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Encyclopedia > Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Bob Marley in concert, Zürich, 1980.
Bob Marley in concert, Zürich, 1980.
Background information
Birth name Robert Nesta Marley
Also known as Tuff Gong
Born February 6, 1945(1945-02-06)
Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica
Died May 11, 1981 (aged 36)
Miami, Florida, United States
Genre(s) Reggae
Occupation(s) Singer, songwriter, guitarist
Instrument(s) Guitar, vocals, percussion
Years active 1962 – 1981
Label(s) Studio One, Beverley's, Upsetter/Trojan, Island/Tuff Gong
Associated
acts
The Wailers Band, The Wailers
Website www.bobmarley.com

Robert "Bob" Nesta Marley OM (February 6, 1945May 11, 1981) was a Jamaican singer, songwriter, guitarist, and activist. He is the most widely known performer of reggae music. A faithful Rastafari, Marley is regarded by many as a prophet of the religion.[1] Bob Marley is a comedian from Biddeford, Maine. ... Description: Bob Marley live in concert at the Hallenstadion in Zürich, May 30, 1980 Author: Ueli Frey Source: Dr Jazz License: GNU IMPORTANT NOTE: The author has given his permission for use under the GNU License only for this image. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Saint Ann, Jamaica (2001 population 168,726), is a parish located in the northern part of Jamaica and is north west of Kingston. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... “Miami” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Studio One is one of reggaes most renowned record labels and recording studios, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Leslie Kong (1933–August 9, 1971) was a Chinese Jamaican reggae record producer. ... Upsetter Records was set up by Lee Scratch Perry in 1968. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Tuff Gong is a record label that was formed by the reggae group The Wailers in 1970 and named after Bob Marleys nickname. ... When Bob Marley originally started singing with Bunny Wailer and Peter Tosh on the album Catch A Fire and Burnin ; they were known simply as The Wailers. ... The Wailers was a ska, rocksteady and reggae group formed in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, consisting of Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Bunny Livingston (aka Bunny Wailer), Bob Marley, Peter McIntosh (aka Peter Tosh), and Cherry Smith. ... The Order of Merit is the third highest honor conferred by the nation of Jamaica. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... A singer is a musician who uses their voice to produce music. ... A songwriter is someone who writes the lyrics to songs, the musical composition or melody to songs, or both. ... the very definition of a guitarist is cody allen and taylor hines because of there un ending guitar skills and awsomnes. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ...


Marley is best known for his reggae songs, which include the hits "Bad Boys", "I Shot the Sheriff", "No Woman, No Cry", "Three Little Birds", "Exodus", "Could You Be Loved", "Jammin", "Redemption Song", and "One Love".[2] His posthumous compilation album Legend (1984) is the best-selling reggae album ever, with sales of more than 12 million copies.[2] Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... I Shot The Sheriff is a song written by Eric Clapton. ... No Woman, No Cry is a reggae song made famous by Bob Marley and the Wailers. ... Three Little Birds is a song by Bob Marley & The Wailers from their 1977 album Exodus. ... Could You Be Loved is a famous song by Bob Marley and the Wailers. ... Album cover of Uprising Redemption Song was the last track on Bob Marleys ninth Island music album, Uprising. ... One Love is a song by Bob Marley & The Wailers from their 1977 album Exodus and it has also been released on many of his compilation albums. ... Legend is a greatest hits collection of Bob Marley & The Wailers songs, released on May 8, 1984 (see 1984 in music). ...

Contents

Early life and career

Marley was born in the small village of Nine Mile in Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica. His father, Norval Sinclair Marley, (born in 1895), was a Jamaican of English descent, with parents from Sussex. Norval was a Marine officer and captain, as well as a plantation overseer, when he married Cedella Booker, a black Jamaican then eighteen years old. Norval provided financial support for his wife and child, but seldom saw them, as he was often away on trips. Marley was ten years old when his father died of a heart attack in 1955 at age 60. Saint Ann, Jamaica (2001 population 168,726), is a parish located in the northern part of Jamaica and is north west of Kingston. ... Norval Marley (1895-19??) was the white father of the famous reggae musician Bob Marley. ... This article is about the English as a nation. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... Cedella Marley Booker (born July 23, 1926) is a singer and writer who is mostly known for being the mother of the late reggae musician Bob Marley. ...


