Article
  3. ^ Theunissen, Steve. Arnold & Steroids: Truth Revealed. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  4. ^ Trends in Strength Training. Center for disease control (July 21, 2006).
  5. ^ 10 exercise myths. Center for science in the public interest (Jan 2000).
  6. ^ "Sculpted trend spurs women to pump iron", MSNBC, MSNBC, July 20, 2006, pp. 1. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  7. ^ MacDougall JD, Elder GC, Sale DG, Moroz JR, Sutton JR (1980). "Effects of strength training and immobilization on human muscle fibres". European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology 43 (1): 25-34. PMID 7371625. 
  8. ^ Manore, MM; Thompson J, Russo M (Mar 1993). "Diet and exercise strategies of a world-class bodybuilder.". Int J Sport Nutr. 3 (1): 76-86.. PMID 8499940. 
  9. ^ Michael W. King, Michael. Substrates for Gluconeogenesis. IU School of Medicine.
  10. ^ Lambert CP, Frank LL, Evans WJ. Macronutrient considerations for the sport of bodybuilding. Sports Med. 2004;34(5):317-27. PMID 15107010
  11. ^ Protein: a guide to maximum muscle: confused? Let us separate the gristle from the meat, Samantha Heller, Men's Fitness, April 2004 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1608/is_4_20/ai_n6002944
  12. ^ Bodybuilders & Protein Part 2, Tom Venuto http://www.bodybuildingforyou.com/articles-submit/tom-venuto/bodybuildiers-and-protein-2.htm
  13. ^ Protein Handbook for Beginners, Jeff Bahar, Bodybuilding.com http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/protein8.htm
  14. ^ Protein Cycling by Chris Aceto. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  15. ^ Your nutrition problems solved; This month: pre- and postworkout nutrition, calculating protein intake and adding simple carbs FLEX Magazine, January 2005
  16. ^ Author L. Rea's Core Performance: Truth For Excellence In Physique & Performance -- Soy Proten Sucks! Article
  17. ^ http://www.maxmuscle.com/index.cfm?fa=article&doc_id=116&subcat=science Estrogens, Testosterone & Phytoestrogens By Mike Falcon
  18. ^ The Testosterone Syndrome: The Critical Factor for Energy, Health, & Sexuality - Reversing the Male Menopause M. Evans and Company, Inc., New York, NY. ISBN #0-87131-829-6
  19. ^ Bellisle F, McDevitt R, Prentice AM. Meal frequency and energy balance. Br J Nutr. 1997 Apr;77 Suppl 1:S57-70. PMID 9155494
  20. ^ Taylor MA, Garrow JS. Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Apr;25(4):519-28. PMID 11319656
  21. ^ Philen RM, Ortiz DI, Auerbach SB, Falk H (1992). "Survey of advertising for nutritional supplements in health and bodybuilding magazines". JAMA 268 (8): 1008-11. PMID 1501305. 
  22. ^ Schroeder E, Vallejo A, Zheng L, et al (2005). "Six-week improvements in muscle mass and strength during androgen therapy in older men". J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60 (12): 1586-92. PMID 16424293. 
  23. ^ Grunfeld C, Kotler D, Dobs A, Glesby M, Bhasin S (2006). "Oxandrolone in the treatment of HIV-associated weight loss in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study". J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41 (3): 304-14. PMID 16540931. 
  24. ^ Giorgi A, Weatherby R, Murphy P (1999). "Muscular strength, body composition and health responses to the use of testosterone enanthate: a double blind study". Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia 2 (4): 341-55. PMID 10710012. 
  25. ^ Testosterone Nation - The Warrior Nerd: Overtraining or Under-eating? Part 1 by Lonnie Lowery, Ph.D. Article
  26. ^ Smith DJ (2003). "A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance". Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 33 (15): 1103-26. PMID 14719980. 
  27. ^ Testosterone Nation - The "Imperfect" Training Program. by Keats Snideman. Article

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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