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Encyclopedia > Bluescreen
The bluescreen setup. This example is incorrectly lit, as the lighting is not even, and shadows are cast by the figure onto the screen.
The bluescreen setup. This example is incorrectly lit, as the lighting is not even, and shadows are cast by the figure onto the screen.
The final image
The final image

Bluescreen (known in television as chroma key) is a term for the filmmaking technique of using an evenly-lit monochromatic background for the purpose of replacing it with a different image or scene. The term also refers to the visual effect resulting from this technique as well as the colored screen itself (although it is often not blue: for example, with greenscreen). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1032, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bluescreen ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1032, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bluescreen ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x969, 134 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bluescreen ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x969, 134 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bluescreen ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ...

Contents

Travelling matte

Prior to the computer-generated imagery (CGI) revolution, bluescreen was a complex, time consuming process called 'travelling matte'. Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects. ...


Developed by Warner Bros. employee and ex-Kodak researcher Arthur Widmer in 1950, he began working with an ultra violet travelling matte process. Widmer also developed and refined technologies for other motion picture processes including 3D and widescreen. He began developing bluescreen techniques, with one of the first films to use them being the 1958 adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway's 1951 novella, The Old Man and the Sea, starring Spencer Tracy. [1] Warner Bros. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... Arthur Widmer (born 25 July 1914 in Washington DC, died 28 May 2006 in Los Angeles) was a film special effects pioneer. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Matte can take on one of at least two distinct meanings. ... In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ... The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 movies and pre-widescreen television. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... The Old Man and the Sea is a novella by Ernest Hemingway written in Cuba in 1951 and published in 1952. ... Spencer Tracy (left) in 1960s Inherit the Wind with Fredric March. ...


The background footage was shot first and the actor or model was filmed against a bluescreen carrying out their actions. To simply place the foreground shot over the background shot would create a ghostly image over a blue-tinged background. The actor or model must be separated from the background and placed into a specially-made "hole" in the background footage.


The bluescreen shot was first rephotographed through a blue filter so that only the background is exposed. A special film is used that creates a black and white negative image — a black background with a subject-shaped hole in the middle. This is called a 'female matte'.


The bluescreen shot was then rephotographed, this time through a red and green filter so that only the foreground image was cast on film, creating a black silhouette on an unexposed (clear) background. This is called a 'male matte'.


The background image is then rephotographed through the male matte, and the bluescreen shot rephotographed through the female matte. An optical printer with two projectors, a film camera and a 'beam splitter' combines the images together one frame at a time. This part of the process must be very carefully controlled to ensure the absence of 'black lines'. During the 1980s, minicomputers were used to control the optical printer. For The Empire Strikes Back, Richard Edlund created a 'quad optical printer' that accelerated the process considerably and saved money. He received a special Academy Award for his innovation. An optical printer with two projector heads, used in producing movie special effects. ... Movie poster Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back is the sequel to the first released Star Wars movie, and the second film released in the original trilogy. ... Richard Edlund (December 6, 1940) is a multiple Academy Award- winning US special effects photographer. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


One drawback to the traditional travelling matte is that the cameras shooting the images to be composited can't be easily synchronized. For decades, such matte shots had to be done "locked-down" so that neither the matted subject nor the background would move at all. Later, computer-timed motion control cameras alleviated this problem, as both the foreground and background could be filmed with the exact same camera moves. Motion control photography is a special effects technique used in film that creates the illusion of size from small models by moving a small camera by the model at very slow speeds. ...


Petro Vlahos was awarded an Academy Award for his development of bluescreen techniques. His technique exploits the fact that most objects in real-world scenes have a color whose blue color component is similar in intensity to their green color component. Zbig Rybczynski also contributed to bluescreen technology. Petro Vlahos, a Hollywood special effects pioneer who developed the color-difference blue screen process for the Motion Picture Research Council, founded Ultimatte Corporation, of Chatsworth, California, in 1976. ... Zbigniew Rybczynski was a filmmaker who won numerous prestigious industry awards internationally. ...


