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Encyclopedia > Blues harp
Harmonica
Classification
Playing range

For 64-reeds (16-holes) chromatic harmonica: C below Middle C (C) to C5; 4 octaves Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1211 KB) Summary A photo I took of my Hohner Super 64 (16-hole chromatic) and Suzuki Promaster (10-hole Diatonic). ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument where sound is produced as air passes a reed in a chamber, causing the reed to vibrate. ... An aerophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. ... The playing range of a musical instrument is the region of pitch in which it can play, i. ...

Related instruments

accordion, melodica, harmonium, concertina, sheng, reed organ, Yu A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A 24-bass piano accordion An accordion is a musical instrument of the handheld bellows-driven free reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as squeezeboxes. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... This article is on the musical instrument; for information on other kinds of harmonia, see harmonium (disambiguation). ... English concertina made by Wheatstone around 1920 A concertina, like the various accordions, is a member of the free-reed family of instruments. ... The Chinese sheng (Chinese: 笙, Pinyin shēng) is a mouth-blown free reed instrument (the first) consisting essentially of vertical tubes, in the Chinese orchestra. ... A reed organ is an organ that generates its sounds using free metal reeds, similar to an accordion. ... The yu (竽; pinyin: yú) was a free reed wind instrument used in ancient China. ...

More articles

List of harmonicists This is a list of musicians that play harmonica. ...

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Harmonica

A harmonica is a free reed musical wind instrument (also known, among other things, as a mouth organ or mouth harp, Hobo Harp, French harp, tin sandwich, lickin' stick, blues harp, simply harp, or "Mississippi saxophone"), having multiple, variably-tuned brass or bronze reeds, each secured at one end over an airway slot of like dimension into which it can freely vibrate, thus repeatedly interrupting an airstream to produce sound. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is part of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument where sound is produced as air passes a reed in a chamber, causing the reed to vibrate. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ...


Unlike most free-reed instruments (such as reed organs, accordions and melodicas), the harmonica lacks a keyboard. Instead, the player selects the notes by placement of their mouth over the proper airways, usually made up of discrete holes in the front of the instrument. Each hole communicates with one, two or a few reeds. Because a reed mounted above a slot is made to vibrate more easily by air from above, reeds accessed by a mouthpiece hole often may be selected further by choice of breath direction (blowing, drawing). Some harmonicas (primarily chromatic harmonicas) also include a spring-loaded button-actuated slide that, when depressed, redirects the airflow. A reed organ is an organ that generates its sounds using free metal reeds, similar to an accordion. ... A 24-bass piano accordion An accordion is a musical instrument of the handheld bellows-driven free reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as squeezeboxes. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ...


The harmonica is commonly used in blues and folk music, but also in jazz, classical music, country music, rock and roll and pop music. Increasingly, the harmonica is finding its place in more electronically generated music, such as dance and hip-hop, as well as funk and acid jazz. Blues music redirects here. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... Jazz is an original American musical art form that originated around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in African American musical styles blended with Western music technique and theory. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, also known as country and western music or country-western, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Hip hop music, also referred to as rap or rap music, is a style of popular music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Funk music originated by African Americans, e. ... Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ...

Contents

Parts of the harmonica

Comb and two reedplates.
Comb and two reedplates.
Reedplate mounted on the comb of a diatonic harmonica.
Reedplate mounted on the comb of a diatonic harmonica.
Reed plate.
Reed plate.

The basic parts of the harmonica are the comb, reed-plates and cover-plates. The comb is the term for the main body of the instrument. These are traditionally made of wood, but plastic (ABS) and metal combs are perhaps more common today. The comb contains the air chambers which cover the reeds - the name comb comes from the fact that in simple harmonicas it does indeed resemble a hair-comb. In some designs, however, the comb is in fact very complex in arranging how the air is directed, particularly in more modern and experimental designs. Image File history File links Gaita_partes1. ... Image File history File links Gaita_partes1. ... Image File history File links Gaita_Palhetas2. ... Image File history File links Gaita_Palhetas2. ... Image File history File links Gaita_palhetas. ... Image File history File links Gaita_palhetas. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Household items made out of plastic. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... A comb A comb for people with hair loss. ...


There is much debate about whether comb-material has an effect on the tone of the harmonica or not. While this has traditionally been the assumption, several recent attempts at blind testing have not been able to show that people can hear a difference when comb material is the only variable, and the main advantage one comb material truly have over another one is usually its durability. In particular, a wooden comb can absorb moisture from the player's breath and contact with the tongue, causing the comb to expand slightly. This can become uncomfortable to play. Conversely, some players used to deliberately soak their wooden-combed hamonicas to cause a slight expansion which was intended to make the seal between the comb, reed plates and covers more airtight.


