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Encyclopedia > Body image

Body image is a term which may refer to our perceptions of our own physical appearance, or our internal sense of having a body which is constructed by the brain. Essentially a person's body image is how they perceive their exterior to look, and in many cases this can be dramatically different to how they actually appear to others. Negative feelings towards a person's body can in some cases lead to mental disorders such as depression or eating disorders, though there can be a variety of different reasons why these disorders can occur. Within the media industry there have recently been popular debates focusing on how Size Zero models can negatively influence young people into feeling insecure about their own body image. It has been suggested that size zero models be banned from cat walks. Many celebrities are targeted by the media due to their often drastic weight loss and slender frames, examples of such personalities would be member of the Spice Girls and wife of L.A Galaxy Footballer David Beckham, Victoria Beckham, famous socialite and daughter of Lionel Richie, Nicole Richie and ex Destiny's Child member turned solo singer and Actress Beyonce. Other controversial thin celebrities include British Super Model Kate Moss and Singer Amy Winehouse, though in neither case is their weight the most criticised thing about them. Some examples of celebrity men targeted in a similar fashion can be found, but the media seems to focus principally on the effect that the Size Zero phenomenon has on young women. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... The media industry describes the once very distinct, but today interacting, newspaper, magazine, book, radio, internet and TV industries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Spice Girls are an English all-female pop group, formed in London in 1994. ... David Beckham David Robert Joseph Beckham OBE (born May 2, 1975) is an English footballer born in Leytonstone, London. ... Victoria Caroline Beckham (née Adams; born 17 April 1974) is an English singer, songwriter, dancer and occasional actress turned fashion designer, and businesswoman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lionel Brockman Richie, Jr. ... Nicole Camille Richie (born September 21, 1981) is an American socialite, actress, author, and singer. ... Destinys Child was an American R&B group. ... Beyoncé Giselle Knowles (born September 4, 1981) is a popular American R&B singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, and fashion designer, and is most widely known by the name Beyoncé. Knowles rose to stardom as a founding member and the lead singer of Destinys Child, musics most successful... Not to be confused with Kate Mosse. ... Amy Jade Winehouse (born 14 September 1983) is an English soul and jazz singer songwriter. ...


Body Image and Physical Appearance

Into the Looking-Glass

Everyone has a body image; the way in which a person sees their own body. A body image may be poor, or good, depending on the perceptions that are involved. A poor body image involves negative perceptions (i.e. "I'm unattractive," or "I'm too fat," etc,) where as a good body image involves positive perceptions. Extreme criticism of one's own body is characteristic of Body Dysmorphic Disorder, which involves a distorted body image. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder that involves a distorted body image. ...

A person's body image does not necessarily correlate to objective measures of attractiveness, or the subjective opinions of others. For example, a person who is seen as attractive by others may have a poor body image, and a person who is seen as unattractive by others may have a good body image.

Recent Research

Body image is often measured by asking the subjectsnmvk to rate their current and ideal body shape using a series of depictions. The difference between these two values is the amount jilgjof body dissatisfaction. jjhMonteath and McCabe found that 44%[1] of women express negative feelings about both individual body parts and their bodies as a whole. Psychology Today found that 56% of the women and about 40% of the men who responded to their survey in 1997 were dissatisfied with their overall appearance.[2] Cover of April 2004 issue of Psychology Today. ...

The desire to lose weight is highly correlated with poor body image, which typically means that more women have a poor body image than men. Susan Kashubeck-West, Laurie B. Mintz, and Ingrid Weigold report that the sex differences in body image disappear when we consider only those people who are trying to lose weight.[3]

Our life orientation also shapes how we feel about our bodies. Women who self-identify as feminists view their body more positively than those who do not consider themselves feminists, even though there was no difference between the groups in average body weight.[4] Exercise habits, sexual experiences, and mood also influence the feelings people have toward their bodies.

Men's body image is a topic of increasing interest in both academic articles and in the popular press. Current research indicates many men wish to become more muscular than they currently perceive themselves to be, often desiring up to 26 pounds of additional muscle mass.[5]

The desire for additional muscle has been linked to many men's concepts about masculinity. A variety of research has indicated a relationship between men's endorsement of traditionally masculine ideas and characteristics, and his desire for additional muscle[6]. Some research has suggested this relationship between muscle and masculinity may begin early in life, as boys' action figures are often depicted as super-muscular, often beyond the actual limits of human physiology. [7] “Manliness” redirects here. ...