Marley suffered racial prejudice as a youth, because of his mixed racial origins,[3] and faced questions about his own racial identity throughout his life. He once reflected: THE FUTURE OF BRITAIN, LONG LIVE THE WHITES!!!!! ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ...

I don't have prejudice against myself. My father was a white and my mother was black. Them call me half-caste or whatever. Me don't dip on nobody's side. Me don't dip on the black man's side nor the white man's side. Me dip on God's side, the one who create me and cause me to come from black and white.

Marley and his mother moved to Kingston's Trenchtown slum after Norval's death. He was forced to learn self-defense, as he became the target of bullying because of his racial makeup and small stature (5'4" or 163 cm tall) [citation needed]. He gained a reputation for his physical strength, which earned him the nickname "Tuff Gong". The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Trenchtown is a neighbourhood located in Kingston, the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ...


Marley became friends with Neville "Bunny" Livingston (later known as Bunny Wailer), with whom he started to play music. He left school at the age of 14 and started as an apprentice at a local welder's shop. In his free time, he and Livingston made music with Joe Higgs, a local singer and devout Rastafari who is regarded by many as Marley's mentor. It was at a jam session with Higgs and Livingston that Marley met Peter McIntosh (later known as Peter Tosh), who had similar musical ambitions. Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Joe Higgs singing Theres a reward Joe Higgs (June 3, 1940 – December 18, 1999) was a reggae musician from Jamaica. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... A jam session is a musical act where musicians gather and play (or jam) without extensive preparation or predefined arrangements. ... Peter Tosh on the cover of his album The Toughest Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987) was a pioneer reggae musician, as well as a trailblazer for the Rastafarian movement. ...


In 1962, Marley recorded his first two singles, "Judge Not" and "One Cup of Coffee", with local music producer Leslie Kong. These songs, released on the Beverley's label under the pseudonym of Bobby Martell,[4] attracted little attention. The songs were later re-released on the album Songs of Freedom, a posthumous collection of Marley's songs. Judge Not is the first single Bob Marley recorded. ... Leslie Kong (1933–August 9, 1971) ran the Beverleys label. ... Leslie Kong (1933–August 9, 1971) was a Chinese Jamaican reggae record producer. ... Songs of Freedom is a four-disc box set containing music by Bob Marley and the Wailers, from Marleys first song Judge Not recorded in 1962, to a live version of Redemption Song, recorded in 1980 at his last concert. ...


Musical career

The Wailers

The Wailers in the mid-1960s. From left to right: Bunny Wailer, Bob Marley, Peter Tosh.

In 1963, Bob Marley, Bunny Livingston, Peter McIntosh, Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, and Cherry Smith formed a ska and rocksteady group, calling themselves "The Teenagers". They later changed their name to "The Wailing Rudeboys", then to "The Wailing Wailers", and finally to "The Wailers". By 1966, Braithwaite, Kelso, and Smith had left The Wailers, leaving the core trio of Marley, Livingston, and McIntosh. ImageMetadata File history File links Wailers_group_high_res(resized). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Wailers_group_high_res(resized). ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Peter Tosh on the cover of his album The Toughest Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987) was a pioneer reggae musician, as well as a trailblazer for the Rastafarian movement. ... Peter Tosh on the cover of his album The Toughest Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987) was a pioneer reggae musician, as well as a trailblazer for the Rastafarian movement. ... Franklin Delano Alexander Braithwaite, better known as Junior Braithwaite (April 4, 1949 – June 2, 1999) was one of the founders of, and the first lead singer of The Wailers. ... Beverley Kelso, is a Jamaican singer. ... Cherry Smith was a backing vocalist for the original Wailers from 1963-1966. ... Ska (pron. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Wailers was a ska, rocksteady and reggae group formed in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, consisting of Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Bunny Livingston (aka Bunny Wailer), Bob Marley, Peter McIntosh (aka Peter Tosh), and Cherry Smith. ...