The choice of comb material is usually decided by the player, as the tonality of each material is only heard by the player of the "harp". Once the sound escapes the instrument, it is then subjected to the environmental changes and to the bias of a listener's ear.


Reed-plate is the term for a grouping of several free-reeds in a single housing (usually brass, but occasionally steel and aluminium have been used, as well as plastics). These individual reeds are usually riveted to the reed-plate but they may also be welded or screwed in place (a notable exception is the all-plastic harmonicas designed by Finn Magnus in the 1950s, where the reed and reed-plate were molded out of a single piece of plastic). (Note: The choice of reed-plate material is expressly dependent upon the individual player's preference.) Reeds fixed on the inside (within the comb's air chamber) of the reed-plate respond to pressure while those on the outside (in the open air) respond to suction. Most harmonicas are constructed with the reed-plates screwed or bolted to the comb or each other, however a few brands still use the traditional method of nailing the reed-plates to the comb. Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ...


Again, the Magnus design had the reeds, reed-plates and comb all out of plastic and either molded together or permanently glued together. Some experimental and rare harmonicas also have the reed-plates held in place by tension, such as the WWII era All-American models.


If the plates are bolted to the comb, it can be possible to replace the reed plates individually. This is useful, as the reeds eventually go out of tune through normal use, and certain notes of the scale can fail more quickly than others.


The cover or cover-plates cover the reed-plates and are usually made of metal, although wood and plastic have also been used. As pointed out previously, the choice of these is extremely personal. As they project the sound, they determine the tonal quality of the harmonica. There two types: the traditional open designs of stamped metal or plastic are simply there to be held, while the enclosed design (such as Hohner Meisterklass and Super 64, Suzuki Promaster and SCX) offer a louder tonal quality. From these two, a few modern designs are spawned, such as the Hohner CBH-2016 chromatic and the Suzuki Overdrive diatonic, which have complex covers which allow for specific functions not usually available in the traditional design. Similarly, it was not unusual in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to see harmonicas with special features on the covers such as bells which could be rung by pushing a button and the like. Hohner is a company specialising in the manufacture of musical instruments. ... Suzuki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ...


Windsavers are one-way valves made from very thin strips of plastic, knit paper, leather, or teflon glued onto the reed-plate. Windsavers, typically found in Chromatic harmonicas, Chord harmonicas, and many Octave-tuned harmonicas, are used when two reeds share a cell and leakage through the non-playing reed would be significant. For example, when a draw note is played, the valve on blow reed-slot is sucked shut, preventing air from leaking through the inactive blow reed. An exception is the recent Hohner XB-40 where valves are placed not to isolate single reeds but rather to isolate entire chambers from being active.


Some harmonicas have other parts as well. The mouthpiece is an object which is placed between the air chambers of the instrument and the player's mouth. This can be made integral with the comb (the diatonic harmonicas, the Hohner Chrometta), as part of the cover (as in Hohner's CX-12) or as a separate unit entirely, secured by screws, which is typical of Chromatics. In many harmonicas the mouthpiece is purely an ergonomic aide designed to make playing more comfortable, but in the traditional slider-based chromatic harmonica it is essential to the functioning of the instrument since it provides a groove for the slide.


It should also be noted that among players, the brand that one chooses usually is based on one's ability to play, the pliability of the reeds, sound of the instrument, and, surprisingly, price. Many feel that the best harmonicas are more expensively priced, though many skilled players feel that price and quality are not related.


Harmonica types

The diatonic harmonica

main article: diatonic harmonica Diatonic harmonicas. ...

Diatonic harmonicas.
Diatonic harmonicas.

The diatonic, or richter tuned harmonica is the most widely known type of harmonica. It has ten holes which offer the player 19 notes (10 holes times a draw and a blow for each hole minus one repeated note) in a three octave range. This is the type commonly used in blues and rock. The reeds of Diatonic Harmonicas produce the notes of the scale to which they are tuned. For example, a diatonic harmonica tuned to the key of C would produce the natural notes of the C scale without sharps and flats (picture the white keys on a piano, without the black keys). Each hole has two reeds; one plays when breath is exhaled (blow) and the other when inhaled (draw). The individual reeds are each tuned to play a different note on the scale. Image File history File links Gaitas. ... Image File history File links Gaitas. ...


The Chromatic harmonica

main article: chromatic harmonica Hohner Super-Chromatic harmonica, a typical 12-hole chromatic. ...

