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Encyclopedia > Bluetooth
Bluetooth logo
Bluetooth logo

Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmissions over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices, creating wireless personal area networks (PANs). The intent behind the development of Bluetooth was the creation of a single digital wireless protocol, capable of connecting multiple devices and overcoming issues arising from synchronization of these devices. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, GPS receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. [1] Harold Bluetooth Gormson (Danish Harald Blåtand, Norwegian Harald Blåtann) (ca 935- November 1, 986), sometimes Harold II, succeeded his father Gorm the Old as king of Denmark in 958 (or 959) and was king of Norway for a few years, probably around 970. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12 screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14 screen A laptop computer, or simply laptop (also notebook computer, notebook and notepad) is a small mobile computer, typically weighing 3-12 pounds (around 1. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Game console redirects here. ... The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for non-commercial use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical purposes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... Bluetooths logo The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is the body that oversees the development of Bluetooth standards and the licensing of the Bluetooth technologies and trademarks to manufacturers. ...

Contents

Uses

Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device.[2] Bluetooth enables these devices to communicate with each other when they are in range. The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, as long as the received transmission is powerful enough. Bluetooth device class indicates the type of device and the supported services of which the information is transmitted during the discovery process.[3] A transceiver is a device that has both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined in to one. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...

Class Maximum Permitted Power
mW(dBm)
Range
(approximate)
Class 1 100 mW (20 dBm) ~100 meters
Class 2 2.5 mW (4 dBm) ~10 meters
Class 3 1 mW (0 dBm) ~1 meter

In most cases the effective range of class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a class 1 transceiver, compared to pure class 2 network. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices. Milliwatt (SI symbol: mW) is a unit for measuring electrical power, equal to one-thousandth (10-3) of a watt. ... The correct title of this article is . ...

Version Data Rate
Version 1.2 1 Mbit/s
Version 2.0 + EDR 3 Mbit/s
WiMedia Alliance
(proposed)
53 - 480 Mbit/s

A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ... A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ... This article is about the electronic protocol. ... A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ...

Bluetooth profiles

Main article: Bluetooth profile

In order to use Bluetooth, a device must be compatible with certain Bluetooth profiles. These define the possible applications and uses of the technology. A Bluetooth profile is a wireless interface specification between devices that use Bluetooth-based communication. ...


List of applications

A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset
A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset

More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include: Download high resolution version (1280x828, 154 KB)A Bluetooth headset for mobile phones. ... Download high resolution version (1280x828, 154 KB)A Bluetooth headset for mobile phones. ...

  • Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands-free headset. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular.
  • Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.
  • Wireless communications with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer.
  • Transfer of files between devices with OBEX.
  • Transfer of contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices with OBEX.
  • Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic control devices.
  • For controls where infrared was traditionally used.
  • Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth enabled advertising hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices.
  • Three seventh-generation game consoles, Nintendo's Wii, Microsoft's Xbox 360[4] and Sony's PlayStation 3 use Bluetooth for their respective wireless controllers.
  • Dial-up internet access on personal computer or PDA using a data-capable mobile phone as a modem.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... This article is about obex portion of the brain. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... GPS redirects here. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...

Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi in networking

Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have different applications in today's offices, homes, and on the move: setting up networks, printing, or transferring presentations and files from PDAs to computers. Both are versions of unlicensed spread spectrum technology. Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ... Spread-spectrum telecommunications is a technique in which a signal is transmitted in a bandwidth considerably greater than the frequency content of the original information. ...


Bluetooth differs from Wi-Fi in that the latter provides higher throughput and covers greater distances, but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. They use the same frequency range, but employ different modulation techniques. While Bluetooth is a replacement for a variety of applications, Wi-Fi is a replacement only for local area network access. Bluetooth can be thought of as wireless USB[citation needed], whereas Wi-Fi is wireless Ethernet[citation needed], both operating at much lower bandwidth[citation needed] than cable networking systems. However, this analogy is not entirely accurate since any Bluetooth device can, in theory, host any other Bluetooth device—something that is not universal to USB devices, therefore it would resemble more a wireless FireWire. Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ... The frequency range is defined as the range of frequencies in which the device is allowed to operate. ... LAN redirects here. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire 400 Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ...


Bluetooth devices

Bluetooth exists in many products, such as telephones, printers, modems and headsets. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e. with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).


Bluetooth simplifies the discovery and setup of services between devices. Bluetooth devices advertise all of the services they provide. This makes using services easier because there is no longer a need to set up network addresses or permissions as in many other network.


Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is more like a traditional Ethernet network, and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, and to set up audio links (for example, headsets and hands-free devices). It uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth, but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. Wi-Fi is sometimes called "wireless Ethernet." This description is accurate as it also provides an indication of its relative strengths and weaknesses. Wi-Fi requires more setup, but is better suited for operating full-scale networks because it enables a faster connection, better range from the base station, and better security than Bluetooths. Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ...