Marley took on the role of leader, singer, and main songwriter. Much of The Wailers' early work, including their first single Simmer Down, was produced by Coxsone Dodd at Studio One. Simmer Down topped Jamaican Charts in 1964 and established The Wailers as one of the hottest groups in the country. They followed up with songs such as "Soul Rebel" and "400 Years". Simmer Down was the second single released by Bob Marley and the Wailers (Peter Tosh & Bunny Livingstone). ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... Studio One is one of Reggaes most renowned record labels, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ...


In 1966, Marley married Rita Anderson, and moved near his mother's residence in Wilmington, Delaware for a few months. Upon returning to Jamaica, Marley became a member of the Rastafari movement, and started to wear his trademark dreadlocks (see the religion section for more on Marley's religious views). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... Dreadlocks, sometimes called simply locks or dreads, are matted ropes of hair which will form by themselves if the hair is allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors or scissors for a long period of time. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ...


After a conflict with Dodd, Marley and his band teamed up with Lee "Scratch" Perry and his studio band, The Upsetters. Although the alliance lasted less than a year, they recorded what many consider The Wailers' finest work. Marley and Perry split after a dispute regarding the assignment of recording rights, but they would remain friends and work together again. Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ... The Upsetters were a young Jamaican quartet, originating in the 1960s The band included guitarist Alva Lewis, organist Glen Adams and brothers Aston Family Man Barrett and Carlton Barrett, on bass and drums respectively. ...


Between 1968 and 1972, Bob and Rita Marley, Peter McIntosh and Bunny Livingston re-cut some old tracks with JAD Records in Kingston and London in an attempt to commercialize The Wailers' sound. Livingston later asserted that these songs "should never be released on an album … they were just demos for record companies to listen to." JAD Records was a record label that was co-owned by Johnny Nash, producer Arthur Jenkins, and businessman Danny Sims, whose initials formed its logo. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

The Wailers' first album, Catch A Fire, was released worldwide in 1973, and sold well. It was followed a year later by Burnin', which included the songs "Get Up, Stand Up" and "I Shot The Sheriff". Eric Clapton made a hit cover of "I Shot the Sheriff" in 1974, raising Marley's international profile. Image File history File links JAD_bob_resized. ... Image File history File links JAD_bob_resized. ... Catch a Fire is the major label debut album for Jamaican roots reggae band The Wailers, released on Island Records in 1973 (see 1973 in music). ... Burnin is a roots reggae album by The Wailers, released in 1973 (see 1973 in music). ... Get Up, Stand Up is a reggae song written by Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... I Shot The Sheriff is a song written by Eric Clapton. ... Eric Patrick Clapton CBE (born 30 March 1945), nicknamed Slowhand, is an Grammy Award winning English guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ...


The Wailers broke up in 1974 with each of the three main members going on to pursue solo careers. The reason for the breakup is shrouded in conjecture; some believe that there were disagreements amongst Livingston, McIntosh, and Marley concerning performances, while others claim that Livingston and McIntosh simply preferred solo work. McIntosh began recording under the name Peter Tosh, and Livingston continued as Bunny Wailer. Peter Tosh on the cover of his album The Toughest Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987) was a pioneer reggae musician, as well as a trailblazer for the Rastafarian movement. ...