The Chromatic harmonica uses a button-activated sliding bar to redirect air from the hole in the mouthpiece to the selected reed-plate desired, which allows the musician to play any keys that he desired with only one harmonica. This harp is used for Celtic, Classical, and Jazz, as well as many other styles. Image File history File linksMetadata Mundharmonika_gfdl. ...


The Tremolo Harmonica

main article: tremolo harmonica A tremolo harmonica. ...

A tremolo harmonica.
A tremolo harmonica.

The tremolo harmonica's distinguishing feature is having two reeds per note, with one a bit sharp and the other a bit flat. This gives a unique wavering or warbling sound created by the two reeds being slightly out of tune with each other and the difference in their subsequent waveforms interacting with each other. The Asian version, which has all the notes on it, is the common variety employed in Asia, and is used in all East-Asian music, from rock to pop music. Image File history File links Suzuki_Humming. ... Image File history File links Suzuki_Humming. ...


The Octave Harmonica

Octave harmonicas have two reeds per hole. The two reeds are tuned to the same note a perfect octave apart. Many share their basic design with the tremolo harmonica explained above and are built upon this "Wiener system" of construction. Octave harmonicas also come in what is called the "Knittlinger system". In this design the top and bottom reed-plates contain all of the blow and draw notes for either to lower or higher pitched set of reeds. The comb is constructed so that the blow and draw reeds on each reed-plate are paired side-by-side in a single chamber in the same manner as on a standard diatonic but that the top and bottom pairs each have their own chamber. Thus, in a C harmonica the higher pitched C blow and D draw found in the first "hole" would be placed side-by-side on the upper reed-plate and share a single chamber in the comb and the lower pitched C blow and D draw would be placed side-by-side on the bottom reed-plate and share a single chamber directly below the higher pitched pair of reeds' chamber. Knittlinger octave harmonicas are also called "concert" harmonicas and are almost always tuned in a variation of the traditional major diatonic with chords tuning found in diatonic harmonicas. Octave harmonicas built in the "Wiener system" may be tuned either in this traditional method or in the same manner as the Asian tremolos mentioned above.


An interesting variation upon the Knittlinger octave harmonica is the so-called "half-concert" harmonica. This is not an octave harmonica at all, but rather a single-note diatonic harmonica which is built with a single reed-plate rather than the standard two--essentially it is one half of the standard octave harmonica.


The Orchestral harmonicas

These harmonicas are primarily designed for use in ensemble playing.


The Orchestral Melody harmonica

There are two kinds of orchestral melody harmonica: the most common is the Horn harmonicas, as called in Asia, which are mostly found in East Asia. These consist of a single large comb with blow only reed-plates on the top and bottom. Each reed sits inside a single cell in the comb, and the instrument mimics the layout of a piano or mallet instrument, with the natural notes of a C diatonic scale available from the lower reed-plate and the sharps/flats from the upper reed-plate in groups of two and three holes with gaps in-between (thus there is no E#/Fb hole nor a B#/Cb hole on the upper reed-plate). These are available in several pitch ranges, with the lowest pitched starting two-octaves below middle C and the highest beginning on middle C itself. These usually cover a two or three octave range. These are usually played in an East Asian harmonica orchestra, using these instruments instead of the chromatic harmonica, and often serve to function in place of brass section—hence it was called horn harmonica in Asia.


The other type of orchestral melodic harmonica is the Polyphonias, which are designed with all twelve chromatic notes laid out on the same row; usually, both blow and draw will have the same tone. This allows songs that require a rapid pace, such as Flight of the Bumble Bee, to be played (as one do not need to switch airflow), but more commonly it was used to make glissandos and other effects very easy to play--few acoustic instruments can play a chromatic glissando as fast as a Polyphonia.


The Bass harmonica

The Bass harmonica consists of two separate combs joined together one atop the other with moveable connectors at their ends. These are all-blow instruments covering much the same range as the viol family Double Bass. Those made today are all octave tuned, in that each hole has two reeds one of which plays the bass note and the other a note an octave higher. The lower comb contains the notes of the C major diatonic scale, while the upper comb contains the notes of a C#(Db) diatonic scale. Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


See the fuller description at: www.bassharp.com.


The Chord harmonica

The chord harmonica has 48 chords: major, seventh, minor, augmented and diminished for ensemble playing. It is laid out in four-note clusters, each sounding a different chord on inhaling or exhaling. Typically each hole has two reeds for each note, tuned to one octave of each other, but less expensive models often have only one reed per note.


