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Encyclopedia > Blues
Blues
Stylistic origins
African American folk music, work songs, Folk, Country
Cultural origins
late 19th century southern United States
Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity The blues chord progressions and blue notes are widely used in most popular music styles of the 20th century United States; a highly influential music genre
Derivative forms jazz, R&B, rock
Subgenres
Classic female blues - Country blues - Delta blues - Jazz blues - Jump blues - Piano blues - Boogie-woogie
Fusion genres
Blues-rock - Soul blues - Jazz blues
Regional scenes
African blues - Atlanta blues - British blues - Canadian blues - Chicago blues - Detroit blues - East Coast blues - Kansas City blues - Louisiana blues - Memphis blues - New Orleans blues - Piedmont blues - St. Louis blues - Swamp blues - Texas blues - West Coast blues
Other topics
Genres - Musicians - Origins - Blues scale

Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes. It emerged in African-American communities of the United States from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. The use of blue notes and the prominence of call-and-response patterns in the music and lyrics are indicative of African influence. The blues influenced later American and Western popular music, as it became the roots of jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, bluegrass, hip-hop, and other popular music forms. Blues can refer to: The form of music; See Blues The mood or emotion; See Depression (mood) For the color, see blue The New South Wales Blues, a first class cricket team in Australia Crew members in the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race The St. ... A work song is a typically acoustic rhythmic song sung by persons who are working in likely mundane conditions. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... A harmonica is a free reed wind instrument. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Vocal music is music performed by one or more singers, with or without non-vocal instrumental accompaniment, in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... R&B redirects here. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Blues can be categorized into a number of genres. ... The Classic female blues spanned from 1920 to 1929 with its peak from 1923 to 1925. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ... Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... Piano blues refers to a variety of blues styles, sharing only the characteristic that they use the piano as the primary musical instrument. ... Boogie-woogie is a style of piano-based blues that became very popular in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music, and even gospel. ... Blues Rock or Blues-rock is a fusion genre of music which combines elements of the blues with rock and roll. ... Soul blues is a style of blues music developed in the early late 1960s and 1970s and combining eliments of soul music and urban contemporary music. ... Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ... The British blues is a type of blues music that originated in the late 1950s. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Detroit blues is blues music played by musicians resident in Detroit, Michigan, particularly that played in the 1940s and 50s. ... East Coast blues casts a wide net covering all of Piedmont blues--a style that relied on fast, virtuosic fingerpicking and added influences such as ragtime--as well as the urbanized R&B of New York blues and countless smaller regional styles. ... Kansas City blues is a genre of blues music. ... The Louisiana blues is a type of blues music that is characterized by plodding rhythms that make the sound dark and tense. ... The Memphis blues is a style of blues music that was created in 1920s and 1930s by Memphis-area musicians like Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Furry Lewis and Memphis Minnie. ... The blues have been an important part of New Orleans, USA music since the earliest years of the 20th century. ... The Piedmont blues is a type of blues music characterized by a unique fingerpicking method on the guitar in which a regular, alternating-thumb bass pattern supports a melody using treble strings. ... The St. ... The swamp blues is a form of blues music that is highly evolved and specialized. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Little Willie Littlefield, a West Coast blues performer and pianist. ... Blues can be categorized into a number of genres. ... Performers in the blues style range from primitive, one-chord Delta players to big bands to country music to rock and roll to classical music. ... Little is known about the exact origins of the music we now know as the blues. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a notes per octave. ... Vocal music is music performed by one or more singers, with or without non-vocal instrumental accompaniment, in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... Field Hollers as well as work songs were African American styles of music from before the Civil War, this style of music is close related to Spirituals in the sense that it expressed religious feelings and included subtle hints about ways of escaping slavery, among other things. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... R&B redirects here. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Bluegrass has three principal meanings, the second two both deriving from the first listed. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ...