Bob Marley & The Wailers

Despite the breakup, Marley continued recording as "Bob Marley & The Wailers". His new backing band included brothers Carlton and Aston "Family Man" Barrett on drums and bass respectively, Junior Marvin and Al Anderson on lead guitar, Tyrone Downie and Earl "Wya" Lindo on keyboards, and Alvin "Seeco" Patterson on percussion. The "I Threes", consisting of Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, and Marley's wife, Rita, provided backing vocals. When Bob Marley originally started singing with Bunny Wailer and Peter Tosh on the album Catch A Fire and Burnin ; they were known simply as The Wailers. ... Carlton Barrett Carlton Carly Barrett was the originator of the one drop rhythm, a percussive drumming style. ... Aston Francis Barrett (born November 22, 1946, Kingston, Jamaica), often called Family Man or Fams for short, is a Jamaican bass player and Rastafarian. ... Junior Marvin (born Donald Hanson Marvin Kerr Richards Jr) is a Jamaican born guitarist. ... Al Anderson is an American-born guitarist. ... Tyrone Downie is a keyboardist/pianist. ... Earl Wire Lindo is a Jamaican musician. ... Alvin Seeco Patterson is a Jamaican born percussionist. ... The I Threes were a Jamaican reggae backing band made up of 3 women that was formed in 1974 to support Bob Marley and the Wailers after Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer, the original Wailer backing vocalists, left the band. ... Judy Mowatt (born in 1952) is a Jamaican singer. ... Marcia Llyneth Griffiths (born on November 23, 1949 in Kingston, Jamaica) also called Queen of Reggae is Jamaicas most famous female singer. ...


In 1975, Marley had his international breakthrough with his first hit outside Jamaica, "No Woman, No Cry" from the Natty Dread album. This was followed by his breakthrough album in the US, Rastaman Vibration (1976), which spent four weeks on the Billboard charts Top Ten. No Woman, No Cry is a reggae song made famous by Bob Marley and the Wailers. ... Natty Dread is a 1974 (see 1974 in music) reggae album by Bob Marley & the Wailers. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Rastaman Vibration, a roots reggae-album by Bob Marley & the Wailers released in April 30, 1976. ... “Hot 100” redirects here. ...


In December 1976, two days before " Smile Jamaica", a free concert organized by the Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley in an attempt to ease tension between two warring political groups, Marley, his wife, and manager Don Taylor were wounded in an assault by unknown gunmen inside Marley's home. Taylor and Marley's wife sustained serious injuries, but later made full recoveries. Bob Marley received only minor injuries in the chest and arm. The shooting was thought to have been politically motivated, as many felt the concert was really a support rally for Manley. Nonetheless, the concert proceeded, and an injured Marley performed as scheduled. The Smile Jamaica Concert was a historical concert held on December 5, 1976, at the National Heroes Park, Kingston, Jamaica, performed by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... Michael Norman Manley (December 10, 1924 – March 6, 1997) was the fifth Prime Minister of Jamaica (1972 – 1980, 1989 – 1992). ...

Bob Marley Live a painting by Steve Brogdon 1992

Marley left Jamaica at the end of 1976 for England, where he recorded his Exodus and Kaya albums. Exodus stayed on the British album charts for 56 consecutive weeks. It included four UK hit singles: "Exodus", "Waiting In Vain", "Jamming", "One Love", and a rendition of Curtis Mayfield's hit, "People Get Ready". It was here that he was arrested and received a conviction for possession of a small quantity of cannabis while traveling in London. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 438 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 560 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bob Marley Live 48 x 24 Airbrushed acrylic / Mixed Media. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 438 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 560 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bob Marley Live 48 x 24 Airbrushed acrylic / Mixed Media. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Exodus is a roots reggae album released by Bob Marley & the Wailers on June 3, 1977 (see 1977 in music). ... Kaya is a roots reggae-album released by Bob Marley & the Wailers in 1978. ... Curtis Mayfield (June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, funk and R&B singer, songwriter and guitarist best known for his anthemic music with The Impressions and composing the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Superfly. ... People Get Ready was a 1965 single by The Impressions, and the title track from the album of the same name. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ...

