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Encyclopedia > Bobby Fischer
Bobby Fischer
Full name Robert James Fischer
Country United States
Born March 9, 1943 (1943-03-09) (age 64)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Title Grandmaster
World Champion 1972-1975 (FIDE)
Peak rating 2785 (July 1972)

Robert James "Bobby" Fischer (born March 9, 1943) is a United States-born chess Grandmaster who became famous as a teenager for his chess-playing ability, and in 1972 became the only US-born chessplayer to become the official World Chess Champion. In 1975 he refused to defend the title when FIDE, the international chess federation, refused to accept his conditions for a title defense. He is a regular candidate in discussions of who is the greatest chess player of all time.[1] is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There is no consensus on who is the greatest chess player of all time, but it is a topic often discussed by fans and addressed by writers. ...


Fischer now lives in Iceland, and has also become known for his anti-Americanism and anti-Semitism, despite his being of Jewish descent.[2] Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...

Contents

Early years

Robert James Fischer was born at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. His mother, Regina Wender, was a naturalized American citizen of German Jewish[3] descent, born in Switzerland but raised in St. Louis, Missouri, and later a teacher, a registered nurse and a physician.[4] Fischer's father was listed on the birth certificate as Wender's first husband, Hans-Gerhardt Fischer, a German biophysicist. The couple married in 1933 in Moscow, U.S.S.R., where Wender was studying medicine at the First Moscow Medical Institute. However, a 2002 article by Peter Nicholas and Clea Benson of The Philadelphia Inquirer suggests that Paul Nemenyi, a Jewish Hungarian physicist, may have been Fischer's biological father. Nicholas and Benson quote an FBI report that states that Regina Fischer returned to the United States in 1939 while Hans-Gerhardt Fischer never entered the United States.[5] Hans-Gerhardt and Regina Fischer divorced in 1945 when Bobby was two years old, and he grew up with his mother and older sister, Joan. In 1948, the family moved to Mobile, Arizona, where Regina taught in an elementary school. The following year they moved to Brooklyn, New York, where Regina worked as an elementary school teacher and nurse. Micheal Reese Hospital was founded in 1881. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ... Paul Felix Nemenyi was a Hungarian physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project. ... Joan Fischer Targ, was a pioneer in computing education. ... Mobile is located in Maricopa County, Arizona. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ...

Bobby Fischer and John Collins
Bobby Fischer and John Collins

In May 1949, the six-year-old Fischer learned how to play chess from instructions found in a chess set that his sister had bought at a candy store below their Brooklyn apartment. He saw his first chess book a month later. For over a year he played chess on his own. At age seven, he joined the Brooklyn Chess Club and was taught by its president, Carmine Nigro. He later joined the Manhattan Chess Club. Other important early influences were provided by Master and chess journalist Hermann Helms and Grandmaster Arnold Denker. Denker served as a mentor to young Bobby, and often took him to watch professional hockey games at Madison Square Garden, to cheer the New York Rangers; Denker wrote that Bobby enjoyed those treats and never forgot them; the two became lifelong friends (The Bobby Fischer I Knew And Other Stories, by Arnold Denker and Larry Parr, Hypermodern Press 1995, p. 107). When Fischer was thirteen, his mother asked John W. Collins to be his chess tutor. Collins had coached several top players, including future grandmasters Robert Byrne and William Lombardy. Fischer spent much time at Collins' house, and some have described Collins as a father figure for Fischer. The Hawthorne Chess Club was the name for the group which Collins coached. Fischer also was involved with the Log Cabin Chess Club. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Carmine Nigro ( 1910 - August 16, 2001) was Bobby Fischers first chess coach (starting at 1951) and president of the Brooklyn Chess Club. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Helms, Hermann (born 1870, Brooklyn, New York State, USA; died 1963, Brooklyn, New York State, USA) was an American chess player, writer, and promoter. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ... The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York, New York, U.S.A. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player. ... Larry Parr is a chess player, author and editor. ... John W. Collins (September 23, 1912 - December 2, 2001) was one of the most influential chess teachers in U.S. history. ... Robert E. Byrne (born April 20, 1928) is a leading American chess player who won the U.S. Championship in 1972. ... William James Lombardy (born December 4, 1937) is an American Grandmaster of chess. ...


Bobby Fischer attended Erasmus Hall High School together with Barbra Streisand[6], though he later dropped out in 1959 when he turned 16. Many teachers remembered him as difficult. When his chess feats mounted, the student council of Erasmus Hall awarded him a gold medal for his chess achievements (source: Profile of a Prodigy, by Frank Brady (1965)). According to school records, he had an IQ of 187[7] and an incredibly retentive memory.[citation needed] Erasmus Hall High School is a high school in Kings County, New York (Brooklyn) in the New York City school system. ... Barbra Streisand (pronounced STRY-sand, IPA: ; born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, theatre and film actress, composer, liberal political activist, film producer and director. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


Young champion (1956-57)

Fischer's first real triumph was winning the United States Junior Chess Championship in July 1956; he scored 8.5/10 at Philadelphia to become the youngest-ever junior champion,[8], a record which still stands today. In the 1956 U.S. Open Chess Championship at Oklahoma City, Fischer scored 8.5/12 to tie for 4-8th places, with Arthur Bisguier winning.[9] Then he played in the first Canadian Open Chess Championship at Montreal 1956, scoring 7/10 to tie for 8-12th places, as Larry Evans won.[10] Fischer's famous game from the 3rd Rosenwald Trophy tournament at New York 1956, against Donald Byrne, who later became an International Master, was called "The Game of the Century" by Hans Kmoch. At the age of 12, he was awarded the U.S. title of National Master, then the youngest ever.[11] For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The U.S. Open Championship is an open national chess championship that has been held in the United States annually since 1900. ... Downtown Oklahoma City The State Capitol of Oklahoma From The South Motto: Nickname: Capital of the New Century Founded 1889 Incorporated County Oklahoma County Cleveland County Canadian County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Mick Cornett Area  - Total  - Water 1,608. ... Arthur Bisguier, born 1929, is a US chess grandmaster. ... The Canadian Open Chess Championship is Canadas Open chess championship, first held in 1956, and held annually since 1973, usually in mid-summer. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... Larry Melvyn Evans (born March 23, 1932) is an American chess player and journalist. ... This article is about the state. ... Donald Byrne (June 12, 1930–May 6, 1976) was one of the USAs strongest chess players during the 1950s and 1960s. ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ... The Game of the Century usually refers to a chess game played between Donald Byrne and 13-year old Bobby Fischer in the Rosenwald Memorial Tournament in New York City on October 17, 1956. ... Hans Kmoch is an influential chess author. ...


In 1957, Fischer first successfully defended his U.S. Junior title, scoring 8.5/9 at San Francisco.[12] Then he won the U.S. Open Chess Championship at Cleveland on tie-breaking points over Arthur Bisguier, scoring 10/12; he remains the youngest-ever U.S. Open champion.[13] Fischer defeated the young Filipino Master Rudolfo Tan Cardoso by 6-2 in a match in New York.[14] He next won the New Jersey Open Championship.[15] From these triumphs, Fischer was given entry into the invitational U.S. Chess Championship at New York. Many thought he was too weak, and predicted that he would finish last. Instead, he won, with 10.5/13, becoming in January 1958, at age 14, the youngest U.S. champion ever (this record still stands in 2007). He earned the title of International Master with this victory, becoming the youngest player ever to achieve this level (a record since broken). This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The U.S. Open Championship is an open national chess championship that has been held in the United States annually since 1900. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Arthur Bisguier, born 1929, is a US chess grandmaster. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... See also: U.S. Womens Chess Championship Winner list: 2005 Hikaru Nakamura 2004 Alexander Shabalov 2003 Alexander Shabalov 2002 Larry Christiansen 2000 Joel Benjamin / Alexander Shabalov / Yasser Seirawan 1999 Boris Gulko 1998 Nick de Firmian 1997 Joel Benjamin 1996 Alex Yermolinsky 1995 Nick de Firmian / Patrick Wolff / Alexander Ivanov... This article is about the state. ... Jan. ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ...