Contents

Etymology

The phrase "the blues" is a reference to the the blue devils, meaning 'down' spirits, depression and sadness. An early reference to "the blues" can be found in George Colman's farce Blue devils, a farce in one act (1798).[1] Later during the 19th century, the phrase was used as a euphemism for delirium tremens and the police, and was not uncommon in letters from homesick Civil War soldiers. George Colman (October 21, 1762 - October 17, 1836), known as the Younger, English dramatist and miscellaneous writer, was the son of George Colman the Elder. Note that George Coleman was a jazz musician who played with Miles Davis in the 1960s. ... Look up farce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ...


Though the use of the phrase in African American music may be older, it has been attested to since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted Blues composition.[2][3] In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood.[4] An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... For other uses, see Depression. ...


Stylistic and cultural origins

Main article: Origins of the blues

There are few characteristics common to all blues, because the genre takes its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual performances.[5] However, there are some characteristics that were present long before the creation of the modern blues. Little is known about the exact origins of the music we now know as the blues. ...


An early form of blues-like music were call-and-response shouts, which were a "functional expression... style without accompaniment or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular musical structure."[6] A form of this pre-blues was heard in slave field shouts and hollers, expanded into "simple solo songs laden with emotional content".[7] The blues, as it is now known, can be seen as a musical style based on both European harmonic structure and the African call-and-response tradition, transformed into an interplay of voice and guitar.[8] Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...


Many blues elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa. The Diddley bow, a homemade one-stringed instrument found in parts of the American South in the early twentieth century, and the banjo, are African-derived instruments that may have helped in the transfer of African performance techniques into the early blues instrumental vocabulary. Hand drumming is significant throughtout Africa The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continents many regions, nations and ethnic groups. ... The diddley bow is an American string instrument of African origin. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments. ...

Robert Johnson, a Delta blues singer, contributed to the standardization of the 12-bar blues form.
Robert Johnson, a Delta blues singer, contributed to the standardization of the 12-bar blues form.

Blues music later adopted elements from the "Ethiopian airs", minstrel shows and Negro spirituals, including instrumental and harmonic accompaniment.[9] The style also was closely related to ragtime, which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music".[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Johnson, born Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians. ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... A spiritual is a African-American song, usually with a religious text. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Blues songs from this period, such as Lead Belly's or Henry Thomas's recordings, show many different structures. The twelve-, eight-, or sixteen-bar structure based on tonic (I), subdominant (IV) and dominant chords (V) became the most common forms.[11] What is now recognizable as the standard 12-bar blues form is documented from oral history and sheet music appearing in African American communities throughout the region along the lower Mississippi River, in Memphis, Tennessee's Beale Street, and by white bands in New Orleans. For the film, see Leadbelly (film). ... Henry Thomas (1874-1950s?). Henry (Ragtime Texas) Thomas was a major pre-war country blues singer and musician. ... The 12-bar blues has a distinctive form in both lyrics and chord structure. ... An eight bar blues is a typical blues chord progression, taking eight 4/4 bars to the verse. ... Sixteen-bar blues is a blues chord progression very similar to the eight bar blues form, except that blues is not traditionally associated with any set notation so sometimes it can be called sixteen bars instead of eight. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth degree of the scale. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... (Redirected from 12 bar blues) Twelve bar blues is a typical blues chord progression, taking twelve 4/4 bars to the verse. ... This article is about the historical discipline; see Oral tradition for the oral transmission of historical information. ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Beale Street is a street in Memphis, Tennessee and a significant location in African-American history and the history of the blues. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Lyrics

Audio samples of blues music

The original lyrical form of the blues was probably a single line, repeated four times. It was only later that the current, most common structure of a line, repeated once and then followed by a single line conclusion, became standard.[12] These lines were often sung following a pattern closer to a rhythmic talk than to a melody. Leadbelly, also known as Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter; January 20, 1889 (although this is debatable) - December 6, 1949), was an American folk and blues musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing, his virtuosity on the twelve string guitar, and the rich songbook of folk standards he introduced. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Promo single from the 1994 album MTV Unplugged in New York. ... Crossroads. ... Robert Johnson, born Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians. ... Cross Road Blues is one of Delta Blues singer Robert Johnsons most famous songs. ... Image File history File links PoGal. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Louis Jordan swinging on sax, Paramount Theatre, NYC, 1946 (Photo: William P. Gottlieb) Louis Jordan (July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering African-American blues, jazz and rhythm & blues musician and songwriter who enjoyed his greatest popularity from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. ... Image File history File links HowlinWolf_MoaninAtMidnight. ... Sun Studio Sun Studio opened by rock pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 3, 1950. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Willie Johnson (1913 – 1980) was a guitarist born in Senatobia, MS, USA. He should not be confused with Blind Willie Johnson. ... Willie Steele (born 14 July 1923) was an American athlete who competed mainly in the long jump. ... Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton is a 1966 Electric Blues album by John Mayalls Bluesbreakers featuring Eric Clapton as lead guitarist. ... In the folk tradition, there are many traditional blues verses that have been sung over and over by many artists. ... Talking blues is a sub genre of the blues music genre. ...


Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative. The singer voiced often his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, [and] hard times".[13] Many of the oldest blues records contain gritty, realistic lyrics, in contrast to much of the popular music being recorded at the time. For example, "Down in the Alley" by Memphis Minnie, is about a prostitute having sex with men in an alley. In the song Down In The Alley, Memphis Minnie sings verses about meeting various men who, for example, ask to pal up with her and she says yes, take me down in the alley, which is where she can get his business fixed all right. Towards the end its... Memphis Minnie McCoy (born June 3, 1897 - died August 6, 1973) was an American Blues musician. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Music such as this was called "gut-bucket" blues, a term which refers to a type of homemade bass instrument made from a metal bucket used to clean pig intestines for chitterlings (a soul food dish associated with slavery). "Gut-bucket" blues songs are typically "low-down" and earthy, about rocky or steamy man-woman relationships, hard luck and hard times. Gut-bucket blues and the rowdy juke-joint venues where it was played, earned blues music an unsavory reputation; church-goers shunned it and some preachers railed against it. The washtub bass is a folk instrument that uses a metal washtub as a resonator. ... Chitlins in broth. ... For other uses, see Soul food (disambiguation). ...


Author Ed Morales has claimed that Yoruba mythology played a part in early blues, citing Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues" as a "thinly veiled reference to Eleggua, the orisha in charge of the crossroads".[14] However, many seminal blues artists such as Son House, or Skip James had in their repertoire several religious songs or spirituals. Reverend Gary Davis and Blind Willie Johnson are examples of artists often categorized as blues musicians for their music but whose lyrics clearly belong to the spirituals. The mythology of the Yorùbá is sometimes claimed by its supporters to be one of the worlds oldest widely practised religions. ... Robert Johnson, born Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians. ... Cross Road Blues is one of Delta Blues singer Robert Johnsons most famous songs. ... In Yoruba mythology, Eshu is an Orisha, and one of the most respected deities of the tradition. ... This article is about a type of spirit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nehemiah Curtis Skip James (June 21, 1902 – October 3, 1969) was an American blues singer, guitarist, pianist and songwriter. ... Reverend Gary Davis also Blind Gary Davis ( April 30, 1896 – May 5, 1972) was an African American blues and gospel singer as well as a renowned guitarist. ... The only known photograph of Blind Willie Johnson Blind Willie Johnson (1897-1945) was an African-American singer and guitarist whose music straddled the border between blues and spirituals. ...


Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the blues could also be humorous and raunchy as well:

"Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me,
Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me,
It may be sending you baby, but it's worrying the hell out of me."[citation needed]

In particular, Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style. Tampa Red's classic "Tight Like That" is a sly wordplay with the double meaning of being "tight" with someone coupled with a more salacious physical familiarity. Hokum is a particular song type of American blues music - a humorous song which uses extended analogies or euphemistic terms to make sexual innuendoes. ... Tampa Red (1904-1981), born Hudson Woodbridge, was an influential American musician. ...


Lyrical content of music became slightly simpler in post war blues in which focus was often almost exclusively on singer's sexual worries. Many lyrical themes that frequently appeared in pre war blues such as economic depression, transportation, technology, horses, cows, devils, gambling, magic, floods and dry periods were mostly left out in post war blues.