Computer requirements

A typical Bluetooth USB dongle
A typical Bluetooth USB dongle
An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4 mm)
An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4 mm)

A personal computer must have a Bluetooth adapter in order to be able to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile phones, mice and keyboards). While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth adapter, others will require an external one in the form of a dongle. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1074 KB) A USB Bluetooth adapter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1074 KB) A USB Bluetooth adapter. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1038x566, 40 KB) [[Category:]] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bluetooth Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1038x566, 40 KB) [[Category:]] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bluetooth Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features: two buttons and a scroll wheel. ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12 screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14 screen A laptop computer, or simply laptop (also notebook computer, notebook and notepad) is a small mobile computer, typically weighing 3-12 pounds (around 1. ... Chained parallel port copy prevention dongles. ...


Unlike its predecessor, IrDA, which requires a separate adapter for each device, Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter. This article is about an Infrared communications protocol. ...


Operating system support

For more details on this topic, see Bluetooth stack.

Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10.2 which was released in 2002.[5] A Bluetooth stack refers to an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack. ... Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X version 10. ...


For Microsoft platforms, Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later releases have native support for Bluetooth. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers, which were not directly supported by Microsoft.[6] Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks, BlueZ and Affix. The BlueZ[7] stack is included with most Linux kernels and it was originally developed by Qualcomm. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5.0 release. NetBSD features Bluetooth support since its 4.0 release. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... A Bluetooth stack refers to an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Qualcomm (NASDAQ: QCOM) is a wireless telecommunications research and development company based in San Diego, California. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


Specifications and features

The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson, who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund, Sweden.[8] The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. For other uses, see Ericsson (disambiguation). ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. ...


The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG was formally announced on May 20, 1998. Today it has a membership of over 7000 companies worldwide. It was established by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba, and Nokia, and later joined by many other companies. Bluetooths logo The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is the body that oversees the development of Bluetooth standards and the licensing of the Bluetooth technologies and trademarks to manufacturers. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Ericsson (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ...


Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0B

Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems, and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level), which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments. The term connection has various uses, including: An act of connecting two or more physical entities in a physical sense or connecting concepts in memory or imagination, see below Telecommunications circuit switching That which connects, relates or joins: An electrical connection A telecommunication circuit such as a fiber-optic connection...


Bluetooth 1.1

  • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.15.1-2002.
  • Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed.
  • Added support for non-encrypted channels.
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).

IEEE 802. ... RSSI is an initialism for Received Signal Strength Indication. ...

Bluetooth 1.2

This version is backward-compatible with 1.1 and the major enhancements include the following:

  • Faster Connection and Discovery
  • Adaptive frequency-hopping spread spectrum (AFH), which improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence.
  • Higher transmission speeds in practice, up to 721 kbit/s, as in 1.1.
  • Extended Synchronous Connections (eSCO), which improve voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets, and may optionally increase audio latency to provide better support for concurrent data transfer.
  • Host Controller Interface (HCI) support for three-wire UART.
  • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.15.1-2005.

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ... A host controller interface is a register level interface which allows a host controller for USB or FireWire to communicate with the operating system of a personal computer. ... A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (usually abbreviated UART and pronounced IPA: ) is a type of asynchronous receiver/transmitter, a piece of computer hardware that translates data between parallel and serial interfaces. ... IEEE 802. ...

Bluetooth 2.0

This version, specified on November 10, 2004, is backward-compatible with 1.1. The main enhancement is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for both data (ACL) and voice (eSCO) packets. The nominal signalling rate of EDR is about 3 megabits per second, although the practical data transfer rate is 2.1 megabits per second.[9] This additional throughput is obtained by using a different modulation scheme for radio transmission of the data payload. Standard or Basic Rate transmission uses the Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) method, while EDR uses a combination of GFSK and Phase Shift Keying (PSK).[10] is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In telecommunications, data transfer rate or just transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. ... In telecommunication, the term phase-shift keying (PSK) has the following meanings: 1. ...


According to the 2.0 specification, EDR provides the following benefits:

  • Three times faster transmission speed — up to 10 times in certain cases (up to 2.1 Mbit/s).
  • Lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle.
  • Simplification of multi-link scenarios due to more available bandwidth.

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) published the specification as "Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR" which implies that EDR is an optional feature. In some cases it is not clear whether a product claiming to support "Bluetooth 2.0" actually supports the EDR higher transfer rate. At least one commercial device, the HTC TyTN pocket PC phone, states "Bluetooth 2.0 without EDR" on its data sheet.[11] A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ... In telecommunication and electronics, the term duty cycle has the following meanings: The duty cycle D is defined as the ratio between the pulse duration () and the period (T) of a rectangular waveform Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device, or system is operated. ... Bluetooths logo The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is the body that oversees the development of Bluetooth standards and the licensing of the Bluetooth technologies and trademarks to manufacturers. ... The HTC Hermes is a 3. ...