Chroma key

Main article: Chroma key

The key background color in the video signal is processed out and overlaid with content from a different video signal — such as from a separate camera, a recorded video playback, or a digital source — a process called 'compositing'. Both digital and analogue techniques exist for doing this. The image replacement may be done in production or in post-production. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... In visual effects post-production, compositing refers to creating new images or moving images by combining images from different sources – such as real-world digital video, film, synthetic 3-D imagery, 2-D animations, painted backdrops, digital still photographs, and text. ... Digital image editing is the process of altering digital images, whether they be digital photographs or other types of digitally represented images. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ...


A classic example of the technique is the television news weatherman who on-screen appears to point at a map, but is actually being recorded standing in front of a blank screen. On the sides of this screen are smaller televisions projecting a front view of the weathercaster, so they know where and when to place their hands. This technique is illustrated in an early scene in the film Groundhog Day. These early television effects were originally accomplished by a technique called chroma keying, but older analogue methods have been increasingly supplanted by modern digital compositing techniques. Groundhog Day is a 1993 comedy film and box office hit starring Bill Murray as Phil Connors, an egocentric Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania TV weatherman who, dreading his hated annual assignment covering Groundhog Day (February 2) in Punxsutawney, finds himself repeating the day over and over. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Digital compositing is the process of assembling multiple images to make a final image, typically for print, motion pictures or screen display. ...


Sometimes a television presenter's clothing will happen to have a region, such as a logo or other decoration, whose color is close enough to the chroma key being used that it gets included in the mask and the background shows through. If the production staff fail to notice this before the program goes on the air, it will then look to viewers as though there is a small hole in the body of the presenter through which the background is visible.


Towards the end of 2004, Drew Carey hosted the TV show Drew Carey's Green Screen Show, where comedians act against a greenscreen background with live audience interaction. After post-production, viewers watching the show would see animation interlaced with the live acting. Drew Carey Drew Allison Carey (born May 23, 1958 in Cleveland, Ohio, USA) is an American actor and comedian recognizable by his crew cut and black-rimmed glasses. ... Drew Careys Green Screen Show is an improvisational comedy television show that aired in the fall of 2004 on The WB Television Network and the fall of 2005 on Comedy Central. ...


At the 78th Academy Awards (2006) Ben Stiller, introducing the Academy Award for Visual Effects, parodied the effect by appearing in a green jump suit which he claimed would appear invisible on television, making him appear as a disembodied floating head. In fact it was clearly visible, since it was not shot using a greenscreen effect. The 78th Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 2005, were held on March 5, 2006 at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, California. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Benjamin Edward Stiller (born November 30, 1965) is an Emmy-winning American comedian, actor, and film director, the son of Jerry Stiller and Anne Meara, both of whom are veteran comedians and actors themselves. ... The Academy Award for Visual Effects is an Oscar given to one film each year that shows highest achievement in visual effects. ... Parody of Back to the Future In contemporary usage, a parody is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ...


Other colors

Some modern screens appear grey, but are coated with tiny half-silvered glass beads to give a significant degree of retroreflectivity. A ring of colored lights (usually LEDs) is placed around the camera lens, and the screen reflects this color back to the camera. This technique reduces problems from performers casting shadows on the screen, and allows operation at low lighting levels. The screen color is defined by the color of the ring light, making it easier to change the screen color quickly. This technic facilitates the use of a color with a narrow range, making it easier to distinguish between the color of the screen and colors on the subject. Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ...


Other colors are sometimes used instead of blue, including magenta (The Matrix), yellow (some 1970s episodes of Doctor Who, and Song of the South), orange (Apollo 13) and red (Air Force One). The choice of color depends on the subject and specific technique used. Blue is normally used for people because human skin has very little blue color to it. Green is used because digital cameras retain more detail in the green color channel and it requires less light. Magenta screens are often used with model photography where the model contains both blue and green components. The Matrix is a science fiction/action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss and Hugo Weaving. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Song of the South is a feature film produced by Walt Disney Productions, released on November 12, 1946 by RKO Radio Pictures and based on the Uncle Remus cycle of stories by Joel Chandler Harris. ... Apollo 13 is a 1995 film portrayal of the ill-fated Apollo 13 lunar mission. ... Air Force One is a 1997 action movie starring Harrison Ford as the President of the United States, and directed by Wolfgang Petersen. ...