Musical style

During the first decades of the twentieth century blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a chord progression. There were many blues in 8-bar form, such as "How Long Blues", "Trouble in Mind", and Big Bill Broonzy's "Key to the Highway." Idiosyncratic numbers of bars are also encountered occasionally, as with the 9 bar progression in Howlin' Wolf's "Sitting on Top of the World". The basic twelve-bar lyric framework of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of twelve bars, in 4/4 or (rarely) 2/4 time. Slow blues are often played in 12/8 (4 beats per measure with 3 subdivisions per beat). An eight bar blues is a typical blues chord progression, taking eight 4/4 bars to the verse. ... Big Bill Broonzy (1893 or 1898-1958) was a prolific United States composer, recorder and performer of blues songs. ... Chester Arthur Burnett (June 10, 1910 – January 10, 1976), better known as Howlin Wolf or sometimes, The Howlin Wolf, was an influential blues singer, guitarist and harmonica player. ... For other uses, see Sitting on Top of the World (disambiguation). ... A chord progression, as its name implies, is a series of chords played in an order. ...


By the 1930s, twelve-bar blues became the standard. There would also be 16 bar blues, as in Ray Charles's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars", and in Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man". The blues chords associated to a twelve-bar blues are typically a set of three different chords played over a twelve-bar scheme: Sixteen-bar blues is a blues chord progression very similar to the eight bar blues form, except that blues is not traditionally associated with any set notation so sometimes it can be called sixteen bars instead of eight. ... For Ray Charles, the composer and conductor of the Ray Charles Singers, see Ray Charles (composer). ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award and Grammy award-winning American jazz pianist and composer. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... Twelve bar blues is a chord progression, typical of blues and later influenced musics. ...

I I or IV I I
IV IV I I
V IV I I or V

where the Roman numbers refer to the degrees of the progression. That would mean, if played in the tonality of C, the chords would be as follows: The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... In music theory, a scale degree is the name of a particular note of a scale in relation to the tonic (the first note in the scale). ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...

C C or F C C
F F C C
G F C C or G

(When the IV chord is played in bar 2, the blues is called a "Quick-Change" blues).


In this example, C is the tonic chord, F the subdominant. Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form. Frequently, the last chord is the dominant (V or in this case G) turnaround making the transition to the beginning of the next progression. The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth degree of the scale. ... A seventh chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chords root. ... In jazz, a turnaround is a passage at the end of a section which leads to the next section. ...


The use of the harmonic seventh interval is a characteristic of blues, and is popularly called the "blues seven" [15]. At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval, minor or major, on the conventional Western diatonic scale [16]. However, through convenience or necessity it is often approximated by a minor seventh interval, or in terms of chords, a dominant seventh chord. A seventh chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chords root. ... The musical interval of a minor seventh the first note (the root or tonic) and the seventh in a minor scale. ... A seventh chord is a chord or triad which has a note the seventh above the tonic in it. ...

A minor pentatonic scale; play (help·info)
A minor pentatonic scale; play 

The lyrics generally end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first beat of the eleventh bar, and the final two bars are given to the instrumentalist as a break; the harmony of this two-bar break, the turnaround, can be extremely complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords. The final beat, however, is almost always strongly grounded in the dominant seventh (V7), to provide tension for the next verse. Download high resolution version (952x82, 2 KB)A minor pentatonic scale. ... Download high resolution version (952x82, 2 KB)A minor pentatonic scale. ... A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per octave as compared to the major scale which is made up of seven distinct notes. ... Image File history File links PentMinor. ...

Sheet music from "St. Louis Blues" (1914)
Sheet music from "St. Louis Blues" (1914)

Melodically, blues is marked by the use of the flatted third, fifth and seventh (the so-called blue or bent notes) of the associated major scale.[17] These scale tones can replace the natural scale tones or be added to the scale, as in the case of the minor pentatonic blues scale, where the flatted third replaces the natural third, the flatted seventh replaces the natural seventh and the flatted fifth is added in between the natural fourth and natural fifth. While the twelve-bar harmonic progression had been intermittently used for centuries, the revolutionary aspect of blues was the frequent use of the flatted third, flatted seventh, and even flatted fifth in the melody, together with crushing—playing directly adjacent notes at the same time, i.e., diminished second—and sliding—similar to using grace notes.[18] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (637x860, 123 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (637x860, 123 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... St. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Figure 1. ... A minor third is the smaller of two commonly occurring musical intervals compounded of two steps of the diatonic scale. ... For other uses, see Tritone (disambiguation). ... The musical interval of a minor seventh the first note (the root or tonic) and the seventh in a minor scale. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... In music theory, the major scale or Ionian scale is one of the diatonic scales. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... A grace note is a kind of music notation used to denote several kinds of musical ornaments. ...