Bluetooth 2.1

Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 is fully backward-compatible with 1.1, and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26, 2007.[10] This specification includes the following features: is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

  • Extended inquiry response: provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection. This information includes the name of the device, a list of services the device supports, as well as other information like the time of day, and pairing information.
  • Sniff subrating: reduces the power consumption when devices are in the sniff low-power mode, especially on links with asymmetric data flows. Human interface devices (HID) are expected to benefit the most, with mouse and keyboard devices increasing the battery life by a factor of 3 to 10. It lets devices decide how long they will wait before sending keepalive messages to one another. Previous Bluetooth implementations featured keep alive message frequencies of up to several times per second. In contrast, the 2.1 specification allows pairs of devices to negotiate this value between them to as infrequently as once every 5 or 10 seconds.
  • Encryption Pause Resume: enables an encryption key to be refreshed, enabling much stronger encryption for connections that stay up for longer than 23.3 hours (one Bluetooth day).
  • Secure Simple Pairing: radically improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security. It is expected that this feature will significantly increase the use of Bluetooth.[12]
  • Near Field Communication (NFC) cooperation: automatic creation of secure Bluetooth connections when NFC radio interface is also available. For example, a headset should be paired with a Bluetooth 2.1 phone including NFC just by bringing the two devices close to each other (a few centimeters). Another example is automatic uploading of photos from a mobile phone or camera to a digital picture frame just by bringing the phone or camera close to the frame.[13][14]

It has been suggested that 3D motion controller be merged into this article or section. ... An NFC mobile phone interacting with a smart poster Near Field Communication or NFC, is a short-range wireless technology which enables the communication between devices over a short distance (hands width). ...

Future of Bluetooth

  • Broadcast Channel: enables Bluetooth information points. This will drive the adoption of Bluetooth into mobile phones, and enable advertising models based around users pulling information from the information points, and not based around the object push model that is used in a limited way today.
  • Topology Management: enables the automatic configuration of the piconet topologies especially in scatternet situations that are becoming more common today. This should all be invisible to the users of the technology, while also making the technology just work.
  • Alternate MAC PHY: enables the use of alternative MAC and PHY's for transporting Bluetooth profile data. The Bluetooth Radio will still be used for device discovery, initial connection and profile configuration, however when lots of data needs to be sent, the high speed alternate MAC PHY's will be used to transport the data. This means that the proven low power connection models of Bluetooth are used when the system is idle, and the low power per bit radios are used when lots of data needs to be sent.
  • QoS improvements: enable audio and video data to be transmitted at a higher quality, especially when best effort traffic is being transmitted in the same piconet.

A piconet is a network of computing devices using bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven slave devices. ... A scatternet is set of piconets connected through sharing devices. ... In computer networking a Media Access Control address (MAC address) or Ethernet Hardware Address (EHA) or hardware address or adapter address is a quasi-unique identifier attached to most network adapters (NICs). ... PHY is a generic electronics term refering to a special electronic integrated circuit or functional block of a circuit that provides physical access to a digital connection cable. ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service, abbreviated QoS, refers to resource reservation control mechanisms. ... A piconet is a network of computing devices using bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven slave devices. ...

High-speed Bluetooth

On 28 March 2006, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group announced its selection of the WiMedia Alliance Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) version of UWB for integration with current Bluetooth wireless technology. is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The WiMedia Alliance is a not-for-profit open industry association that promotes and enables the rapid adoption, regulation, standardization and multi-vendor interoperability of ultra-wideband (UWB) worldwide. ...


UWB integration will create a version of Bluetooth wireless technology with a high-speed/high-data-rate option. This new version of Bluetooth technology will meet the high-speed demands of synchronizing and transferring large amounts of data, as well as enabling high-quality video and audio applications for portable devices, multi-media projectors and television sets, and wireless VOIP.


At the same time, Bluetooth technology will continue catering to the needs of very low power applications such as mouse, keyboards, and mono headsets, enabling devices to select the most appropriate physical radio for the application requirements, thereby offering the best of both worlds.


Bluetooth 3.0

The next version of Bluetooth after v2.1, code-named Seattle (the version number of which is TBD) has many of the same features, but is most notable for plans to adopt ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology. This will allow Bluetooth use over UWB radio, enabling very fast data transfers of up to 480 Mbit/s, while building on the very low-power idle modes of Bluetooth. Ultra-wideband (also UWB, and ultra-wide-band, ultra-wide band, etc. ...