First World title attempts (1958-59)

Fischer's victory qualified him to participate in the 1958 Portorož Interzonal, the next step toward challenging the World Champion. At 15, he was the youngest-ever Interzonal player. The top six finishers in the Interzonal would qualify for the Candidates Tournament, but few thought the youngster had much chance of this. Again he surprised the pundits, tying for 5-6th places, with 12/20, after a strong finish.[16] This made Fischer the youngest person ever to qualify for the Candidates, a record which stood until 2005 (it was broken under a different setup[17] by Magnus Carlsen), and also earned him the title of Grandmaster, making him at that time the youngest grandmaster in history. Portorož (Portorose in Italian, literally Port of Roses) is a coastal town in Slovenia and one of the countrys largest tourist areas. ... Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by FIDE, the World Chess Federation. ... The Candidates Tournament was an annual chess tournament in which various chess players play against each other. ... Magnus Øen Carlsen (born November 30, 1990) is a Norwegian chess Grandmaster who came to international attention after winning the C group of the Corus Chess Tournament in January 2004 at the age of thirteen, and winning the B group of the same tournament two years later at 15. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ...


Before the Candidates' tournament, he competed in 1959 in strong International tournaments at Mar del Plata, Argentina; Santiago, Chile; and Zurich, Switzerland. In all three events, he scored well, showing that he was of true grandmaster strength. Map of Mar del Plata and the surrounding region Panoramic view of Varese beach, Mar del Plata Mar del Plata is an Argentine city located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the Buenos Aires Province, 400 km south of Buenos Aires. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ...


At the age of 16, Fischer finished a creditable equal fifth out of eight at the Candidates Tournament held in Bled/Zagreb/Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1959. He scored 12.5/28 but was outclassed by tournament winner Mikhail Tal, who won all four of their individual games.[18] Area: 188. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Mikhail Tal (Latvian: ; Russian: , Mikhail Nekhemievich Tal, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Mihail Tal) (November 9, 1936–June 28, 1992) was a Soviet-Latvian chess player, a Grandmaster, and the eighth World Chess Champion. ...


Unsuccessful World Championship contender (1960-62)

In 1960, Fischer tied for first with the young Soviet star Boris Spassky at the strong Mar del Plata tournament in Argentina, with the two well ahead of the rest of the field, scoring 13.5/15 (The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.183). Fischer lost only to Spassky, and this was the start of their relationship, which began on a friendly basis and stayed that way, in spite of Fischer's troubles on the board against Spassky. Fischer struggled in the subsequent Buenos Aires tournament, finishing with 8.5/19. The tournament was won by Soviet Viktor Korchnoi and Samuel Reshevsky, the many-time U.S. Champion and one of the world's strongest players, each scoring 13/19 (The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.189). This was the only real failure of Fischer's competitive career. Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij) (Russian: ) (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player and former world champion. ... Map of Mar del Plata and the surrounding region Panoramic view of Varese beach, Mar del Plata Mar del Plata is an Argentine city located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the Buenos Aires Province, 400 km south of Buenos Aires. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (also Korchnoy, Kortchnoy, Kortschnoi, etc. ... Samuel Herman (Sammy) Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski, November 26, 1911, Ozorków, (then German Empire, today Poland) - died April 4, 1992, New York, USA) was a leading American chess Grandmaster. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ...


In 1961, Fischer started a 16-game match with Reshevsky. The match was split between New York and Los Angeles. Despite Fischer's meteoric rise, the veteran Reshevsky (born in 1911, 32 years older than Fischer) was considered the favorite, since not only did he have much more match experience, but he had never lost a set match in his life. After 11 games and a tie score (2 wins apiece with 7 draws), the match ended due to a dispute between Fischer and match organizer and sponsor Jacqueline Piatigorsky. The hard-fought struggle, with many games being adjourned, had delayed the original match schedule, causing some logistical challenges for site bookings. Mrs. Piatigorsky's husband Gregor Piatigorsky, a world-class concert cellist, was giving a concert later in the afternoon of the scheduled 12th game. Mrs. Piatigorsky, who wanted to attend the concert, as well as the chess game, rescheduled the 12th game to start at 11 a.m., apparently without getting Fischer's approval. Fischer, who liked to sleep late, objected, and eventually abandoned the match after being unable to come to an agreement with the organizer. Reshevsky received the winner's share of the prizes (Profile of a Prodigy, by Frank Brady (1965)). Fischer later made up with Mrs. Piatigorsky by accepting an invitation to the 2nd Piatigorsky Cup, Santa Monica 1966, which she helped to sponsor. This article is about the state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Jacqueline Rebecca Louise de Rothschild (born November 6, 1911 in Paris, France) is an American chess and tennis champion, author, sculptor and a member of the Rothschild banking family of France. ... Piatigorsky in 1945 Gregor Piatigorsky (April 17, 1903 – August 6, 1976) was a Ukrainian cellist well known in his time. ... Frank Brady (b. ... The Piatigorsky Cup was a triennial series of double round-robin grandmaster chess tournaments held in the United States in the 1960s. ...


Fischer was second behind former World Champion Tal at Bled 1961, a super-strong tournament. He defeated Tal head-to-head for the first time, scored 3.5/4 against the Soviet contingent, and finished as the only unbeaten player, with 13.5/19 (The Games of Robert J. Fischer, by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.199). Area: 188. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ...


In the next World Championship cycle, Fischer won the 1962 Stockholm Interzonal by 2.5 points, scoring 17.5/22, making him one of the favorites for the Candidates tournament in Curaçao, which began soon afterwards. However, he had a disappointing tournament, finishing fourth out of eight with a 14-13 score. The result nonetheless established Fischer, at 19, as the strongest non-Soviet player in the world. Tal fell very ill during the tournament, and had to withdraw before completion. Fischer, a friend of Tal's, was the only player who visited him in the hospital (Profile of a Prodigy, by Frank Brady (1965)). For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ...


Following his failure in the 1962 Candidates (at which five of the eight players were from the Soviet Union), Fischer asserted that three of the Soviet players had an agreement to draw their games in order to concentrate on playing against him, and also that a fourth, Victor Korchnoi, had been forced to throw games to ensure a Soviet player won. It is generally thought that the former accusation is correct, but not the latter. (This is discussed further at the World Chess Championship 1963 article). Viktor Korchnoi (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Корчно́й) (born March 23, 1931) is sometimes reckoned to be the strongest chess player never to have been world champion. ... At the World Chess Championship 1963 Tigran Petrosian narrowly qualified to challenge Mikhail Botvinnik for the World Chess Championship, and then won the match to become the 9th World Chess Champion. ...


U.S. Championships results

Fischer played in eight United States Chess Championships, each held in New York City, winning every one. His scores were: 1957-58: 10.5/13; 1958-59: 8.5/11; 1959-60: 9/11; 1960-61: 9/11; 1962-63: 8/11; 1963-64: 11/11; 1965-66: 8.5/11; 1966-67: 9.5/11. The total is 74/90, for 82.2 per cent, with only three losses. See also: U.S. Womens Chess Championship Winner list: 2005 Hikaru Nakamura 2004 Alexander Shabalov 2003 Alexander Shabalov 2002 Larry Christiansen 2000 Joel Benjamin / Alexander Shabalov / Yasser Seirawan 1999 Boris Gulko 1998 Nick de Firmian 1997 Joel Benjamin 1996 Alex Yermolinsky 1995 Nick de Firmian / Patrick Wolff / Alexander Ivanov...