In 1978, Marley performed at another political concert in Jamaica, the One Love Peace Concert, again in an effort to calm warring parties. Near the end of the performance, by Marley's request, Manley and his political rival, Edward Seaga, joined each other on stage and shook hands. The One Love Peace Concert was a large concert held on April 22, 1978 at Heroes Park Circle in Kingston, Jamaica. ... The One Love Peace Concert was a large concert held on April 22, 1978 at Heroes Park Circle in Kingston, Jamaica. ... The Right Honourable Edward Philip George Seaga (born May 28, 1930) was Prime Minister of Jamaica for the Jamaica Labour Party from 1980 to 1989, and served as leader of the opposition 1989 to January 2005. ...


Survival, a defiant and politically charged album, was released in 1979. Tracks such as "Zimbabwe", "Africa Unite", "Wake Up and Live", and "Survival" reflected Marley's support for the struggles of Africans. In early 1980, he was invited to perform at the April 17 celebration of Zimbabwe's Independence Day. Survival is a roots reggae album by Bob Marley & The Wailers released in 1979. ... a song written by Bob Marley, appearing on his Survival (album). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Uprising (1980) was Bob Marley's final studio album, and is one of his most religious productions, including "Redemption Song" and "Forever Loving Jah". It was in "Redemption Song" that Marley sang the famous lyric, Uprising is a 1980 (see 1980 in music) album by reggae singer Bob Marley. ... Album cover of Uprising Redemption Song was the last track on Bob Marleys ninth Island music album, Uprising. ...

Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery
None but ourselves can free our minds…

Confrontation, released posthumously in 1983, contained unreleased material recorded during Marley's lifetime, including the hit "Buffalo Soldier" and new mixes of singles previously only available in Jamaica. Confrontation is a roots reggae album by Bob Marley & the Wailers, released posthumously in May 1983, two years after Marleys death. ... Buffalo Soldier is a reggae song co-written by Bob Marley, and Noel G. King Sporty Williams, from Marleys final recording sessions in 1980. ...


Later years

Cancer diagnosis

In July 1977, Marley was found to have malignant melanoma in a football wound on his right hallux (big toe). Marley refused amputation, citing worries that the operation would affect his dancing, as well as the Rastafari belief that the body must be "whole": Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Toes on foot. ...

Rasta no abide amputation. I don't allow a man to be dismantled.

—From the biography Catch a Fire

Marley may have seen medical doctors as samfai (tricksters, deceivers). True to this belief Marley went against all surgical possibilities and sought out other means that would not break his religious beliefs. He also refused to register a will, based on the Rastafari belief that writing a will is acknowledging death as inevitable, thus disregarding the everlasting character of life. He then smoked one with Adam Keane. The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...


Collapse and treatment

The cancer then metastasized to Marley's brain, lungs, liver, and stomach. After playing two shows at Madison Square Garden as part of his fall 1980 Uprising Tour, he collapsed while jogging in NYC's Central Park. The remainder of the tour was subsequently cancelled. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ... The Uprising Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Uprising by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ...


Bob Marley played his final concert at the Stanley Theater in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on September 23, 1980. The live version of "Redemption Song" on Songs of Freedom was recorded at this show.[5] Marley afterwards sought medical help from Munich specialist Josef Issels, but his cancer had already progressed to the terminal stage. lololol This article treats the former Stanley Theater of Pittsburgh, for other same-called buildings see Stanley Theater (disambiguation). ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Album cover of Uprising Redemption Song was the last track on Bob Marleys ninth Island music album, Uprising. ... Songs of Freedom is a four-disc box set containing music by Bob Marley and the Wailers, from Marleys first song Judge Not recorded in 1962, to a live version of Redemption Song, recorded in 1980 at his last concert. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Dr. Josef Issels (November 21, 1907 - February 11, 1998) is known for having developed an alternative cancer therapy, the Issels treatment, that caused a great amount of controversy among medical professionals. ...