Bluetooth low energy

On June 12, 2007, Nokia and Bluetooth SIG announced that Wibree will be a part of the Bluetooth specification as an ultra low power Bluetooth technology.[15] Expected use cases include watches displaying Caller ID information, sports sensors monitoring your heart rate during exercise, as well as medical devices. The Medical Devices Working Group is also creating a medical devices profile and associated protocols to enable this market. Battery life for devices using Bluetooth low energy technology is designed to be up to one year. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Wibree is a digital radio technology (intended to become an open standard of wireless communications) designed for ultra low power consumption (button cell batteries) within a short range (10 meters / 30 feet) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. ...


Technical information

Bluetooth protocol stack

“Bluetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols, cable replacement protocols, telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols”.[16]


Core protocols

Bluetooth’s core protocols form a five-layer stack, consisting of the following:


Bluetooth Radio – specifics details of the air interface, including frequency, frequency hopping, modulation scheme, and transmission power.


Baseband – concerned with connection establishment within a piconet, addressing, packet format, timing, and power control.


Link Manager Protocol (LMP) – establishes the link setup between Bluetooth devices and manages ongoing links, including security aspects (e.g. authentication and encryption), and control and negotiation of baseband packet size LMP may stand for: Licensed Massage Practitioner Le Mans Prototype ...


Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) – adapts the upper-layer protocols to the baseband layer, providing both connectionless and connection-oriented services. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bluetooth protocols. ...


Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) – handles device information, services, and queries for service characteristics between two or more Bluetooth devices. The acronym SDP can stand for: Slavističko Druženje i Prijateljstvo Session Description Protocol Service Data Point (Intelligent Network) Symmetrized Dot Pattern Service Discovery Protocol Stochastic Dynamic Programming Separation of Dispensing and Prescribing Service Delivery Platform Stable Dependencies Principle State Domestic Product Sockets Direct Protocol Schadaraparr Japanese hip-hop...


Cable replacement protocol

Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial port used to make replacement of cable technologies transparent through minimal modification of existing devices. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulates EIA-232 (formerly RS-232) control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer.


Telephony control protocol

Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices. Additionally, “TCS BIN defines mobility management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices”


Adopted protocols

Adapted protocols are defined by other standards-making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth’s protocol stack., allowing Bluetooth to create protocols only when necessary. The adopted protocols include:


Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) – Internet standard protocol for transporting IP datagrams over a point-to-point link


TCP/IP/UDP – Foundation Protocols for TCP/IP protocol suite


Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) – Session-layer protocol for the exchange of objects, providing a model for object and operation representation


Wireless Application Environment / Wireless Application Protocol (WAE/WAP) – WAE specifies an application framework for wireless devices and WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services.[17]


Communication and connection

A master Bluetooth device can communicate with up to seven devices. This network group of up to eight devices is called a piconet. A piconet is a network of computing devices using bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven slave devices. ...


A piconet is an ad-hoc computer network, using Bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven active devices. Up to 255 further devices can be inactive, or parked, which the master device can bring into active status at any time.


At any given time, data can be transferred between the master and one other device, however, the devices can switch roles and the slave can become the master at any time. The master switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin fashion. (Simultaneous transmission from the master to multiple other devices is possible, but not used much.) Round-robin (RR) is one of the simplest scheduling algorithms for processes in an operating system, which assigns time slices to each process in equal portions and in order, handling all processes without priority. ...


Bluetooth specification allows connecting two or more piconets together to form a scatternet, with some devices acting as a bridge by simultaneously playing the master role and the slave role in one piconet. A scatternet is set of piconets connected through sharing devices. ...


Many USB Bluetooth adapters are available, some of which also include an IrDA adapter. Older (pre-2003) Bluetooth adapters, however, have limited services, offering only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a less-powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation. Such devices can link computers with Bluetooth, but they do not offer much in the way of services that modern adapters do. Adapters in computing are complex, requiring digital translation (or even digital signal processing in the case of converters). ... The initials IRDA can refer to various things: In Information Technology and Communications, IrDA refers to Infrared Data Association, a standard for communication between devices (such as computers, PDAs and mobile phones) over short distances using infrared signals. ...


Setting up connections

Any Bluetooth device will transmit the following information on demand:

  • Device name.
  • Device class.
  • List of services.
  • Technical information, for example, device features, manufacturer, Bluetooth specification used, clock offset.

Any device may perform an inquiry to find other devices to connect to, and any device can be configured to respond to such inquiries. However, if the device trying to connect knows the address of the device, it always responds to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested. Use of device services may require pairing or acceptance by its owner, but the connection itself can be initiated by any device and held until it goes out of range. Some devices can be connected to only one device at a time, and connecting to them prevents them from connecting to other devices and appearing in inquiries until they disconnect from the other device.