Semi-retirement (1963-68)

In 1962, Fischer said that he had "personal problems" and began to listen to various radio ministers in a search for answers. This is how he first came to listen to The World Tomorrow radio program with Herbert W. Armstrong and his son Garner Ted Armstrong; the Armstrongs' denomination, The Worldwide Church of God, predicted an imminent apocalypse. In late 1963, Fischer began tithing to the church. According to Fischer, he lived a bifurcated life, with a rational chess component and an enthusiastic religious component. The World Tomorrow is a now-defunct radio and television half-hour program which had been sponsored by the Radio Church of God (later renamed Worldwide Church of God while under the direction of Herbert W. Armstrong. ... Herbert W. Armstrong (July 31, 1892) – January 16, 1986 (aged 93)) was the founder of the Worldwide Church of God and an early pioneer of radio evangelism, taking to the airwaves in the 1930s from Eugene, Oregon. ... Garner Ted Armstrong (February 9, 1930 - September 15, 2003) was an American evangelist and the son of Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the Worldwide Church of God, at the time a Sabbatarian organization that taught strict observance of a seventh-day sabbath, holy days typically associated with the Jewish faith... The Worldwide Church of God (WCG), formerly the Radio Church of God, is a Christian church currently based in Glendora, California, USA. Founded in 1933 by Herbert Armstrong as a radio ministry, the WCG under Armstrong had a significant, and often controversial, influence on 20th century religious broadcasting and publishing... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ...


Fischer decided not to participate in the Amsterdam Interzonal in 1964, thus taking himself out of the 1966 World Championship cycle. He held to this decision even when FIDE changed the format of the eight-player Candidates Tournament from a round-robin to a series of knockout matches, which eliminated the possibility of collusion. Fischer instead embarked on a cross-country tour lasting several months, where he played simultaneous exhibitions and gave lectures; the tour was very well attended and publicized. Fischer also turned down an invitation to play in the 1963 Piatigorsky Cup tournament in Los Angeles, which had a world-class field. Instead, he preferred to play at the same time in the much weaker Western Open in Bay City, Michigan, which he won, with 7.5/8. Fischer also won the 1963 New York State Championship at Poughkeepsie, another minor event, in late summer, with a perfect 7/7 (Bobby Fischer, Profile of a Prodigy, by Frank Brady (1965)). For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A round-robin tournament or all-play-all tournament is a type of group tournament in which each participant plays every other participant an equal number of times. ... A single-elimination tournament, also called a knockout or sudden death tournament, is a type of tournament where the loser of each match is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event. ... The Piatigorsky Cup was a triennial series of double round-robin grandmaster chess tournaments held in the United States in the 1960s. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Bay City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie, New York (City) Poughkeepsie, New York (Town) Poughkeepsie, Arkansas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Fischer wanted to play in the Capablanca Memorial Tournament, Havana 1965, but Americans were not allowed to travel to Cuba at that time. Fischer had travelled to Cuba to play as a youth, before Fidel Castro assumed power in 1959. Fischer was able to play by telegraph, staying in New York and playing from the Frank Marshall Chess Club. His games lasted longer because of the transmission delays and receipt of moves logistics. But Fischer tied for 2nd-4th places, with 15/21, behind former World Champion Vasily Smyslov, and defeated Smyslov in their game. Chess became a news item in the United States with this unusual achievement (The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, pages 160 and 209). José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (November 19, 1888 - March 8, 1942) was a famous Cuban chess player in the early to mid twentieth century. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... This article is about the early 20th century chess champion. ... Vasily Vasiliyevich Smyslov (Russian: ) (born March 24, 1921, in Moscow) is a Russian chess grandmaster, and was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ...


Fischer finished second at the 1966 Santa Monica supertournament, just behind world finalist Boris Spassky, scoring 11/18. The next year, he won over strong fields at Monte Carlo 1967 (7/9) and Skopje 1967 (13.5/17) (http://www.chessmetrics.com, the Bobby Fischer player file). Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica is a coastal city located in Los Angeles County, California USA, by the Pacific Ocean, south of Pacific Palisades and Brentwood, west of Westwood, Los Angeles, and north of Venice. ... Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij) (Russian: ) (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player and former world champion. ... Monte Carlo is a very wealthy section of the city-state of Monaco known for its casino, gambling, beaches, glamour, and sightings of famous people. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ...


In the next cycle, at the 1967 Sousse Interzonal, Fischer scored a phenomenal 8.5 points in the first 10 games. His observance of the Worldwide Church of God's sabbath was honored by the organizers, but deprived Fischer of several rest days, which led to a scheduling dispute. Fischer forfeited two games in protest and later withdrew, eliminating himself from the 1969 World Championship cycle. View from the Abou Nawas Hotel over to the main beach in Sousse (Bou Jaafar) The Ribat of Sousse Sousse (Arabic سوسة Susa), is a city of Tunisia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


At home, Fischer won all eight U.S. Championships that he competed in, beginning with the 1957-1958 championship and ending with the 1966-1967 championship. This string includes his 11-0 win in the 1963-1964 championship, the only perfect score in the history of the tournament, and one of only a handful of perfect scores in high-level chess tournaments ever. Some World records in the game of chess (as played in serious tournaments): // Longest game The longest tournament chess game ever to be played under modern time rules was Nikolić - Arsović, Belgrade, 1989, which lasted for 45 hours and 23 minutes with a 1000 move draw. ...


Fischer was forced to attend school, and had to miss the 1958 Olympiad. But he represented the U.S.A. on top board with great distinction at four Olympiads: (Leipzig 1960, Varna 1962, Havana 1966, and Siegen 1970). At Leipzig, he scored 13/18 for the silver medal, and the U.S.A. also won the team silver. At Varna, he scored 11/17 and the U.S.A. finished fourth. At Havana, he scored an incredible 15/17 for the individual silver, and the Americans again won team silver. Then at Siegen he again won silver with 10/13, and the U.S.A. finished fourth. His overall total was +40, =18, −7, for 49/65 or 75.4 per cent. Fischer turned down further invitations to play in 1964, 1968, and 1972, after which he retired for 20 years. The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place in even years. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Siegen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Fischer won the tournaments at Netanya 1968 (11.5/13) and Vinkovci 1968 (11/13) by large margins (http://www.chessmetrics.com, the Bobby Fischer player file). But he then stopped playing for the next 18 months, except for an amazing win in a New York Metropolitan League team match over Anthony Saidy. Early morning in Netanya, Israel Netanya (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָה, Standard Hebrew NÉ™tanya) is a city in the Center District of Israel and is the capital of the Sharon plain. ... [[Image: Vinkovci (Croatia) |250px|none|]] Coordinates: Country  Croatia County Vukovar-Srijem Government  - Mayor Mladen Karlić (HDZ) Elevation 90 m (295. ... Tony Saidy at the 2002 U.S. Chess Championships in Seattle, Washington Anthony Saidy (b. ...


The road to the world championship (1969-1972)

Bobby Fischer's score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad.
Bobby Fischer's score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad.

The 1969 U.S. Championship was also a zonal qualifier, with the top three finishers advancing to the Interzonal. Fischer, however, had sat out the U.S. Championship because of disagreements about the tournament's format and prize fund. To enable Fischer to compete for the title, Grandmaster Pal Benko gave up his Interzonal place, for which the United States Chess Federation (USCF) paid him a modest $2,000; the other zonal participants waived their right to replace Benko. This unusual arrangement was the work of Ed Edmondson, then the USCF's Executive Director. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1708x1200, 496 KB) Summary Bobby Fischers score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1708x1200, 496 KB) Summary Bobby Fischers score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad. ... Miguel Najdorf (born as Mieczysław Najdorf; 1910 - 1997) was a Polish-Argentine chess player. ... The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place in even years. ... Pál BenkÅ‘ (born July 15, 1928 in Amiens) is a chess grandmaster, author, and composer of endgame studies and chess problems. ... The United States Chess Federation (USCF) is a non-profit organization, the governing chess organization within the United States, and one of the federations of the FIDE. The USCF was founded in 1939 from the merger of two regional chess organizations, and grew gradually until 1972, when membership doubled to... Edmund Edmondson was President of the United States Chess Federation from 1963 to 1966 and Executive Director of the USCF from 1966 to 1975. ...