In addition to these, quite a few orchestra harmonicas are also designed to serve both as a bass and chord harmonica, with bass notes next to chord groupings. There were also other chord harmonicas, such as Chordomonica (operate similar to a chromatic harmonica), and junior chord harmonicas (Typically provide 6 chords)


ChengGong Harmonica

A recent innovation in the harmonica is the ChengGong (a pun on the inventor's name and Xin Gong, "Success") Harmonica, invented by XueXue Cheng of China. It has two parts: the main body, and a sliding mouthpiece. The body is a 24 hole diatonic harmonica that starts from b2 to d6 (covering 3 octaves). Its 11-hole mouthpiece can slide along the front of the harmonica, which gives numerous chord choices and voicings (seven triads, three 6th chords, seven 7th chords, and seven 9th chords, for a total of 24 chords available). Yet, the ChengGong is still capable of playing single note melodies and double stops over a range of three diatonic octaves, all the while maintaining a small profile, not much larger than a 12-hole chromatic. Also, unlike conventional harmonicas, blowing and drawing produce the same notes. In this way, its tuning is closer to the note layout of a typical Asian tremolo harmonica or the Polyphonias. [1]


The Pitch Pipe

The pitch pipe is essentially a specialty harmonica which is designed not for playing music as such but for giving a reference pitch to singers and other instruments. Notably, the only difference between some early pitch-pipes and harmonicas is the name of the instrument, reflecting the maker's target audience. A pitchpipe is a small device which may be described as a musical instrument, although it is not actually used to play music as such. ...


Harmonica Techniques

main article: Harmonica techniques There are numerous techniques available for harmonica. ...


There are numerous techniques available for harmonica; some are used to provide additional tonal dynamics. Some, however, are used to increase playing ability, allow what originally is a diatonic instrument that can play one key properly, into a versatile instrument. Techniques used include bending, overbending, and position playing.


History

The harmonica developed from the intense interests in free-reeds which arose in Europe in the early 19th century. While free-reeds had been fairly common throughout East Asia for centuries and known in Europe for some time before this period, around 1820 there was a virtual eruption of new free-reed designs in Europe and North America. While a young Christian Friederich Ludwig Buschmann is often cited as the inventor of the harmonica in 1821, it was almost certainly a case of simultaneous development amongst several inventors working independently but knowing from each other to some extent with mouth-blown free-reed instruments appearing in the United States, the United Kingdom and on the continent at roughly the same time. Early Aeolines had not jet chambers added. In Vienna harmonicas with Chambers ware soled before 1824. See also Anton Reinlein and Anton Haeckl. In Germany Mr. Meisel from Klingenthal did bay a harmonica with chambers (Kanzellen) at the Exhibition in Braunschweig in the jear of 1824 Meisel und Langhammer [2] He and Langhammer in Graslitz copped the Instruments and by 1827 the produced already hundreds of harmonicas. Very fast many other followed with staring up to produce harmonicas in the same region of Germany and the nearby region of Czech what was not Czech territory at that time. 1829 Johann Wilhelm Rudolph Glier [3] started also with the production of harmonicas. Richter tuning was in use nearly from the beginning. In 1830 Christan Messner from Trossingen a cloth maker and weaver copied a Harmonica bought to Trosisngen by his next door neighbor and clockmaker, from Vienna. He had such success with making such instruments, that eventually his brother and some relatives also stared to build harmonicas. From 1840 on his nephew Christian Weiss started to work on his on. So by 1855 two registered businesses war in existence.Christian Messner & Co. and Württ. Harmonikafabrik Ch. WEISS. See German wikipedia page about Christian Messner [4]. Forced trough the staring competition of harmonica Factory's in Trossingen and Klingenthal the first machines ware invented to punch Covers for the reeds. In the Year of 1857 Matt. Hohner a clockmaker of Trossingen stared the production of Harmonicas, he was the first one who orders the wooden middle part from other firms that had machines to cut the parts. By 1868 he could deliver the first order to USA. Matthias Hohner became the first person to mass-produce it. Sometime by the 1820s, the diatonic harmonica had more or less found its modern form and the other diatonic and chromatic types followed soon thereafter (the various tremolo and octave harmonicas). By the late 19th century, harmonica production was big business and had evolved from a handcraft into mass-production with figures well into the millions, a status which continues to this day. New designs continued to be developed in the 20th century including the chromatic harmonica (first made by Hohner in 1924), the bass harmonica, the chord harmonica and others. Even in the 21st century radical new designs such as the Suzuki Overdrive and Hohner XB-40 continue to be brought to market. World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann (born 17 June 1805 in Friedrichroda; died 1 October 1864 in Hamburg) was a German musical instrument maker, often credited with inventing the harmonica and sometimes the accordion. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Georg Anton Reinlein was a musical clock maker in Vienna. ... Anton Haeckl was a musical instrument builder in Vienna, who built the first physharmonica in 1818. ... Trossingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Events and Trends Nationalistic independence movements helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire (1821). ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Hohner Super-Chromatic harmonica, a typical 12-hole chromatic. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The harmonica's massive success is attributable to many factors. First, it is a fairly easy instrument to begin to play some simple songs. Of, course, some talent is necessary to play. The diatonic harmonicas were designed primarily for the playing of German and other European folk musics and are extremely successful for that. However, probably unintentionally the basic design and tuning was extremely adaptable to other types of music such as the blues, country, old-time and similar. Second, the majority of harmonicas are quite small--often small enough to unobtrusively fit in a pocket. Third, harmonicas are cheap - amongst the most inexpensive of musical instruments available while not being intended as a toy. Fourth, harmonicas are fairly easy to manufacture and their simple construction allowed for industrial level production without sacrificing the quality of a hand-crafted instrument, unlike most string instruments or other wind instruments. For these reasons the harmonica was a success almost from the very start of production, and while the center of the harmonica business has shifted from Germany the output of the various harmonica manufacturers is still very high indeed. Major companies are now found in Germany (Seydel, Hohner - once the dominant manufacturer in the world, producing some 20 million harmonicas alone in 1920 when German manufacturing totaled over 50 million harmonicas), Japan (Suzuki, Tombo, Yamaha), China (Huang, Leo Shi, Suzuki, Hohner) and Brasil (Hering). Ironically, as the demand for higher quality instruments which respond to more demanding performance techniques has increased, there has been a resurgence in the world of hand-crafted harmonicas which cater to those wanting the absolute best without the compromises inherent in mass manufacturing. Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... Blues music redirects here. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, also known as country and western music or country-western, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A wind instrument consists of a tube containing a column of air which is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set into the end of the tube. ... Hohner is a company specialising in the manufacture of musical instruments. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Suzuki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tombo can refer to: Tombo (Registry) a portuguese registry for land and royal revenue. ... The Yamaha Corporation (ヤマハ株式会社; TYO: 7951 ) is a Japanese company with a large number of product areas. ...