Every device has a unique 48-bit address. However these addresses are generally not shown in inquiries. Instead, friendly Bluetooth names are used, which can be set by the user. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired devices.


Most phones have the Bluetooth name set to the manufacturer and model of the phone by default. Most phones and laptops show only the Bluetooth names and special programs that are required to get additional information about remote devices. This can be confusing as, for example, there could be several phones in range named T610 (see Bluejacking). The Sony Ericsson T610, released in 2003, is a mobile phone manufactured by Sony Ericsson. ... This Siemens M75 is Bluejacking the Sony Ericsson K600i pictured below This Sony Ericsson K600i is getting Bluejacked by the Siemens M75 pictured above Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically...


Pairing

Pairs of devices may establish a trusted relationship by learning (by user input) a shared secret known as a passkey. A device that wants to communicate only with a trusted device can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the other device. Trusted devices may also encrypt the data that they exchange over the airwaves so that no one can listen in. The encryption can, however, be turned off, and passkeys are stored on the device file system, not on the Bluetooth chip itself. Since the Bluetooth address is permanent, a pairing is preserved, even if the Bluetooth name is changed. Pairs can be deleted at any time by either device. Devices generally require pairing or prompt the owner before they allow a remote device to use any or most of their services. Some devices, such as mobile phones, usually accept OBEX business cards and notes without any pairing or prompts. Each secret share is a plane, and the secret is the point at which three shares intersect. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... For other uses of the terms authentication, authentic and authenticity, see authenticity. ... Encrypt redirects here. ...


Certain printers and access points allow any device to use its services by default, much like unsecured Wi-Fi networks. Pairing algorithms are sometimes manufacturer-specific for transmitters and receivers used in applications such as music and entertainment. Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ...


Bluetooth 2.1 has an optional "touch-to-pair" feature based on NFC. By simply bringing two devices into close range (around 10cm), pairing can securely take place without entering a passkey or manual configuration. NFC may refer to any of the following things: Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, A division of Department of Atomic Energy. ...


Air interface

The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.4-2.4835 GHz. To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.45 GHz band, the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels up to 1600 times per second. Implementations with versions 1.1 and 1.2 reach speeds of 723.1 kbit/s. Version 2.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2.1 Mbit/s. Technically, version 2.0 devices have a higher power consumption, but the three times faster rate reduces the transmission times, effectively reducing power consumption to half that of 1.x devices (assuming equal traffic load) For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for non-commercial use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical purposes. ... A gigahertz is a billion hertz or a thousand megahertz, a measure of frequency. ... “KBPS” redirects here. ... A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ...


Security

Overview

Bluetooth implements confidentiality, authentication and key derivation with custom algorithms based on the SAFER+ block cipher. In Bluetooth, key generation is generally based on a Bluetooth PIN, which must be entered into both devices. This procedure might be modified if one of the devices has a fixed PIN, e.g. for headsets or similar devices with a restricted user interface. During pairing, an initialization key or master key is generated, using the E22 algorithm.[18] The E0 stream cipher is used for encrypting packets, granting confidentiality and is based on a shared cryptographic secret, namely a previously generated link key or master key. Those keys, used for subsequent encryption of data sent via the air interface, rely on the Bluetooth PIN, which has been entered into one or both devices. This article is about the property of being confidential. For the magazine of the same name, see Confidential (magazine). ... For other uses of the terms authentication, authentic and authenticity, see authenticity. ... A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ... This article is about the encryption algorithm. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... This article needs translation. ...


An overview of Bluetooth vulnerabilities exploits has been published by Andreas Becker.[19]


Bluejacking

Bluejacking is the sending of either a picture or a message from one user to an unsuspecting user through Bluetooth wireless technology. Common applications are short messages (e.g. you’ve just been bluejacked!), advertisements (e.g. eat at Joe’s). and business information.[20] Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. These business cards often have a clever or flirtatious message rather than the typical name and phone number.[citation needed] Bluejackers often look for the receiving phone to ping or the user to react. They then send another, more personal message to that device. Once again, in order to carry out a bluejacking, the sending and receiving devices must be within range of each other, which is typically 10 meters for most mobile devices. Devices that are set in non-discoverable mode are not susceptible to bluejacking. However, the Linux application Redfang claims to find non-discoverable Bluetooth devices. This Siemens M75 is Bluejacking the Sony Ericsson K600i pictured below This Sony Ericsson K600i is getting Bluejacked by the Siemens M75 pictured above Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


History of security concerns

2003

In November 2003, Ben and Adam Laurie from A.L. Digital Ltd. discovered that serious flaws in Bluetooth security may lead to disclosure of personal data.[21] It should be noted, however, that the reported security problems concerned some poor implementations of Bluetooth, rather than the protocol itself.