Before the Interzonal, though, in March and April 1970, the world's best players competed in the USSR vs. Rest of the World match in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Fischer agreed to allow Bent Larsen of Denmark to play first board for the Rest of the World team in light of Larsen's recent outstanding tournament results, even though Fischer had the higher Elo rating.[19] The USSR team won the match by a hair (20.5-19.5), but on second board, Fischer beat Tigran Petrosian, whom Boris Spassky had dethroned as world champion the previous year, 3-1, winning the first two games and drawing the last two.[20] There have so far been three official chess matches featuring Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Bent Larsen Bent Larsen (born March 4, 1935) is a Danish chess player. ... The ELO rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... Tigran Petrosian (Armenian: ) (June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a former World Chess Champion. ... Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij) (Russian: ) (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player and former world champion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Following the Match of the Century, the unofficial World Championship of Lightning Chess (5-minute games) was held at Herceg Novi. Fischer annihilated the super-class field with 19/22, 4.5 points ahead of Tal. Later in 1970, Fischer won tournaments at Rovinj/Zagreb with 13/17, and Buenos Aires, where he crushed the field of mostly Grandmasters with 15/17. Clearly, he had taken his game to a new level. Coordinates Mayor Dejan Mandić Municipality area 235 km² Population  - city  - municipality 12,739 33,034 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 1382 Area code +381 88 Car plates HN Official Website www. ... Rovinj, seen from Campanile of Sv. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


The Interzonal was held in Palma de Mallorca in November and December 1970. Fischer won it with a remarkable 18.5-4.5 score, 3.5 points ahead of Larsen, Efim Geller, and Robert Hübner, who tied for second at 15-8.[21] Fischer finished the tournament with seven consecutive wins (one by default). Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Palma (Catalan) Spanish name Palma de Mallorca Postal code 070XX Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Balearic Islands) Website http://www. ... Efim Petrovich Geller (March 2, 1925 – November 17, 1998) was a Soviet chess player. ... Doctor Robert Hübner (born November 6, 1948 in West Germany) is a respected German chess Grandmaster and papyrologist (recognised as an expert in Egyptian hieroglyphics). ...


Fischer continued his domination in the 1971 Candidates matches, defeating his opponents with a lopsided series of results unparalleled in chess history. First, he crushed Mark Taimanov of the USSR at Vancouver by 6-0. A couple of months later, he repeated the shutout against Larsen at Denver, again by 6-0 (+6−0=0).[22] The latter result was particularly shocking: just a year before, Larsen had played first board for the Rest of the World team ahead of Fischer, and had handed Fischer his only loss at the Interzonal. Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов) (born February 7, 1926) is a leading Russian chess player and concert pianist. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ...


Only former World Champion Petrosian, Fischer's final opponent in the Candidates matches, was able to offer resistance in their match played at Buenos Aires. Petrosian unleashed a strong theoretical novelty in the first game and had Fischer on the ropes, but Fischer defended with his customary aplomb and even won the game. This gave Fischer a remarkable streak of 20 consecutive wins, the second longest winning streak in chess history after Steinitz's 25-game streak from 1873 to 1882.[23] Petrosian won decisively in the second game, finally snapping Fischer's winning streak. After three consecutive draws, however, Fischer swept the next four games to win the match 6.5-2.5 (+5=3−1). The final match victory allowed Fischer to challenge World Champion Boris Spassky, whom he had never beaten before (+0=2−3). For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ... In sports, a winning streak refers to a consecutive number of games won. ... Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836, Prague–August 12, 1900, New York) was a Jewish-Austrian-American chess player and the first official world chess champion. ... Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij) (Russian: ) (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player and former world champion. ...


1972 World Championship Match

Fischer's career-long stubbornness about match and tournament conditions was again seen in the run-up to his match with Spassky. Of the possible sites, Fischer preferred Yugoslavia, while Spassky wanted Iceland. For a time it appeared that the dispute would be resolved by splitting the match between the two locations, but that arrangement fell through. After that issue was resolved, Fischer refused to play unless the prize fund, which he considered inadequate, was doubled. London financier Jim Slater responded by donating an additional $US 125,000, which brought the prize fund to an unprecedented $250,000. Fischer finally agreed to play. The World Chess Championship match between challenger Bobby Fischer and defending champion Boris Spassky in Reykjavík, Iceland 1972, has been dubbed the Match of the Century. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about Jim Slater the accountant. ...


The match took place in Reykjavík, Iceland, from July through September 1972. Fischer lost the first two games in strange fashion: the first when he played a risky pawn-grab in a dead-drawn endgame, the second by forfeit when he refused to play the game in a dispute over playing conditions. Fischer would likely have forfeited the entire match, but Spassky, not wanting to win by default, yielded to Fischer's demands to move the next game to a back room, away from the cameras whose presence had upset Fischer. The rest of the match proceeded without serious incident. Fischer won seven of the next 19 games, losing only one and drawing eleven, to win the match 12.5-8.5 and become the 11th World Chess Champion. Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ...


World-class match play (i.e., a series of games between the same two opponents) often involves one or both players preparing one or two openings very deeply, and playing them often during the match. Preparation for such a match also usually involves analysis of those opening lines known to be played by the upcoming opponent. Fischer surprised Spassky by never repeating an opening line throughout the match, and often playing opening lines that he had never played before in his chess career. During the last half of the match, Spassky abandoned his prepared lines and attempted to outplay Fischer in lines that (hopefully) neither of them had prepared, but this also proved fruitless for the defending champion. [24]


Fischer's win was a momentous victory for the United States during the time of the Cold War: the iconoclastic American almost single-handedly defeating the mighty Soviet chess establishment that had dominated world chess for the past quarter-century. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Fischer was also the (then) highest-rated player in history according to the Elo rating system. He had a rating of 2780 after beating Spassky, which was actually a slight decline from the record 2785 rating he had achieved after routing Taimanov, Larsen, and Petrosian the previous year. Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ...


The match was coined "The Match of the Century", and received front-page media coverage in the United States and around the world. With his victory, Fischer became an instant celebrity. He received numerous product endorsement offers (all of which he declined) and appeared on the covers of Life and Sports Illustrated. With American Olympic swimming champion Mark Spitz, he also appeared on a Bob Hope TV special.[25] Membership in the United States Chess Federation doubled in 1972[26] and peaked in 1974; in American chess, these years are commonly referred to as the "Fischer Boom." Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Mark Andrew Spitz (born February 10, 1950, in Modesto, California) is an American swimmer. ... Bob Hope, KBE (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003), born Leslie Townes Hope, was an English-Born American entertainer who appeared in vaudeville, on Broadway, on radio and television, in movies, and in performing tours for U.S. Military personnel, well known for his good natured humor and career longevity. ...


Fischer gave the Worldwide Church of God $61,200 of his world championship prize money. However, 1972 was a disastrous year for the church, as prophecies by Herbert W. Armstrong were unfulfilled, and the church was rocked by revelations of a series of sex scandals involving Garner Ted Armstrong.[27] Fischer, who felt betrayed and swindled by the Worldwide Church of God, left the church and publicly denounced it. The Worldwide Church of God (WCG), formerly the Radio Church of God, is a Christian church currently based in Glendora, California, USA. Founded in 1933 by Herbert Armstrong as a radio ministry, the WCG under Armstrong had a significant, and often controversial, influence on 20th century religious broadcasting and publishing... Herbert W. Armstrong (July 31, 1892) – January 16, 1986 (aged 93)) was the founder of the Worldwide Church of God and an early pioneer of radio evangelism, taking to the airwaves in the 1930s from Eugene, Oregon. ... Garner Ted Armstrong (February 9, 1930 - September 15, 2003) was an American evangelist and the son of Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the Worldwide Church of God, at the time a Sabbatarian organization that taught strict observance of a seventh-day sabbath, holy days typically associated with the Jewish faith...