Europe and North America

Shortly after Hohner began manufacturing harmonicas in 1857, he shipped some to relatives who had emigrated to the United States. It rapidly became popular, and the country became an enormous market for Hohner's goods. President Abraham Lincoln carried a harmonica in his pocket [5], and harmonicas provided solace to soldiers on both the Union and Confederate sides of the United States Civil War. Frontiersmen Wyatt Earp and Billy the Kid played the instrument, and it became a fixture of the American musical landscape. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (April 3–April 10, 1865) Largest city New Orleans... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Wyatt Earp at about age 21, photo about 1869 Wyatt Earp at about age 39, photo in San Diego about 1887 Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp (March 19, 1848–January 13, 1929), was a Teamster, sometime buffalo hunter, officer of the law, gambler, and saloon-keeper in the Wild West and... The only known photograph of Billy the Kid. ...


The first recordings of harmonica were made in the U.S. in the 1920s. These recordings are mainly 'race-records', intended for the black market of the southern states. They consist mainly of solo recordings (DeFord Bailey), duo recordings with a guitarist (Hammie Nixon, Walter Horton, Sonny Terry) or recordings featuring the harmonica in jug bands, of which the Memphis Jug Band is the most famous. But the harmonica still represented a toy instrument in those years and was associated with the poor. It is also during those years that musicians started experimenting with new techniques such as tongue-blocking, hand effects and the most important innovation of all, the 2nd position, or cross-harp. United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... DeFord Bailey (December 14, 1899 – July 2, 1982) was an early country music star and the first African American performer on the Grand Ole Opry. ... Hammie Nixon was born in 1908, in Brownsville, Tenn. ... Big Walter Horton (born April 6, 1918 - died December 8, 1981) was an African American blues harmonica player. ... Sonny Terry performing live at Nambassa festival 1981. ... A jug band is a band employing a jug player and a mix of traditonal and home-made instruments. ... This music article needs to be wikified. ...


The harmonica then made its way with the blues and the black migrants to the north, mainly to Chicago but also to Detroit, St. Louis and New York. The music played by the Afro-Americans started to become increasingly different there. The main difference is the electric amplification of the instrument: first the guitar and then the harp, double bass, vocals, etc. The original Sonny Boy Williamson is one of the most important harmonicist of this era. Using a full blues band, he became one of the most popular acts in the country due to his weekly broadcasts on the King Biscuit Hour, originating live from Helena, Arkansas. He also installed for good the cross-harp technique, opening the possibilities of harp playing to new sky. It is hard to imagine how much influence he would have had on the blues, if he had lived longer. African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Different kinds of guitars The guitar is a fretted and stringed musical instrument, used in a wide variety of musical styles, and is also widely known as a solo classical instrument. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... There were 2 popular blues harmonica players that went by the name Sonny Boy Williamson Sonny Boy Williamson I, also known as John Lee Williamson was an American blues harmonica player, born in Jackson, Tennessee, whose first record Good Morning, School Girl was a hit in 1937. ... Harp Attack! blues harp album cover Blues harp or cross harp is a technique of playing an ordinary harmonica which originated in the blues, not a type of harp or harmonica. ...