Death and posthumous reputation

While flying home from Germany to Jamaica for his final days, Marley became ill, and landed in Miami for immediate medical attention. He died at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami, Florida on the morning of May 11, 1981 at the age of 36. His final words to his son Ziggy were "Money can't buy life."[6] Marley received a state funeral in Jamaica, which combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari tradition. He was buried in a crypt near his birthplace with his Gibson Les Paul, a soccer ball, a marijuana bud, a ring that he wore every day that was given to him by the Prince Asfa Wossen of Ethiopia (eldest son of HIM), and a Bible. A month before his death, he was awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit. “Miami” redirects here. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Gibson Les Paul is one of the most recognizable solid-body electric guitar designs in the world. ... Imperial Majesty (HIM) is a style used by the Emperors and Empresses. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Order of Merit is the third highest honor conferred by the nation of Jamaica. ...


Bob Marley's music has continuously grown in popularity in the years since his death, providing a stream of revenue for his estate and affording him a mythical status in 20th century music history. He remains enormously popular and well-known all over the world, particularly so in Africa. Marley was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994. Time magazine chose Bob Marley & The Wailers' Exodus as the greatest album of the 20th century. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Exodus is a roots reggae album released by Bob Marley & the Wailers on June 3, 1977 (see 1977 in music). ...


In 2001, the same year that Marley was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, a feature-length documentary about his life, Rebel Music, was nominated for Best Long Form Music Video documentary at the Grammys. It won various other awards. With contributions from Rita, the Wailers, and Marley's lovers and children, it also tells much of the story in his own words. The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to performers who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording [1]. This award is distinct from the Grammy Hall of Fame Award, which honors specific recordings rather than individuals, and... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music...


In Summer 2006, the City of New York renamed a portion of Church Avenue from Remsen Avenue to East 98th Street in the East Flatbush Section of Brooklyn Bob Marley Blvd.[7] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... East Flatbush is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


Religion

Bob Marley was a member of the Rastafari movement, whose culture was a key element in the development of reggae. Bob Marley became the leading proponent of the Rastafari, taking their music out of the socially deprived areas of Jamaica and onto the international music scene. Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ...


Now considered a "Rasta" legend, Marley's adoption of the characteristic Rastafari dreadlocks and famous use of cannabis as a sacred sacrament in the late sixties were an integral part of his persona. He is said to have entered every performance proclaiming the divinity of Jah Rastafari. Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Cannabis has a long history of use in a religious context, especially in India, where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries. ... Haile Selassie I (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ...


Many of Marley's songs contained Biblical references, sometimes using wordplay to fuse activism and religion, as in "Revolution" and "Revelation":

Revelation reveals the truth …
It takes a revolution to make a solution …

After his travels to Ethiopia, Bob Marley became a convert to Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church after receiving the sacrament of baptism. Marley died an Orthodox Christian.[citation needed] The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All...


Children

Bob Marley had 13 children: three with his wife Rita, two adopted from Rita's previous relationships, and the remaining eight with separate women.[8] His children are, in order of birth: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  1. Imani Carole, born May 22, 1963, to Cheryl Murray;
  2. Sharon, born November 23, 1964, to Rita in previous relationship;
  3. Cedella Marley born August 23, 1967, to Rita;
  4. David "Ziggy", born October 17, 1968, to Rita;
  5. Stephen, born April 20, 1972, to Rita;
  6. Robert "Robbie", born May 16, 1972, to Pat Williams;
  7. Rohan, born May 19, 1972, to Janet Hunt;
  8. Karen, born 1973 to Janet Bowen;
  9. Stephanie, born August 17, 1974; according to Cedella Booker she was the daughter of Rita and a man called Ital with whom Rita had an affair; nonetheless she was acknowledged as Bob's daughter;
  10. Julian, born June 4, 1975, to Lucy Pounder;
  11. Ky-Mani, born February 26, 1976, to Anita Belnavis;
  12. Damian, born July 21, 1978, to Cindy Breakspeare;
  13. Makeda, born May 30, 1981, to Yvette Crichton.