In a subsequent experiment, Martin Herfurt from the trifinite.group was able to do a field-trial at the CeBIT fairgrounds, showing the importance of the problem to the world. A new attack called BlueBug was used for this experiment.[22] This is one of a number of concerns that have been raised over the security of Bluetooth communications. A crowded exhibition hall during CeBIT 2000. ...


2004

In 2004 the first purported virus using Bluetooth to spread itself among mobile phones appeared on the Symbian OS.[23] The virus was first described by Kaspersky Lab and requires users to confirm the installation of unknown software before it can propagate. The virus was written as a proof-of-concept by a group of virus writers known as "29A" and sent to anti-virus groups. Thus, it should be regarded as a potential (but not real) security threat to Bluetooth or Symbian OS since the virus has never spread in the wild. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. ... Symbian OS is a proprietary operating system, designed for mobile devices, with associated libraries, user interface frameworks and reference implementations of common tools, produced by Symbian Ltd. ... Kaspersky Lab is a computer security company, co-founded by Natalia Kasperskaya and Eugene Kaspersky in 1997, offering antivirus, anti-spyware, anti-spam, and anti-intrusion products. ... Symbian OS is a proprietary operating system, designed for mobile devices, with associated libraries, user interface frameworks and reference implementations of common tools, produced by Symbian Ltd. ...


In August 2004, a world-record-setting experiment (see also Bluetooth sniping) showed that the range of Class 2 Bluetooth radios could be extended to 1.78 km (1.08 mile) with directional antennas and signal amplifiers.[24] This poses a potential security threat because it enables attackers to access vulnerable Bluetooth-devices from a distance beyond expectation. The attacker must also be able to receive information from the victim to set up a connection. No attack can be made against a Bluetooth device unless the attacker knows its Bluetooth address and which channels to transmit on. Bluetooth sniping is the act of using modified equipment to receive and send Bluetooth signals at long distance ranges. ...


2005

In January 2005, a mobile malware worm known as Lasco.A began targeting mobile phones using Symbian OS (Series 60 platform) using Bluetooth-enabled devices to replicate itself and spread to other devices. The worm is self-installing and begins once the mobile user approves the transfer of the file (velasco.sis ) from another device. Once installed, the worm begins looking for other Bluetooth-enabled devices to infect. Additionally, the worm infects other .SIS files on the device, allowing replication to another device through use of removable media (SanDisk, Compact Flash, etc.). The worm can render the mobile device unstable.[25]


In April 2005, Cambridge University security researchers published results of their actual implementation of passive attacks against the PIN-based pairing between commercial Bluetooth devices, confirming the attacks to be practicably fast and the Bluetooth symmetric key establishment method to be vulnerable. To rectify this vulnerability, they carried out an implementation which showed that stronger, asymmetric key establishment is feasible for certain classes of devices, such as mobile phones.[26] The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ...


In June 2005, Yaniv Shaked and Avishai Wool published a paper describing both passive and active methods for obtaining the PIN for a Bluetooth link. The passive attack allows a suitably equipped attacker to eavesdrop on communications and spoof, if the attacker was present at the time of initial pairing. The active method makes use of a specially constructed message that must be inserted at a specific point in the protocol, to make the master and slave repeat the pairing process. After that, the first method can be used to crack the PIN. This attack's major weakness is that it requires the user of the devices under attack to re-enter the PIN during the attack when the device prompts them to. Also, this active attack probably requires custom hardware, since most commercially available Bluetooth devices are not capable of the timing necessary.[27]


In August 2005, police in Cambridgeshire, England, issued warnings about thieves using Bluetooth-enabled phones to track other devices left in cars. Police are advising users to ensure that any mobile networking connections are de-activated if laptops and other devices are left in this way.[28] Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ...


2006

In April 2006, researchers from Secure Network and F-Secure published a report that warns of the large number of devices left in a visible state, and issued statistics on the spread of various Bluetooth services and the ease of spread of an eventual Bluetooth worm.[29] Secure Network is a small research and consulting company focusing on Information Security based near Milano, in Italy. ... The user interface for F-Secure Anti Virus 2006. ...


In October 2006, at the Luxemburgish Hack.lu Security Conference, Kevin Finistere and Thierry Zoller demonstrated and released a remote root shell via Bluetooth on Mac OS X v10.3.9 and v10.4. They also demonstrated the first Bluetooth PIN and Linkkeys cracker, which is based on the research of Wool and Shaked.