But the harmonica didn't die with him. A young harmonicist by the name of Marion "Little Walter" Jacobs would completely revolutionize the instrument. He had the idea to play the harmonica near a microphone (typically a "Brown Bullet" microphone marketed for use by radio taxi dispatchers, giving it a "punchy" midrange sound that can be heard above radio static, or an electric guitar) and cup his hands around it, thus tightening the air around the harp, giving it a powerful, distorted sound, sometimes reminiscent of a saxophone. This technique, combined with a great virtuosity on the instrument made him arguably the most influential harmonicist in history. It is almost impossible nowadays to find a harp player who wasn't influenced by Walter. Unfortunately, Little Walter also died young, from injuries suffered in a fight. Little Walter (born Marion Walter Jacobs) (May 1, 1930 - February 15, 1968) was a blues singer and harmonica player. ... Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. ... Left: Rosa Hurricane, a heavy metal-style solid body guitar. ... Saxophones of different sizes play in different registers. ... Niccolò Paganini - widely regarded as the first ever virtuoso violinist A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ...


Little Walter's only contender was perhaps Big Walter Horton. Relying less on the possibilities of amplification (although he made great use of it) than on sheer skill, Big Walter was the favored harmonicist of many Chicago leaders, including Willie Dixon. He graced many sides of Dixon's in the mid-fifties with extremely colorful solos, using the full register of his instrument as well as some chromatic harmonica. A major reason he is less known than Little Walter is because of his taciturn personality and his inconsistency, and his incapacity of holding a band as a leader. Walter "Big Walter" Horton, also known as "Shakey," was also a player on arguably the most exciting 12 bars of recorded harp on the classic Jimmie Rodgers "Walkin' By Myself" on Chess (1957). Big Walter Horton (born April 6, 1918 - died December 8, 1981) was an African American blues harmonica player. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area    - City 606. ... Willie Dixons style of blues was one of the inspirations for a new generation of music, rock and roll. ...


Other great harmonicists have graced the Chicago blues records of the 1950s. Howling Wolf is often overlooked as a harp player, but his early recordings demonstrate great skill, particularly at blowing powerful riffs with the instrument. Sonny Boy Williamson II used the possibilities of hand effects to give a very talkative feel to his harp playing. A number of his compositions have also become standards in the blues world. Sonny Boy Williamson II, or Rice Miller, had a powerful sound and extended his influence on the young British blues rockers in the 1960's, recording with Eric Clapton and The Yardbirds and appearing on live British television. Stevie Wonder taught himself harmonica at age 5 and plays the instrument on many of his recordings. Jimmy Reed played harmonica on most of his iconic blues shuffle recordings. The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... Howlin Wolf ( b. ... Sonny Boy Williamson, circa 1964 Aleck Rice Miller (December 5, 1899 - May 25, 1965), a. ... An example of the famous Clapton is God graffiti craze Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE (born March 30, 1945), nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award winning English guitarist, singer and composer, who is one of the most respected and influential musicians of the rock era, garnering an unprecedented three inductions into... The Yardbirds were an early English rock band, noted for starting the careers of several of rock musics most famous guitarists, including Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Morris[1] on May 13, 1950), is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, musician, and social activist. ... Jimmy Reed James Jimmy Mathis Reed (September 6, 1925 - August 29, 1976) was an important United States blues singer notable for bringing his distinctive style of blues to mainstream audiences. ... The riffle Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. ...


The 1960s and 1970s saw the harmonica become less prominent as the electric guitar became the favorite instrument for solos. Paul Butterfield is perhaps the most well known harp player of the era in the blues arena. Heavily influenced by Little Walter, he pushed further the virtuosity on the harp. However, he rapidly fell into drugs and alcohol and, after his first four albums, his career became stagnant. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Paul Butterfield (December 17, 1942 – May 4, 1987) was an American blues harmonica player and singer, and one of the earliest Caucasian exponents of the Chicago-originated electric blues style. ...