Fischer-Karpov 1975

Fischer was scheduled to defend his title against challenger Anatoly Karpov in 1975. Fischer had played no tournament games since winning the title, and he laid down numerous (a total of 64) conditions for the match. While most of them were purely game-oriented in nature, some were as bizarre as a requirement for everyone entering the room where the game is conducted to take off head covering. Many commentators supposed that Fischer's objective in making the demands was to avoid having to play the match, the outcome of which Fischer was not certain. Fischer made the following three principal demands: Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Russian: ) (born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. ...

  1. The match should continue until ten wins, without counting the draws.
  2. There is no limit to the total number of games played.
  3. In case of a 9:9 score, champion (Fischer) retains his title.

Fischer claimed the usual system (twenty-four games with the first player to get 12.5 points winning, or the champion retaining his title in the event of a 12-12 tie) encouraged the player in the lead to draw games, which he regarded as bad for chess. Fischer instead wanted a match of an unlimited number of games. However, a match based on the first two conditions could take several months (In 1927 the Capablanca-Alekhine match to achieve the condition of winning only six games continued for 34 games). Many argued that this would be an exercise in stamina rather than skill. The FIDE commission headed by FIDE president Max Euwe and consisting of both, US and USSR, representatives, ruled that the match should continue until six wins. However, Fischer replied that he would resign his crown and not participate in the match. Instead of accepting Fischer's forfeit, the commission agreed to allow the match to continue until nine wins, leaving only one of the 64 conditions set by Fischer unsatisfied. FIDE postulated that the player achieving nine victories first would win the match, eliminating any advantage for the reigning champion (Fischer). Most observers considered Fischer's demand of his win in case of 9:9 draw to be unfair. It meant that Fischer only needed to win nine games to retain the championship, while Karpov had to win by a 10-8 score. Because FIDE would not agree to that demand, Fischer resigned in a cable to FIDE president Max Euwe on June 27, 1974: Machgielis (Max) Euwe (last name is pronounced /ø:wə/) (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster and Mathematician. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

"As I made clear in my telegram to the FIDE delegates, the match conditions I proposed were non-negotiable. Mr. Cramer informs me that the rules of the winner being the first player to win ten games, draws not counting, unlimited number of games and if nine wins to nine match is drawn with champion regaining title and prize fund split equally were rejected by the FIDE delegates. By so doing FIDE has decided against my participating in the 1975 world chess championship. I therefore resign my FIDE world chess champion title. Sincerely, Bobby Fischer."

Former U.S. Champion Arnold Denker, who was in contact with Fischer during the Karpov match negotiations, claimed that Fischer wanted a long match to be able to play himself into shape after a three-year layoff. [28] Karpov became World Champion by default in April 1975. In his 1991 autobiography, Karpov expressed profound regret that the match did not take place, and claimed that the lost opportunity to challenge Fischer held back his own chess development. Karpov met with Fischer several times after 1975, in friendly but ultimately unsuccessful attempts to arrange a match. [29] Garry Kasparov has argued that Karpov would have had a good chance to defeat Fischer in 1975. [30] Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ...


Fischer disappeared and did not play competitive chess for nearly twenty years. To this day, he claims that he is still the World Champion because he never lost a title match.


Disappearance and aftermath (1975 to present)

1975-1991

In 1982, Fischer published the pamphlet, "I Was Tortured in the Pasadena Jailhouse!", detailing his experiences following his arrest in 1981 after being mistaken for a wanted bank robber. Fischer alleged that the police treated him brutally. He was eventually charged with damaging prison property (a mattress). Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ...


The 14-page pamphlet ends with the signature: "Robert D. James (professionally known as Robert J. Fischer or Bobby Fischer, The World Chess Champion)." By this time Fischer had a Nevada driver's license and Social Security card with that name, the same one that appeared in the 1981 Pasadena police report.[31][32]


In the early 1980s, Fischer stayed for extended periods in the San Francisco-area home of his friend, the Canadian Grandmaster Peter Biyiasas. During a stretch of four months, the two played 17 five-minute games, and Fischer, despite his layoff from competitive play, won all of them, according to Biyiasas. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Peter Biyiasas, born on November 19, 1950 in Athens, Greece, is a Greek-Canadian-American chess grandmaster. ...


In 1984, Fischer wrote to the editors of the Encyclopedia Judaica, stating that he was not, and had never been, Jewish, and asking that his name be removed from the publication.[33] Encyclopedia Judaica complied with the request. [34] The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ...


Fischer arranged a financial settlement through FIDE with the Soviet Chess Federation, over the issue of many thousands of unauthorized photocopied versions of his book My 60 Memorable Games being distributed in the Soviet Union by the Soviet Federation. The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world. ...


1992 Spassky match

After twenty years, Fischer emerged from isolation to challenge Spassky (then placed 96-102 on the rating list) to a "Revenge Match of the 20th Century" in 1992. This match took place in Sveti Stefan and Belgrade, FR Yugoslavia, in spite of a severe United Nations embargo that included sanctions on sporting events. Fischer demanded that the organizers bill the match as "The World Chess Championship", although Garry Kasparov was the recognized FIDE World Champion. The purse for this match was reported to be $US 5,000,000 with two-thirds to go to the winner. The U.S. Department of the Treasury had warned Fischer beforehand that his participation was illegal.[35] In front of the international press, Fischer was filmed spitting on the U.S. order forbidding him to play. Following the match, the department obtained an arrest warrant for him although some dispute the legality of the Department's claim and question why others who broke the embargo have not been prosecuted.[36] Fischer won the match, 10 wins to 5, with 15 draws. Many grandmasters observing the match[attribution needed] said that Fischer was past his prime. In the book Mortal Games, Garry Kasparov is quoted: "He is playing OK. Around 2600 or 2650. It wouldn't be close between us." He has not played any competitive games since. General view Sveti Stefan (Свети Стефан) is a seaside resort located 5 km southeast of Budva, on the Budva Riviera ( ). It used to be an tidal island, but is now permanently connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ... An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a public officer which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ...


Fischer insisted he was still the true world chess champion, and that all the games in the FIDE-sanctioned World Championship matches, involving Karpov, Korchnoi and Kasparov, had been pre-arranged. Viktor Korchnoi (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Корчно́й) (born March 23, 1931) is sometimes reckoned to be the strongest chess player never to have been world champion. ...


Radio interviews

Fischer, whose mother and probable biological father were both Jewish[37][38], made occasional hostile comments toward Jews from at least the early 1960s. From the 1980s, however, his hatred for Jews was a major theme of his public remarks. He denied the "Holocaust of the Jews," announced his desire to make "expos[ing] the Jews for the criminals they are [...] the murderers they are" his lifework, and argued that the United States is "a farce controlled by dirty, hook-nosed, circumcised Jew bastards." [39]


In 1999, he gave a call-in interview to a radio station in Budapest, Hungary, during which he described himself as the "victim of an international Jewish conspiracy." Fischer's sudden re-emergence was apparently triggered when some of his belongings, which had been stored in a Pasadena, California storage unit, were sold by the landlord, who claimed it was in response to nonpayment of rent. Fischer interpreted this as further evidence of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy perpetrated by "the Jew-controlled U.S. Government" to defame and destroy him.[40] In 2005, some of Fischer's belongings were auctioned on eBay. In 2006, Fischer claimed that his belongings in the storage unit were worth millions.[41] For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... This article is about the online auction center. ...


Fischer participated in at least 33 such broadcasts between 1999 and 2005, mostly with radio stations in the Philippines, but also with stations in Iceland, Colombia, and Russia.