2008

As of 2008, despite the hype and warnings of earlier years, no major worm or virus has yet materialized.[citation needed]


Health concerns

Bluetooth uses the microwave radio frequency spectrum in the 2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz range. Maximum power output from a Bluetooth radio is 100 mW, 2.5 mW, and 1 mW for Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 devices respectively, which puts Class 1 at roughly the same level as mobile phones, and the other two classes much lower.[30] Accordingly, Class 2 and Class 3 Bluetooth devices are considered less of a potential hazard than mobile phones, and Class 1 may be comparable to that of mobile phones. This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ...


Origin of the name and the logo

Bluetooth was named after a tenth-century king, Harald Bluetooth, King of Denmark and Norway. Bluetooth is an anglicized version of Harald Blaatand,[31] who was known for his unification of previously warring tribes from Denmark (including now Swedish Scania, where the Bluetooth technology was invented), and Norway. Bluetooth likewise was intended to unify different technologies, such as personal computers and mobile phones.[32][33] Harold Bluetooth Gormson (Danish Harald Blåtand, Norwegian Harald Blåtann) (ca 935- November 1, 986), sometimes Harold II, succeeded his father Gorm the Old as king of Denmark in 958 (or 959) and was king of Norway for a few years, probably around 970. ... The Flag of SkÃ¥ne SkÃ¥ne ( , also known as Scania in English) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) and county (Län) of Sweden. ...


The name may have been inspired less by the historical Harald than the loose interpretation of him in The Long Ships by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson, a Swedish Viking-inspired novel. The Long Ships or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm) is a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 1894-1954. ... Frans Gunnar Bengtsson (October 4, 1894 - December 19, 1954) was a Swedish novelist, essayist, poet and biographer. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


The Bluetooth logo merges the Germanic runes analogous to the modern Latin letter H and B:  (for Harald Bluetooth) (Hagall) and (Berkanan) merged together, forming a bind rune. Rune redirects here. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Haglaz Haglaz or Hagalaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the h-rune , meaning hail (the precipitation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b-rune ᛒ, meaning birch. In the Younger Futhark it is called bjarken in Icelandic and bjarkan in Norse. ... A bind rune is a ligature of two or more runes. ...


Bluetooth Special Interest Group

Initially (circa 1996-1997) the technology later known as Bluetooth was an Ericsson-internal project named multi-communicator link or short MC link. Cooperation with Intel was initiated in 1997.[34] Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


In 1998, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba, and Nokia, formed a consortium and adopted the code name Bluetooth for their proposed open specification. In December 1999, 3Com, Lucent Technologies, Microsoft, and Motorola joined the initial founders as the promoter of Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). Since that time, Lucent Technologies transferred their membership to their spinoff Agere Systems, and 3Com has left the promoter group. Agere Systems was later merged with LSI Corporation and left the Bluetooth promoters group in August 2007. For other uses, see Ericsson (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... 3Com (NASDAQ: COMS) is a manufacturer best known for its computer network infrastructure products. ... On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Motorola Inc. ... On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Agere Systems Inc. ... 3Com (NASDAQ: COMS) is a manufacturer best known for its computer network infrastructure products. ... LSI was founded in Milpitas, CA by Wilfred Corrigan in 1981 after he left an executive position with Fairchild Semiconductor. ...


The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is a privately held, not-for-profit trade association with headquarters in Bellevue, Washington. As of January 2008, the SIG is composed of over 10,000 member companies that are leaders in the telecommunications, computing, automotive, music, apparel, industrial automation, and network industries, and a small group of dedicated staff in Hong Kong, Sweden, and the USA. SIG members drive the development of Bluetooth wireless technology, and implement and market the technology in their products varying from mobile phones to printers. The Bluetooth SIG itself does not make, manufacture, or sell Bluetooth enabled products. The executive director of the Bluetooth SIG is Michael W. Foley.


See also

IEEE 802. ... An NFC mobile phone interacting with a smart poster Near Field Communication or NFC, is a short-range wireless technology which enables the communication between devices over a short distance (hands width). ... A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. ... Wibree is a digital radio technology (intended to become an open standard of wireless communications) designed for ultra low power consumption (button cell batteries) within a short range (10 meters / 30 feet) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. ... Wireless USB is a short-range, high-bandwidth wireless extension to USB that combines the speed and ease-of-use of USB 2. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for non-commercial use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical purposes. ... A Bluetooth stack refers to an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack. ... The Java APIs for Bluetooth is a Java Micro Edition specification for APIs that allow Java midlets to use Bluetooth on supporting devices. ... Bluesniping has emerged as a method for Bluesnarfing, or simply identifying Bluetooth-enabled devices, at longer ranges than normally possible. ... This Siemens M75 is Bluejacking the Sony Ericsson K600i pictured below This Sony Ericsson K600i is getting Bluejacked by the Siemens M75 pictured above Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically...