is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cedella Marley (born in Kingston, Jamaica on August 23, 1967), is daughter of legendary reggae artist Bob Marley. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stephen Robert Nesta Raggamuffin Marley (born April 20, 1972) in Wilmington, Delaware, is a Jamaican musician and the son of reggae legend Bob Marley and Rita Marley. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rohan Anthony Marley (born May 19, 1972, Jamaica) is the son of late reggae artist Bob Marley and Janet Hunt. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Cedella Marley Booker (born July 23, 1926) is a singer and writer who is mostly known for being the mother of the late reggae musician Bob Marley. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Julian Marley (born June 4, 1975 in London) is a reggae musician. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ky-Mani Marley (born February 26, 1976, in Falmouth, Jamaica) is a Jamaican actor and reggae musician. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Damian Marley (born July 21, 1978 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a three time Grammy-winning reggae artist and is the youngest male child of reggae legend Bob Marley. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... A publicity photo of Cindy. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

Discography

For a detailed listing of albums by Bob Marley & the Wailers, see Bob Marley & The Wailers discography. Bob Marley is considered the greatest writer and performer of Reggae music. ...


Tours

  • Apr–Jul 1973: Catch a Fire Tour (England, USA)
  • Oct–Nov 1973: Burnin' Tour (USA, England)
  • Jun–Jul 1975: Natty Dread Tour (USA, Canada, England)
  • Apr–Jul 1976: Rastaman Vibration Tour (USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden, Netherlands, France, England, Wales)
  • May–Jun 1977: Exodus Tour (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, England)
  • May–Aug 1978: Kaya Tour (USA, Canada, England, France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium)
  • Apr–May 1979: Babylon by Bus Tour (Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii)
  • Oct–Dec 1979: Survival Tour (USA, Canada, Trinidad/Tobago, Bahamas)
  • Apr 1980: Zimbabwe Tour
  • May–Sep 1980: Uprising Tour (Switzerland, Germany, France, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales, USA)

The Catch a Fire was a concert tour organised to support the album Catch a Fire by Bob Marley & The Wailers (Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer). ... The Burnin Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Burnin by Bob Marley & The Wailers (Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, Joe Higgs). ... The Natty Dread Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Natty Dread by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... The Rastaman Vibration Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Rastaman Vibration by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... The Exodus Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Exodus by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... The Kaya Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Kaya by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Survival Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Survival by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ... The Uprising Tour was a concert tour organised to support the album Uprising by Bob Marley & The Wailers. ...

Awards and honors

Marley's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Marley's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (567x850, 507 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bob Marley ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (567x850, 507 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bob Marley ... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... This article is about the magazine. ... peace medal of the third world was an award given to those who helped fight for justice and peace in third world countries. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Order of Merit is the third highest honor conferred by the nation of Jamaica. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Exodus is a roots reggae album released by Bob Marley & the Wailers on June 3, 1977 (see 1977 in music). ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to performers who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording [1]. This award is distinct from the Grammy Hall of Fame Award, which honors specific recordings rather than individuals, and... This article is about the music magazine. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...

Sound samples

  • "Simmer Down" (1964) 

Image File history File links Bob_Marley_&_The_Wailers_-_Simmer_Down_(1964). ... Image File history File links Bob_Marley_&_The_Wailers_-_Simmer_Down_(1964). ...