For some years Fischer lived in Budapest, where he lived with the Jewish Polgár family. He played Fischer Random Blitz as well as analyzed many games with Zsuzsa Polgar. The Polgár sisters are three famous chess players who are sisters: Judit Polgár Zsuzsa Polgár (also known as Susan Polgar) Zsófia Polgár This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Radio interview after the September 11, 2001, attacks

Hours after the September 11, 2001, attacks Fischer was interviewed live[42] by Pablo Mercado on the Baguio City station of the Bombo Radyo network, shortly after midnight September 12, 2001 Philippines local time (or shortly after noon on September 11, 2001, New York time). Fischer commented on U.S and Israeli foreign policy that "nobody cares ... [that] the US and Israel have been slaughtering the Palestinians for years".[43] [44] Informed that "the White House and Pentagon have been attacked", he proclaimed "This is all wonderful news."[43][44] Fischer stated "What goes around comes around even for the United States"[43][44] and said that if the U.S. fails to change its foreign policy, it "has to be destroyed." After calling for President Bush's death, Fischer also stated he hoped that a Seven Days in May-type military coup d' etat would take over power in the U.S. and then execute "hundreds of thousands of American Jewish leaders", "arrest all the Jews" and "close all synagogues". The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Click here for the entry on Baguio City ... Bombo Radyo Philippines is one of the largest radio network in the Philippines spanning across 20 major provinces. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Seven Days in May is a political thriller novel published by Harper & Row, New York in 1962(current hardcover edition: ISBN 0-06-012436-9) written by Fletcher Knebel and Charles W. Bailey. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Subsequent to that interview, Fischer's "right to membership in the United States Chess Federation [was] cancelled" by a unanimous 7-0 decision of the USCF Executive Board, taken on October 28, 2001. In 2006, that decision was subsequently "vacated" by the same Board. The United States Chess Federation (USCF) is a non-profit organization, the governing chess organization within the United States, and one of the federations of the FIDE. The USCF was founded in 1939 from the merger of two regional chess organizations, and grew gradually until 1972, when membership doubled to... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Detention in 2004 and 2005

Fischer was arrested at Narita International Airport in Narita, Japan, near Tokyo for allegedly using a revoked U.S. passport while trying to board a Japan Airlines flight to Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila, Philippines. Fischer used a genuine passport that the United States Embassy in Bern, Switzerland, issued to him in 1997. The passport was allegedly revoked in 2003, although Fischer asserts that it was valid[45] and that he never received any notification that it had been canceled. Like most passports, U.S. Passports are property of the issuing government, and can be revoked without notification. Narita International Airport ) (IATA: NRT, ICAO: RJAA) is an international airport located in Narita, Chiba, Japan, in the eastern portion of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... Narita (Japanese: 成田市; -shi) is a city located in Chiba, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA, pronounced nah-eeyah, (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL) is one of the two international airports serving the Metro Manila Area and the main international gateway of the Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bern (disambiguation). ...


Fischer has been wanted by the United States government ostensibly for playing chess with Spassky in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. The match violated President George H. W. Bush's Executive Order 12810 [46] that implemented United Nations sanctions against engaging in economic activities in Yugoslavia. Fischer's supporters have stated that other U.S. citizens were present at the match, specifically reporters, and were not prosecuted. They also have stated that although Japan and the United States have a mutually binding extradition treaty, Fischer should not have been deported, as violating a U.S. executive order is not a violation of Japanese law. Tokyo-based Canadian journalist and consultant John Bosnitch set up the "Committee to Free Bobby Fischer" after meeting Fischer at Narita airport and offering to assist him. Bosnitch was subsequently allowed to participate as a friend of the court by an Immigration Bureau panel handling Fischer's case. He then worked to block the Japanese Immigration Bureau's efforts to deport Fischer to the United States and coordinated the legal and public relations campaign to free Fischer until his eventual release. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Amicus curiae (plural amici curiae) is a legal Latin phrase, literally translated as friend of the court, that refers to a person or entity that is not a party to a case that volunteers to offer information on a point of law or some other aspect of the case to...


According to the Agence France-Presse, Fischer renounced his United States citizenship. A month later, it was reported that Fischer was marrying Miyoko Watai, the President of the Japanese Chess Association, with whom he had been living since 2000. Fischer also appealed to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell to help him renounce his citizenship. Under pressure from the United States, Japan's Justice Minister rejected Fischer's appeal that he be allowed to remain in the country and ordered him deported. AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States The Immigration and Naturalization Act sets forth the legal requirements for acquiring and losing citizenship of the United States. ... Miyoko Watai, is Bobby Fischers betrothed and a Japanese womens chess champion herself. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ...


Political asylum in Iceland

Seeking ways to evade deportation to the United States, Fischer wrote a letter to the government of Iceland in early January 2005 and asked for an Icelandic citizenship. He also unsuccessfully requested German citizenship on the grounds that his late father, Hans Gerhardt Fischer, had been a lifelong German citizen. Sympathetic to Fischer's plight, but reluctant to grant him the full benefits of citizenship, Icelandic authorities granted him an alien's passport. When this proved insufficient for the Japanese authorities, the Althing agreed unanimously to grant Fischer full citizenship in late March for humanitarian reasons, as they felt he was being unjustly treated by the U.S. and Japanese governments.[47] Meanwhile, the U.S. government filed charges of tax evasion against Fischer in an effort to prevent him from traveling to Iceland. The title page of European Union passports bears the name of the issuing country, then the name European Union, in the languages of all EU countries. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ...


When Japanese authorities received confirmation of Fischer's new citizenship, they agreed to release him and allow him to fly to Iceland. Although Iceland has an extradition treaty with the United States, Icelandic law does not permit its own citizens to be extradited. Icelandic officials reiterated their belief that the United States government had singled Fischer out for his political statements.


Shortly before his departure to Iceland on March 23, 2005, Fischer and Bosnitch appeared briefly on the BBC World Service, via a telephone link to the Tokyo airport. Bosnitch stated that Fischer would never play traditional chess again. Fischer denounced President Bush as a criminal and Japan as a puppet of the United States. He also stated that he would appeal his case to the U.S. Supreme Court and said that he would not return to the US while Bush was in power. Upon his arrival in Reykjavík, Fischer was welcomed by a crowd. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ...


In May 2005, a delegation, including Boris Spassky, visited Iceland with the intent of "drawing Fischer back to the chessboard." Fischer appeared interested in playing a Chess960 match against a "worthy opponent." Spassky said that he was not planning to play Fischer.[48] One of 960 possible starting positions. ...


In 2006, Ed Trice attempted to set up a Gothic Chess match between Fischer and Anatoly Karpov.[49] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward A. Trice (born December 5, 1966 in Philadelphia, PA) is an American inventor and entrepreneur who is most widely known for creating the chess variant known as Gothic chess. ... Gothic Chess, starting position Gothic Chess is a commercial chess variant derived from Capablanca chess, invented by Ed Trice and patented in 2002. ... Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Russian: ) (born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. ...


On December 10, 2006, Fischer phoned in to an Icelandic television station and pointed out a clever winning combination which was missed in a chess game which was televised in Iceland.[50] is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some Spanish-speaking newspapers reported that Fischer was hospitalized in Reykjavik, Iceland in November, 2007 for "serious physical problems and strong signs of paranoia" [51].


Contributions to chess theory

Fischer was renowned for his opening preparation, and made numerous contributions to chess opening theory. He was considered the greatest practitioner of the White side of the Ruy Lopez; a line of the Exchange Variation (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.0-0) is sometimes called the "Fischer variation" after he successfully resurrected it at the 1966 Havana Olympiad. Moves 1. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ...


He was also a recognized expert in the Black side of the Najdorf Sicilian, as well as being one of the greatest theoreticians of the King's Indian Defense. He also demonstrated several important improvements in the Grünfeld Defence. In the Nimzo-Indian Defence, the line beginning with 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 b6 5.Ne2 Ba6 is named for him. The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most complex and respected of all chess openings. ... The Kings Indian Defence is a chess opening that begins 1. ... The Grünfeld Defence (ECO codes D70-D99) is a chess opening characterised by the moves 1. ... Nimzo-Indian Defence 1. ...


Fischer established the viability of the so-called "Poisoned Pawn" variation of the Najdorf Sicilian (1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 6. Bg5 e6 7. f4 Qb6). Although this bold queen sortie, snatching a pawn at the expense of development, had been considered dubious, Fischer succeeded in proving its soundness, a claim supported by contemporary theory. Fischer won many games with this line; his only loss was in the 11th game of his 1972 match with Spassky. The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most complex and respected of all chess openings. ...