References

  1. ^ Newton, Harold. (2007). Newton’s telecom dictionary. New York: Flatiron Publishing.
  2. ^ How Bluetooth Technology Works. Bluetooth SIG. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  3. ^ Newton, Harold. (2007). Newton’s telecom dictionary. New York: Flatiron Publishing.
  4. ^ Wii Controller. Bluetooth SIG. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  5. ^ Apple (2002-07-17). "Apple Introduces "Jaguar," the Next Major Release of Mac OS X". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  6. ^ Network Protection Technologies. Changes to Functionality in Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2. Microsoft Technet. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  7. ^ BlueZ - Official Linux Bluetooth protocol stack
  8. ^ "The Bluetooth Blues", Information Age, 2001-05-24. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. 
  9. ^ Guy Kewney (2004-11-16). High speed Bluetooth comes a step closer: enhanced data rate approved. Newswireless.net. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  10. ^ a b Specification Documents. Bluetooth SIG. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  11. ^ HTC TyTN Specification (PDF). HTC. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  12. ^ (2006-08-03). "Simple Pairing Whitepaper" (PDF). Version V10r00. Bluetooth SIG. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  13. ^ Michael Oryl. "Bluetooth 2.1 Offers Touch Based Pairing, Reduced Power Consumption", MobileBurn, 2007-03-15. Retrieved on 2008-02-04. 
  14. ^ Taoufik Ghanname. "How NFC can to speed Bluetooth transactions-today", Wireless Net DesignLine, 2007-02-14. Retrieved on 2008-02-04. 
  15. ^ Nokia (2007-06-12). "Wibree forum merges with Bluetooth SIG" (PDF). Press release. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  16. ^ Stallings, William. (2005). Wireless communications & networks. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  17. ^ Stallings, William. (2005). Wireless communications & networks. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  18. ^ Juha T. Vainio (2000-05-25). Bluetooth Security. Helsinki University of Technology. Archived from the original on 2006-05-19. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  19. ^ Andreas Becker (2007-08-16). "Bluetooth Security & Hacks" (PDF). Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  20. ^ What is bluejacking?. Helsinki University of Technology. Retrieved on 2008-05-01.
  21. ^ Bluetooth. The Bunker. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  22. ^ BlueBug. Trifinite.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  23. ^ John Oates. "Virus attacks mobiles via Bluetooth", The Register, 2004-06-15. Retrieved on 2007-02-01. 
  24. ^ Long Distance Snarf. Trifinite.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  25. ^ F-Secure Malware Information Pages: Lasco.A. F-Secure.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  26. ^ Ford-Long Wong, Frank Stajano, Jolyon Clulow (2005-04). "Repairing the Bluetooth pairing protocol" (PDF). University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  27. ^ Yaniv Shaked, Avishai Wool (2005-05-02). "Cracking the Bluetooth PIN". School of Electrical Engineering Systems, Tel Aviv University. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  28. ^ "Phone pirates in seek and steal mission", Cambridge Evening News. Retrieved on 2008-02-04. Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. 
  29. ^ (2006-05). "Going Around with Bluetooth in Full Safety" (PDF). F-Secure. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  30. ^ M. Hietanen, T. Alanko (2005-10). Occupational Exposure Related to Radiofrequency Fields from Wireless Communication Systems (PDF). XXVIIIth General Assembly of URSI - Proceedings. Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  31. ^ http://www.crutchfieldadvisor.com/S-2Rd3o8QDUSR/learningcenter/home/bluetooth.html
  32. ^ About the Bluetooth SIG. Bluetooth SIG. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  33. ^ How Bluetooth got its name
  34. ^ Så ska Bluetooth överleva 10 år till. Ny Teknik. Retrieved on 2008-02-27.

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Current logo of The Register. ... 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

  • http://www.bluetooth.org — Bluetooth Special Interest Group Site (includes specifications)
  • http://www.bluetooth.com — Official Bluetooth site aimed at users
  • How Bluetooth Works
  • http://www.gsmfavorites.com/documents/bluetooth — Introduction and detailed information

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bluetooth® Technology (1768 words)
Bluetooth® [1] is an available option that allows for wireless connections between your Toyota and many Bluetooth® [1]-enabled mobile phones.
Bluetooth® is a new wireless technology that enables connectivity between two or more devices (for example, cell phone and vehicle) by utilizing a 2.4-GHz radio spectrum that has a range of 10 meters.
Bluetooth® wireless technology is a short-range communications technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed devices while maintaining high levels of security.
Bluetooth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5196 words)
Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power class dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device.
Bluetooth specification allows connecting 2 or more piconets together to form a scatternet, with some devices acting as a bridge by simultaneously playing the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another piconet.
Bluetooth is often thought of as wireless USB whereas Wi-Fi is wireless Ethernet, both operating at much lower bandwidth than the cable systems they are trying to replace.
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