Two journeymen Chicago harmonica players were perhaps the most regarded of this era - both associated with the Muddy Waters Band, and both featured on the classic Vanguard release "Chicago: The Blues Today! Vol.'s 1-3" James Cotton and Junior Wells. Cotton, still playing in 2006 although with greatly diminished vocal powers, was the most energetic harp player of his time and specialized in slow, magnificent note-bends, along with vocals, heavily influenced by Bobby "Blue" Bland. Wells was the most economical of the harp masters, clearly a student of Sonny Boy Williamson II, and used the harp to create an atmosphere of tension and release. A respected blues singer, his recordings and live playing with his partner, blues guitarist Buddy Guy, defined the sixties and seventies blues scene (for a detailed account of their live performances, read "Satchmo Blows Up the World" by Penny M. Von Eschen, an account of the State Department tours that Junior and Buddy were involved in during this time).


Bob Dylan also famously played his harmonica to add a touch of blues to his folk and rock sound during this era. Dylan was known for placing his harmonicas in a brace so that he could simultaneously blow the harp and strum his guitar. George "Mojo" Buford, Jerry Portnoy, Lazy Lester, Corky Siegel, Sugar Blue, Charlie Musslewhite, Kim Wilson, Taj Mahal, Slim Harpo , Al "Blind Owl" Wilson of Canned Heat, John Sebastian of The Lovin' Spoonful (whose father was also a harmonica star in the Larry Adler classical harmonica days), and others all contributed originality and creativity to the recorded history of the blues harmonica. Many rock enthusiasts are heavily sentimental about the brief recorded harmonica life of Beatle John Lennon, who played it on the 1962 Top #1 International hit "Love Me Do". It is often said that Lennon was taught harmonica by Delbert McClinton, although McClinton says that this is not true. Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Jerry Portnoy (born 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is a harmonica musician. ... Lazy Lester (born Leslie Johnson in Torras, Louisiana, 20 June 1933) is a swamp blues harmonica master whose half-century career spans the 1950s to the 2000s. ... Kim Wilson is a blues singer and harmonica player. ... Taj Mahal The Tāj Mahal (Hindi:  ; Urdu: تجتاج ممحال ) is a monument located in Agra, India, constructed between 1631 and 1654 by a workforce of 22,000. ... Slim Harpo, born James Moore (11 January 1924, Lobdel, Louisiana, USA, died 31 January 1970) was a blues musician. ... Wilson performing at Woodstock. ... Canned Heat album cover Canned Heat is a blues-rock/ boogie band that formed in Los Angeles in 1965. ... John Sebastian (born March 17, 1944) is an American songwriter and harmonica player. ... Lovin Spoonful album cover The Lovin Spoonful was an American pop-rock band of the 1960s, named to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Delbert McClinton is a blues musician born 4 November 1940, in Lubbock, Texas. ...


Recently, newer harp players have had major influence on the sound of the harmonica. Heavily influenced by the electric guitar sound, John Popper of Blues Traveler has developed a sort of virtuosity on the instrument, although his musicality has been called into question. His electric and highly distorted solos are played at a breakneck speed. He is widely credited with many innovations in harmonica playing, such as playing through guitar effects. John Popper of Blues Traveler John Popper (born in Ohio) is the frontman for the band Blues Traveler. ... Blues Traveler is an American jam band from Princeton, New Jersey. ... In music, solo means to play or sing alone. ...


Contemporary harmonicists Howard Levy, Jason Ricci, Carlos del Junco and Chris Michalek are perhaps the most innovative players since Little Walter. Levy explored and pioneered the over-blow technique in the early seventies, which enables the diatonic harmonica to play full chromatic scales across three octaves, while retaining the particular sound of the harp. The overblow technique was first recorded in 1927 by Blues Birdhead (real name James Simons). Overblowing has been displayed more and more in the 1990s with the emergence of players like Howard Levy, Chris Michalek, Otavio Castro and players like Jason Ricci are starting to integrate it in a more blues or rock oriented music. Examples of this style are considered to be among the most highly regarded in the harmonica circles. Levy can go one further, and play single-note piano and harmonica together in unison or harmony, performing the most difficult music including bebop, world music and other forms required outstanding technique and ability. Howard Levy is a harmonica player. ... Chris Michalek (July 23, 1971) was born in Minneapolis. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the late 1980s and shortly after the year 2000. ...