On the White side of the Sicilian, Fischer made advancements to the theory of the line beginning 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 (or e6) 6. Bc4, which is now called the Fischer-Sozin Attack. This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ...


In 1960, prompted by a painful loss to Spassky,[1] Fischer wrote an article entitled "A Bust to the King's Gambit" for the first issue of Larry Evans' American Chess Quarterly, in which he recommended 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 d6. This variation has since become known as the Fischer Defense to the King's Gambit. After Fischer's article was published, the King's Gambit was seen even less frequently in master-level games, although Fischer took up the White side of it in three games (preferring 3.Bc4 to 3.Nf3), winning them all. Larry Melvyn Evans (born March 23, 1932) is an American chess player and journalist. ... The Fischer Defense The Fischer Defense [Defence in non-US English] to the Kings Gambit is a chess opening that begins (in algebraic notation): 1. ...


Other contributions to chess

Fischer clock

In 1988, Fischer filed for U.S. Patent 4,884,255  for a new type of digital chess clock. Fischer's clock gave each player a fixed period of time at the start of the game and then added a small increment after each completed move. The Fischer clock soon became standard in most major chess tournaments. The patent expired in November 2001 because of overdue maintenance fees. A typical chess clock. ...


Fischer Random Chess

On June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Fischer announced and advocated a variant of chess called Fischer Random Chess, also known as Chess960, that is intended to allow players to contest games based on their understanding of chess rather than their ability to memorize opening variations. Chess960 has gone on to be moderately popular. is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... One of 960 possible starting positions. ...

  • Audio clip of Bobby Fischer describing the unsavory side of chess in its current form at the highest levels.

Other talents

Fischer is an expert at solving the Fifteen puzzle, and has been timed multiple times in under 25 seconds. Fischer demonstrated this on November 8, 1972 on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Fischer was also an expert at playing pinball machines[citation needed]. A solved 15-puzzle The n-puzzle is known in various versions, including the 8 puzzle, the 15 puzzle, and with various names. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the arcade game. ...


In popular culture

  • Despite not narrating his life but the one of Joshua Waitzkin, the film Searching for Bobby Fischer uses his name in the title (it was named Innocent moves instead in Great Britain). In one way, the title refers to the search for Fischer's successor after his disappearance from competitive chess; in the book on which the film is based, the narrator/author actually looks for Fischer for a brief period and imagines what he would say to him if found.
  • In the musical Chess, the character known variously as "The American" and in the American version of the show, as "Freddy", is based on Bobby Fischer. The seventh song of the second act, Endgame, lists his name (along with the other modern era world champions through 1980).
  • The British band iLiKETRAiNS released a 7" record in 2005 titled "A Rook House For Bobby" dealing with the 1972 World Championship Match.

Law & Order: Criminal Intent is a United States crime drama television series that began in 2001. ... Joshua Waitzkin born December 4, 1976, New York City) was a child-prodigy chess player who won the U.S. Junior Chess championship in 1993 and 1994. ... Searching for Bobby Fischer is an acclaimed film of 1993 based on the life of Joshua Waitzkin. ... Chess is a musical with lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson, formerly of ABBA. The story involves a romantic triangle between two players in a world chess championship, and a woman who manages one and falls in love with the other. ... This article is about the American television series. ... The Spartan Cheerleaders were recurring characters on the sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live, and consisted of two East Lake High School students: Arianna (Cheri Oteri) and Craig (Will Ferrell). ... Cheri Oteri (born Cheryl Ann OTeari September 19, 1962) is an American actress and comedian known for her work on NBCs Saturday Night Live. ... John William Will Ferrell (born July 16, 1967[1]) is an Emmy- and Golden Globe-nominated American comedian, actor and writer who first established himself as a cast member of Saturday Night Live, and has since gone on to a successful film career. ... iLiKETRAiNS is a band from England. ...

Writings

  • My 60 Memorable Games by Bobby Fischer (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1969, and Faber and Faber, London, 1969). This book is considered a classic text by most chess masters.
  • Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess by Bobby Fischer, Donn Mosenfelder, Stuart Margulies (Bantam Books, May 1972, ISBN 0-553-26315-3). Uses programmed learning (aka programmed instruction) to help beginners learn how to see very simple chess combinations. This book is widely used by chess instructors.
  • Bobby Fischer's Games of Chess by Bobby Fischer (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1959). An early collection of 34 lightly-annotated games including the famous "Game of the Century" vs. Donald Byrne.
  • Checkmate by Bobby Fischer, from 1966 to 1969 in Boys' Life.

Programmed Learning is a learning technique first proposed by the behaviorist B. F. Skinner in 1958. ... Programmed instruction is a field first studied extensively by the behaviorist B.F. Skinner. ... The cover of Boys Life from July 1917. ...

See also

The following people have beaten Bobby Fischer in a regular game of chess—not a game played at odds. ... A typical chess clock. ...

Citations

  1. ^ Former World Champion Max Euwe, on page ix of his book Bobby Fischer--The Greatest? (Sterling Publishing Co. 1979), wrote, "One often hears the question: 'Is Fischer the best player of all time?'" Grandmaster Andrew Soltis, on page 9 of his book "Bobby Fischer Rediscovered" (Batsford 2003) called Fischer "perhaps the greatest player in history." Grandmaster Edmar Mednis, on page xiii of his book How to Beat Bobby Fischer (Dover 1997), wrote that "Fischer is a great chess champion, perhaps the greatest the world has seen . . . ." Former World Champion Garry Kasparov, on page 490 of Volume IV of My Great Predecessors (Everyman Chess 2004), wrote, "Many consider Robert Fischer to be the best chessplayer of the 20th century. Possibly this is so." Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess (Crown Publishers, 1977) at page 117 says Fischer is "for many, the greatest player of all time." The Batsford Chess Encyclopedia (Batsford 1990) at page 67 calls him "one of the very greatest players of all time."
  2. ^ Bobby Fischer interviewed by Pablo Mercado, Radio Bomba, September 12, 2001, accessed September 2, 2006
  3. ^ FBI watched chess genius and family. Fischer's mother suspected as spy November 18, 2002
  4. ^ Schach Nachrichten in German
  5. ^ Nicholas, Peter, and Clea Benson, Files reveal how FBI hounded chess king November 17, 2002, accessed February 17, 2005 via archive.org
  6. ^ Bobby Fischer
  7. ^ Pablo Morán: Los niños prodigio del ajedrez, p. 94.
  8. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p. 100
  9. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.101)
  10. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.105)
  11. ^ Vinay Bhat...Cal Chess Hall of Fame September 28 2002
  12. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.127
  13. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.130
  14. ^ http://www.chessmetrics.com, the Bobby Fischer player file
  15. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972
  16. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.347
  17. ^ By 2005, twice as many candidates were being selected from this tournament. Thus Magnus Carlsen took one of 16 available places, while Fischer took one of 8. Carlsen was a year younger (14 years) at the time
  18. ^ The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert Wade and Kevin O'Connell, Batsford 1972, p.356
  19. ^ USSR vs Rest of the World: Belgrade 1970 "The Match of the Century"
  20. ^ USSR vs the Rest of the World (1970)
  21. ^ World Chess Championship, 1970 Palma de Mallorca Interzonal Tournament
  22. ^ The Greatest Chess Player of All Time – Part II April 28, 2005
  23. ^ Chess Records
  24. ^ _Fischer vs. Spassky, The Chess Match of the Century_, by Svetozar Gligoric, (c) 1972 by The Chess Player
  25. ^ Bob Hope's Comedy Collection 1972
  26. ^ About the USCF
  27. ^ In Bed With Garner Ted
  28. ^ Arnold Denker & Larry Parr, The Bobby Fischer I Knew And Other Stories (Hypermodern Press 1995)
  29. ^ Anatoly Karpov, Karpov on Karpov: Memoirs of a Chess World Champion (Atheneum 1991).
  30. ^ Garry Kasparov, My Great Predecessors. Vol. 5.
  31. ^ Bobby Fischer’s Pathetic Endgame December 2002
  32. ^ Bobby Fischer's Pathetic Endgame (backup copy)
  33. ^ An Open Letter from Fischer to Encyclopedia Judaica June 28, 1984
  34. ^ Reply to Bobby Fischer from Encyclopedia Judaica, September 24, 1984
  35. ^ Threatening Letter to Bobby Fischer
  36. ^ Why would I want to reinstate Fischer?
  37. ^ Ginzburg, Ralph, Portrait of a Genius As a Young Chess Master, Harper's Magazine, January 1962, accessed October 4, 2007 via bobby-fischer.net
  38. ^ Nicholas, Peter, and Clea Benson Life is not a Board Game, The Philadelphia Inquirer February 8, 2003 accessed October 4, 2007 via bobby-fischer.net
  39. ^ Parr, Larry: "Is Bobby Fischer Anti-Semitic?", Chess News, (May 2001)
  40. ^ Bobby Fischer Live Interview
  41. ^ Fischer on Icelandic Radio April 11, 2006
  42. ^ Bobby Fischer interviewed by Pablo Mercado, Radio Bomba, September 12, 2001, accessed September 2, 2006
  43. ^ a b c Bamber, David; Chris Hastings. "Bobby Fischer speaks out to applaud Trade Centre attacks", Sunday Telegraph (London), December 2, 2001, p. 17. 
  44. ^ a b c (March 1, 2002) "The Bin Laden defense; Diatribe; Bobby Fischer speaks out in favor of 9/11 attacks; Brief Article; Transcript". Harper's Magazine 304 (1822): 27. 0017-789X. 
  45. ^ Embassy of the United States of America - US Passport Revoked December 11, 2003
  46. ^ George Bush: Executive Order 12810 - Blocking Property of and Prohibiting Transactions With the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)June 5, 1992
  47. ^ Bobby Fischer: ich bin ein Icelander! March 21, 2005
  48. ^ Breaking news: Fischer comeback? May 27, 2005
  49. ^ SOLTIS, ANDY (2006-10-29). BOBBY, TOLYA MAY BE GAME FOR GOTHIC. The New York Post. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  50. ^ Bobby Fischer and the missed combination December 17, 2006
  51. ^ http://www.chessninja.com/dailydirt