Demonstration of bluescreen at the Special Effects show, Museum of Science, Boston
Demonstration of bluescreen at the Special Effects show, Museum of Science, Boston

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x774, 66 KB) Summary Demonstration of blue screen at the Special Effects show, Museum of Science, Boston - photograph taken by Mark Barker Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x774, 66 KB) Summary Demonstration of blue screen at the Special Effects show, Museum of Science, Boston - photograph taken by Mark Barker Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Outside the Museum of Science, August 2005 The Museum of Science is a Boston landmark, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River. ...

Bluescreen in the digital age

Some films make heavy use of bluescreen and add backgrounds that are constructed entirely using CGI. In the early 2000s several movies were made using this technique, including Immortel: Ad Vitam; Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow; Casshern; Star Wars Episode III; I, Robot; and Sin City. Performances from different takes can even be composited together, which allows actors to be filmed separately and then placed together in the same scene. Blue screen allows performers to appear to be in any location without even leaving the studio. They could appear to be anywhere on Earth, or any other world that could be depicted. Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects. ... Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow is a film released on September 17, 2004 in the United States. ... Casshern ) is a 2004 Japanese tokusatsu superhero film written and directed by Kazuaki Kiriya. ... Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith is the third episode of the Star Wars film series (but the sixth film to be produced), to be released on Thursday, May 19, 2005. ... I, Robot is a science fiction film filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, but produced in the United States released on July 16, 2004, attributed to Isaac Asimovs Robot Series, especially a short-story collection of the same name. ... Sin City is a 2005 neo-noir anthology film based on the graphic novel series of the same name, directed by Frank Miller and Robert Rodriguez and with Special Guest Director Quentin Tarantino. ...


Computer development also made it easier to incorporate motion into composited shots, even when using handheld cameras. Reference-points can now be placed onto the colored background (usually as a painted grid, X's marked with tape, or equally spaced tennis balls attached to the wall). In post-production, a computer can use the references to adjust the position of the background, making it match the movement of the foreground perfectly.


In the past decade, the use of green has become dominant in film special effects. The main reason for this is that green not only has a higher luminance value than blue but also in early digital formats the green channel was sampled twice as often as the blue, making it easier to work with. The choice of color is up to the effects artists and the needs of the specific shot. Red is always avoided due to its prevalence in normal human skin pigments.


See also

Drew Careys Green Screen Show is an improvisational comedy television show that aired in the fall of 2004 on The WB Television Network and the fall of 2005 on Comedy Central. ... Film production on location in Newark, New Jersey. ... A front projection effect is an in-camera visual effects process in film production for combining foreground performance with pre-filmed background footage. ... Mattes are used in photography and filmmaking to insert part of a foreground image onto a background image, which is often a matte painting, a background filmed by the second unit, or computer generated imagery. ... An optical printer with two projector heads, used in producing movie special effects. ... Rear projection effect is an in-camera special effects technique in film production for combining foreground performances with pre-filmed backgrounds. ... Reverse bluescreen is a special effects technique pioneered by John Dykstra for shooting the flying sequences in the film Firefox. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... The sodium vapor process (ocassionally referred to as yellowscreen) was an old technique for combining actors and background footage. ... Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images which represent scenes in motion. ...

References

  1. ^ http://en.chinabroadcast.cn/2246/2005-2-14/[email protected]

External links

Further reading

  • T. Porter and T. Duff, "Compositing Digital Images", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '84, 18 (1984).
  • The Art and Science of Digital Compositing (ISBN 0-12-133960-2)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bluescreen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1191 words)
Bluescreen (known in television as chroma key) is a term for the filmmaking technique of shooting foreground action against an evenly-lit monochomatic background for the purpose of removing the background from the scene and replacing it with a different image or scene.
The bluescreen shot was first rephotographed through a blue filter so that only the background is exposed.
The bluescreen shot was then rephotographed, this time through a red and green filter so that only the foreground image was cast on film, creating a fl sillohuette on an unexposed (clear) background.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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