This desire for additional muscle has been given various nicknames, including "The Adonis Complex", "Bigorexia", "Reverse Anorexia", and "Muscle dysmorphia". Muscle dissatisfaction has been linked to low self esteem,[8] personality disorder [9] and is related to the use of muscle-building supplements and anabolic steroids. [10] [11] As such, men's body image dissatisfaction represents a substantial concern to public health researchers. In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder in which an individual becomes obsessed that they are not muscular enough. ... For the The Offspring single, see Self Esteem (song). ... Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. ...

Body Image and the Brain

Definition and Origin

According to Vilayanur S. Ramachandran of the University of California, San Diego, the nature of self has five defining characteristics. One of them is the sense of embodiment and ownership of a body. Although we do in fact have a body, the brain is responsible for the construction of a "body-image," a term introduced in the writings of neurologist Henry Head (which also has been used interchangeably with the term body-schema.) Your sense of having a body involves the visual system, the vestibular system, and proprioception; the sense of body position and movement (a term coined by Charles Scott Sherrington in his published work entitled, The Integrated Action of the Nervous System.) Proprioception correlates with dynamic body maps in the somatosensory, motor, and parietal cortices. Most notable is the primary somatosensory receiving area (S1) in the somatosensory cortex, where the sensory homunculus or "little man" resides. The neurons in this region are responsible for cutaneous (skin), visceral (organ), and proprioceptive sensation, as they fire to represent each part of your body--from the genitalia to the internal organs--with the help of sensory input that travels from peripheral nerves, through the spinal cord, and into the brain. Dr. Vilayanur Ramachandran on an episode of PBSs NOVA Television program. ... Look up self in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Henry Head (August 4, 1861 - October 8, 1940) was an English neurologist who conducted pioneering work into the somatosensory system and sensory nerves. ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... It has been suggested that Equilibrioception be merged into this article or section. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... Sherrington is considered one of the fathers of neuroscience. ... The somatosensory system is the sensory system of somatic sensation. ... The concept of a homunculus (Latin for little man, sometimes spelled homonculus, plural homunculi) is often used to illustrate the functioning of a system. ...

Neurological Phenomenon

Ablation of those sensory nerves that carry sensory input from proprioceptors to the brain, results in a loss of proprioception. A person may experience such a loss in certain limbs, or throughout their entire body. In Oliver Sacks book, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he describes a patient named Christina who suffered from a selective neuritis--an infection in her spinal fluid that disconnected her entire body from the parietal cortices in her brain, causing a total loss of proprioception--and thereby a sense of disembodiment. Christina would flail and overshoot her limbs. Her body flopped around like a rag doll. Standing or sitting straight was nearly impossible for her. Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat is a 1985 book by neurologist Oliver Sacks describing the case histories of some of his patients. ...

Many amputees who have lost limbs, continue to sense the presence of them, as the body-image remains intact. Even those born without arms or legs, experience such phantoms. Often, the presence of these phantoms are so convincing, patients may step out of bed onto phantom legs or feet, or pick up cups with a phantom hand (Ronald Melzack, 1992-2006). A phantom limb is integral to wearing a prosthetic, in which the phantom fits like a glove. The body-image of the missing limb must be present, otherwise a prosthetic cannot be used effectively. This article is about the syndrome. ...

There are many types of phantoms. Some are paralyzed; frozen in unusual positions. Oliver Sacks describes a story of a sailor in The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. The Sailor had a protruding phantom finger that was stuck in an extended position. Many phantoms are like photocopies; exact replicas of the missing limbs. Others are grossly distorted and disproportioned--they may even be disconnected from the rest of the body and dangle in mid-air. Some disappear, only to be resurrected decades later. Interestingly, a women may have a phantom penis with phantom erections. While the overall sex of a human being is determined by DNA, the sex of the brain itself appears to be determined by the hormones an embryo is exposed to while in the womb. A man may have a female brain, and a women may have a male brain. This phenomenon may explain transsexualism. For the electronic music EP by Mr. ...

The somatosensory system has been known to be involved in phantom limb syndrome. According to V.S. Ramachandran, motor signals contribute to phantom limb phenomenon as well. The motor cortex is primarily responsible for voluntary movement. But when motor signals are sent to muscles, a duplicate signal is sent to the parietal lobes as well, in a sort of feedback loop, thereby giving a sense of proprioception in the missing limbs.