Machgielis (Max) Euwe (last name is pronounced /ø:wə/) (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster and Mathematician. ... Andrew Soltis is a chess author and columnist as well as a Grandmaster. ... Edmar J Mednis (1937–February 13, 2002) was a chess International Grandmaster (1980). ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Batsford is a village and civil parish in the Cotswold district of Gloucestershire, England. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Mayer, Steve (1997), Bishop versus Knight: The Verdict, Batsford, ISBN 1-879479-73-7
  • Müller, Karsten & Frank Lamprecht (2001), Fundamental Chess Endings, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-53-6
  • Silman, Jeremy (2007), Silman's Complete Endgame Course: From Beginner to Master, Siles Press, ISBN 1-890085-10-3

Karsten Müller (born in 1970) is a German chess grandmaster. ... Frank Lamprecht (born 21 June 1968) is a German chess international master and chess trainer. ... Jeremy Silman (born August 25, 1954) is an American International Master of chess. ...

Further reading

  • Bobby Fischer: A Study of His Approach to Chess by Elie Agur, Cadogan; 1992, ISBN 1-85744-001-3.
  • Bobby Fischer Goes to War by David Edmonds and John Eidinow, Faber and Faber 2004, ISBN 0-571-21411-8.
  • Bobby Fischer, Profile of a Prodigy by Frank Brady, McKay 1973. Fischer, in one of his radio interviews, said this book was "full of lies."
  • Bobby Fischer vs. the Rest of the World by Brad Darrach, Stein & Day, 1974.
  • Bobby Fischer - wie er wirklich ist: Ein Jahr mit dem Schachgenie by Petra Dautov, ISBN 3-9804281-3-3.
  • How to Beat Bobby Fischer by Edmar Mednis, Dover; 1998, ISBN 0-486-29844-2. This expanded edition includes Fischer's losses from the second match with Spassky.
  • My Great Predecessors, Part IV: On Fischer by Garry Kasparov, London 2004.
  • Russians Vs. Fischer, second edition, ed. Dmitry Plisetsky and Sergey Voronkov, Everyman, 2005, ISBN 1-85744-380-2.
  • World Champion Fischer (Chessbase, CD-ROM) - includes all Fischer's games (around half annotated), biographical notes, and an examination by Robert Hübner of Fischer's annotations in My Sixty Memorable Games.
  • World Chess Champions by Edward G. Winter, editor, 1981, ISBN 0-08-024094-1.
  • Bobby Fischer Rediscovered, by Andrew Soltis, 2003, Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-8846-8.
  • The Unknown Bobby Fischer, by John Donaldson and Eric Tangborn, International Chess Enterprises, ISBN 1-879479-85-0.
  • The Games of Robert J. Fischer, edited by Robert G. Wade and Kevin J. O'Connell, Batsford, 1972, ISBN 0-7134-2099-5.
  • The Bobby Fischer I Knew And Other Stories, by Arnold Denker and Larry Parr, Hypermodern Press 1995, ISBN 1-886040-18-4.

Frank Brady (b. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Edmar J Mednis (1937–February 13, 2002) was a chess International Grandmaster (1980). ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... ChessBase is the dominant commercial database program for storing and searching records of games of chess. ... Doctor Robert Hübner (born November 6, 1948 in West Germany) is a respected German chess Grandmaster and papyrologist (recognised as an expert in Egyptian hieroglyphics). ... Edward Winter is a noted journalist and author about chess. ... Andrew Soltis is a chess author and columnist as well as a Grandmaster. ... John W. Donaldson is an international master of chess. ... Robert Wade, Chess player and author, (born April 10, 1921 Dunedin New Zealand) After winning the New Zealand Chess Championship in 1948, Bob Wade travelled to Europe to further his chess career. ... Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player. ... Larry Parr is a chess player, author and editor. ...

External links

  • Official Site - Contains statements and radio interviews
  • Portrait of a Genius As a Young Chess Master. Ralph Ginzburg's 1962 interview. Retrieved on 25 March, 2005.
  • Bobby Fischer: Demise of a chess legend, the BBC on Fischer's personality and downfall
  • Fischer Watch Index of Fischer news stories
  • Is Bobby Fischer Anti-Semitic? Statements on the Jews and the United States.
  • Ambassador Report Fischer's involvement with Armstrong
  • FIDE
  • Chessgames
  • Letelier vs Fischer multimedia annotated game
  • Byrne vs Fischer multimedia annotated game
  • Fischer vs Petrosian 1971 multimedia annotated game
Preceded by
Boris Spassky
World Chess Champion
1972–1975
Succeeded by
Anatoly Karpov
Preceded by
Arthur Bisguier
United States Chess Champion
1958–1960
Succeeded by
Larry Evans
Preceded by
Larry Evans
United States Chess Champion
1962–1966
Succeeded by
Larry Evans

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bobby Fischer - MSN Encarta (532 words)
Bobby Fischer, born in 1943, American chess player, who in 1972 became the first American to win the world championship.
Three years later Fischer was stripped of the title in a dispute, and he later became known as an eccentric, controversial figure who refused to play competitive chess.
His father left the family when he was a toddler, and Fischer was raised by his mother, who in the late 1940s moved to New York City with her two children.
Bobby Fischer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4969 words)
Fischer is also well-known for his eccentricity and unconventional behavior, anti-Americanism, anti-imperialism, anti-Semitism, and outspoken political views.
Fischer and others alleged that because of the number of "Russian" players involved in the tournament (the Soviet Union dominated international chess competition throughout most of its history), it was possible for them to agree on short draws among themselves and concentrate their full efforts on the non-Soviet contingent.
Fischer's sudden re-emergence was apparently triggered when some of his belongings, which had been stored in a Pasadena, California storage unit, were sold by the landlord who claimed it was in response to nonpayment of rent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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