See also

The Bob Marley Museum is a museum in Jamaica dedicated to the reggae musician Bob Marley. ... Aston Francis Barrett (born November 22, 1946, Kingston, Jamaica), often called Family Man or Fams for short, is a Jamaican bass player and Rastafarian. ... Junior Marvin (born Donald Hanson Marvin Kerr Richards Jr) is a Jamaican born guitarist. ... American born guitarist, Al Anderson, became a member of the Wailers and played on several albums in the early and mid-1970s. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Smith, W. Alan, Songs of Freedom: The Music of Bob Marley as Transformative Education
  2. ^ a b "Bob Marley," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006.
  3. ^ UVM.edu
  4. ^ The Beverley Label and Leslie Kong: Music Business at bobmarley.com
  5. ^ http://www.bobmarley.com/songs/songs.cgi?redemption
  6. ^ Steffens, Roger. Bob Marley Chronology 1945-1981. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  7. ^ Brooklyn Street Renamed Bob Marley Boulevard
  8. ^ Dixon, Meredith."Lovers and Children of the Natural Mystic: The Story of Bob Marley, Women and their Children" The Dread Library (Accessed 21 June 2007)
  9. ^ The Immortals: The First Fifty. Rolling Stone Issue 946. Rolling Stone.
  10. ^ "Who is the greatest lyricist of all time", BBC, May 23, 2001

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • ISBN 1-4000-5286-6 Vivien Goldman, The Book of Exodus: The Making and Meaning of Bob Marley and the Wailers' Album of the Century
  • ISBN 0-06-053991-7 Christopher John Farley, Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley, Amistad/Harpercollins
  • ISBN 0-8118-5036-6 James Henke, Marley Legend: An Illustrated Life of Bob Marley, Chronicle Books
  • ISBN 0-7868-6867-8 Rita Marley, Hettie Jones, No Woman No Cry: My Life with Bob Marley
  • ISBN 0-8050-6009-X Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley

Vivien Goldman released only a few songs into the world in 1981, but they are critically acclaimed. ... Christopher John Farley is an American journalist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Timothy White (January 25, 1952 - June 27, 2002) was a noted rock music journalist and editor. ...

External links

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Related topics
Jamaica - Haile Selassie - Marcus Garvey - Rastafari - Afrocentrism - Black nationalism - Zion - Dreadlocks - Ganja - Rude boy - Skinhead - Suedehead - Dancehall (venue) - Dubplate - Stalag version - Sound system (Jamaican) - Sound system (DJ) - Riddim - Jamaican English - Studio One - Trojan Records - Island Records - Coxsone Dodd - Chris Blackwell - Reggae musiciams - Dub artists - Jamaican record producers
Persondata
NAME Marley, Bob
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Marley, Robert Nesta
SHORT DESCRIPTION Singer, songwriter, guitarist
DATE OF BIRTH February 6, 1945
PLACE OF BIRTH Nine Miles, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica
DATE OF DEATH May 11, 1981
PLACE OF DEATH Miami, Florida, U.S.

HELLO, MY NAME A BORAT! LALALALALALA YOULL NEVER GET DIS. NICE!!!!!!! is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Location latitude 18°12N, longitude 77°28W Capital Town Saint Anns Bay Major towns Ocho Rios, Browns Town, Runaway Bay, Claremont County Middlesex Area 1,212. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... “Miami” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bob Marley (1888 words)
Bob Marley was reggae’s foremost practitioner and emissary, embodying its spirit and spreading its gospel to all corners of the globe.
Marley was born on Jamaica to a young fl mother and an older white father.
It becomes Marley’s highest-charting album, reaching #8 in the U.S. and #15 in the U.K. December 3, 1976: Bob Marley and his entourage are attacked by gunman.
Bob Marley - Music Downloads - Online (877 words)
Bio: Reggae's most transcendent and iconic figure, Bob Marley was the first Jamaican artist to achieve international superstardom, in the process introducing the music of his native island nation to the far-flung corners of the globe.
Marley's music gave voice to the day-to-day struggles of the Jamaican experience, vividly capturing not only the plight of the country's impoverished and oppressed but also the devout spirituality that remains their source of strength.
Robert Nesta Marley was born February 6, 1945, in rural St. Ann's Parish, Jamaica; the son of a middle-aged white father and teenaged fl mother, he left home at 14 to pursue a music career in Kingston, becoming a pupil of local singer and devout Rastafarian Joe Higgs.
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