The body-image also emerges from the convergence of multiple senses (i.e. proprioception and vision) in the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus.[12] The body-image can detach from the physical body, and take on a phantom existence. Note that electrical stimulation of the angular gyrus causes an out-of-body experience, a decoupling of vision and proprioceptive sensory experience. The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ...

Also, some patients with anosognosia, usually left-side hemiplegics who have suffered from a stroke, experience a disassociation with their paralyzed limbs. Some may be convinced that their paralyzed leg for example, is not really theirs--perhaps the leg of a stranger. They will assert that their real leg has disappeared, and in this conclusion, attempt to shove or kick their own leg out of bed. This kind of anosognosia involves lesions on the right side of the brain--notably the somatosensory and parietal cortices. Anosognosia is a condition in which a person who suffers disability due to brain injury, seems unaware of or denies the existence of their handicap. ...


Blakeslee, S. "Out-of-Body Experience? Your Brain is to Blame." New York Times, October 3, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/03/health/psychology/03shad.html

Debra L. Gimlin, Body Work: Beauty and Self Image in American Culture (University of California Press, 2002) ISBN 0520228561

Grogan, Sarah. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children.

Melzack, R. “Phantom Limbs.” Scientific American, Secret of the Senses. 2006: 53-59.

Olivardia, R., Pope, H.G., Borowiecki, J.J., & Cohane, G.H. (2004). Biceps and body image: The relationship between muscularity and self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder symptoms. Psychology of men and masculinity, 5, 112-120.

Pope, H.G., Phillips, K.A., & Olivardia, R. (2000). The Adonis complex: The secret crisis of male body obsession. Sydney: The Free Press.

Ramachandran, V., S. A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness. New York: Pearson Education, 2004.

Ramachandran, V.S. and Rogers-Ramachandran, D. “Its All Done with Mirrors.” Scientific American Mind, August 2007: 16-18

Ridgeway, R.T., & Tylka, T.L. (2005). College men’s perceptions of ideal body composition and shape. Psychology of men and masculinity, 6, 209-220.

Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.

Sherrington, C. S. The Integrated Action of the Nervous System. C Scribner's Sons, 1906.

Smetacek, V. and Mechsner F. "Making Sense." Nature, November 2004: 432(7013), 21.

  1. ^ [htilgiukjkjgigtp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=9414624 The influence of societal factors on female body image. J Soc Psychol. 1997 Dec;137(6):708-27]
  2. ^ Psychology Today: Body Image Poll Results
  3. ^ Separating the effects of sex and weight-loss desire on body satisfaction
  4. ^ Psychology Today: Body Image Poll Results
  5. ^ Pope, Phillips, & Olivardia 2000
  6. ^ McCreary, Saucier, &Courtenay 2005; Kimmel & Mahalik, 2004
  7. ^ Pope, et al. 1999
  8. ^ Olivardia, et al. 2004
  9. ^ Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
  10. ^ Olivardia, et al. 2004
  11. ^ Ridgeway & Tylka 2004
  12. ^ Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, 2007

See also

For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... The Pinocchio illusion is an illusion that ones nose is growing longer, as happened to the literary character, Pinocchio when he told a lie. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology. ...

External links

  • The Los Angeles Body Dysmorphic Disorder & Body Image Clinic, directed by Arie Winograd
  • Video comment on body image - Melbourne University
  • Body Image Program The Body Image Program at Butler Hospital, directed by Dr. Katharine Phillips
  • Big People UK: An organization giving a voice to "Big People" living and experiencing discrimination in the UK
  • Body image survey: Monash University online research into body image.
  • Body image survey: Differences in body image between men and women.
  • AnyBody.org - non-profit organization
  • The Media Assault on Male Body Image (September 15, 2006) by Brandon Keim for Seed magazine
  • The Ideal Beauty of the Human Body in Art

  Results from FactBites:
Body image boost key to treating eating disorders | Health | Reuters (701 words)
A key part of the program is taking a body image history, which allows patients to figure out how they came to have body image issues.
Patients also participate in a body image party, where they are instructed to come up with a word that describes their body.
During body image parties, patients are also challenged to come up with positive words to describe their body.
Body Image Issues: The World's Most Comprehensive Eating Disorder Referral and Information Website (6167 words)
Healthy body weight is the size a person naturally returns to after a long period of both non-compulsive eating* and consistent exercise commensurate with the person' s physical health and condition.
Since negative body image is a prevalent problem for many women and girls and can also be a component of many serious disorders, it is critical that women learn to change their body image towards a healthy and positive view of self.
Body image and self esteem are two important ways to help promote a positive image.
  More results at FactBites »



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