In every region there are great young and established players. Notably, in France, Nikki Gadout has been an outstanding player; there's Brazilian ace Flávio Guimarãe, and in Germany, there are Steve Baker and René Giessen (who played the title melody of the famous Winnetou-movies), and in Nashville it is P. T. Gazell, American music harmonica legend. In Irish circles, it's James Conway (Howard Levy makes an appearance on Conway's first commercial recordings). Peter "Madcat" Ruth, long a master harmonicist (performing with, among others, the sons of Dave Brubeck), maintains an active website which links to the sites of great contemporary players around the world. The link is: http://www.madcatmusic.net/links.html René Giessen (born December 24, 1944, Prague) is a German musician, composer and conductor. ... Winnetou is the American-Indian hero of several novels written by Karl May (the best selling German writer of all time), in German language including the sequel Winnetou I to Winnetou III. According to Karl Mays story, first-person-narrator Old Shatterhand encounters Winnetou and, after initial dramatic events...


East Asia

In 1898, the harmonica was brought to Japan; there, the Japanese were more interested in the sound of Tremolo; however after about 30 years, they became dissatisfied with the richter-based layout of the tremolo harmonica, and thus developed the scale tuning, as well as the semitone harmonicas, in order to be able to perform Japanese folk songs. During sometime in 1924 and 1933, it was brought to other places in East Asia.


The history of the harmonica in Taiwan began sometime around 1945; due to the influence of numerous harmonica experts, as well as versatility and cheap prices of the harmonica. It became one of the standard instruments on the island, being treated as a serious instrument during its peak at the 1980s — more so than Europe and America, where it was often associated as a blues-only instrument in most cases. However, as the western lifestyle began to spread, as well as an increase in living standards, many instruments that were once too expensive to buy can be bought by the Taiwanese. Additionally due to many schools of methodologies on the harmonica, the harmonica as an instrument almost faded to obscurity in the 90s. In order to raise the appeal of the harmonica back to it what it once was, numerous harmonica lovers in Taiwan began to promote the harmonica heavily, starting with the introduction of harmonicas and methodology that are popular in the Western world (eg. Chromatic and Diatonic harmonicas), as well as participating in numerous international competitions. In 1993, the Yellowstone Orchestra won the first gold in an international harmonica competition. However, to the disappointment of many harmonica players, the resources for education are severely lacking, and many materials are not much different from those that were created 20 years ago.


Medical use

'Playing' the harmonica requires inhaling and exhaling strongly against resistance, developing a strong diaphragm, and deep breathing using the entire lung volume; It has been noted by pulmonary specialists that this resembles the kind of exercise used to rehabilitate COPD patients, more traditionally using the PFLEX inspiratory muscle trainer or the inspiratory spirometer, for instance. In addition, learning to play a musical instrument offers the advantage of being more motivational than mere exercise sessions. Therefore, many pulmonary rehabilitation programs have begun to incorporate the harmonica. [6], [7], [8], [9] A diaphragm is some sort of separating membrane. ... The average pair of human lungs can hold about 6 litres of air, but only a small amount is used during normal breathing. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... This article concerns the health profession. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterized by airflow obstruction or limitation. ... The Pflex Inspiratory Muscle Trainer is a therapeutic device designed to increase respiratory muscle strength for pulmonary rehabilitation patients, by providing an adjustable resistance to inhalation in order to exercise and strengthen respiratory muscles. ... A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. ...


Related instruments

The unrelated glass harmonica is a musical instrument formed of a nested set of graduated glass cups mounted sideways on an axle and partially immersed in water, and played by touching the rotating cups with wetted fingers, causing them to vibrate. A glass harmonica. ...


The concertina, diatonic and chromatic accordions and the melodica are all free-reed instruments which were developed alongside the harmonica. Indeed, the similarities between harmonicas and so-called "diatonic" accordions or melodeons is such that in German the name for the former is "Mundharmonika" and the later "Handharmonika", translated simply as "mouth harmonica" and "hand harmonica". The harmonica shares similarities to all other free-reed instruments by virtue of the method of sound production. English concertina made by Wheatstone around 1920 A concertina, like the various accordions, is a member of the free-reed family of instruments. ... a piano accordion An accordion is a small portable free-reed wind instrument with a keyboard, the smallest representative of the organ family. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... a piano accordion An accordion is a small portable free-reed wind instrument with a keyboard, the smallest representative of the organ family. ...


Competition

The National Harmonica institute holds a competitions annually in various cities around the world. In these competitions, Harmonicanist compete against each other in a "Horse" style game, trying to out play one another. A win for one's team is called a "goal", and to win an inning a team must attain a minimu of 7 goals, winning by a lead of at least 2.


The record for the most goals in one competition; being 17; is held by Cameron L. Foster, a native of Florenceville, New Brunswick. He is currently attending Dalhousie University and is Captain of their Harmonica squadron.


Harmonica manufacturers

Some famous harmonicists

See List of harmonicists. This is a list of musicians that play harmonica. ...


External links

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Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is part of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


 
 

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