The blue notes allow for key moments of expression particularly during the cadences, melodies, and embellishments of the blues. Where the three line verses end, for example, there is a falling cadence that approaches just shy of the tonic, merely suggesting it, and combining the falling of a speaking voice with the shape of the blues scale in a unique, expressive way. This melodic fall, placed at the turnaround (end of the verse), is employed most clearly in the modern, Chicago blues sound. A similar sound occurs in gospel and R&B but not to the same effect, where it is usually termed a melisma. Jargon used in the chemical manufacturing and petroleum refining industries. ...


Whereas a classical musician will generally play a grace note distinctly, a blues singer or harmonica player will glissando, "crushing" the two notes and then releasing the grace note. In blues chord progressions, the tonic, subdominant and dominant chords are often played as harmonic seventh chords, the harmonic seventh being an important component of the blues scale. (NB: While the harmonic seventh may be voiced easily, on equally tempered instruments like the guitar, it is approximated by means of a minor seventh, which is a third of a semitone higher.) Blues is also occasionally played in a minor key, such as in the style of Paul Butterfield. The scale differs little from the traditional minor, except for the occasional use of a flatted fifth in the tonic, often sung or played by the singer or lead instrument with the perfect fifth in the harmony. Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ... A seventh chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chords root. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... Paul Butterfield (December 17, 1942 – May 4, 1987) was an American blues harmonica player and singer, and one of the earliest white exponents of the Chicago-originated electric blues style. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ...

Blues shuffles reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and form a repetitive effect called a "groove". The simplest shuffles commonly used in many postwar electric blues, rock-and-rolls, or early bebops were a three-note riff on the bass strings of the guitar. When this riff was played over the bass and the drums, the groove "feel" is created. The walking bass is another device that helps to create a "groove" . The last bar of the chord progression is usually accompanied by a turnaround that makes the transition to the beginning of the next progression. Janis Lyn Joplin (19 January 1943 – 4 October 1970) was an American singer, songwriter, and music arranger, from Port Arthur, Texas. ... Big Brother and the Holding Company is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the psychedelic music scene that also produced the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane. ... Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. ... St. ... Trixie Smith (1895 - 21 September 1943), was a blues singer and recording artist. ... The shuffle rhythm is a rhythm that can be regarded as the basis of the blues backbeat, and can be heard on many jazz, rock and roll and soul music recordings. ... Groove is a popular music term, used in the sense of rhythm, for meter_(music) and its embellishment by a rhythm section. ... The electric blues is a type of blues music distinguished by the amplification of the guitar, the bass guitar , and/or the harmonica. ... This article is about the 1940s–early 1970s style of music. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Riff is also an alternate spelling of Rif, a region of Morocco. ... In music a walking bass is a bass accompaniment generally consisting of unsyncopated notes of equal value, usually quarter notes (known in jazz as a four feel). Walking bass lines are used in rock, blues, rock-a-billy, ska, r&b, gospel, latin, country, and many other genres (Friedland 1995...


Shuffle rhythm is often vocalized as "dow, da dow, da dow, da" or "dump, da dump, da dump, da"[19] as it consists of uneven, or "swung", eighth notes. On a guitar this may be done as a simple steady bass or may add to that stepwise quarter note motion from the fifth to the sixth of the chord and back. An example is provided by the following tablature for the first four bars of a blues progression in E:[20][21] The shuffle rhythm is a rhythm that can be regarded as the basis of the blues backbeat, and can be heard on many jazz, rock and roll and soul music recordings. ... Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ...

 E7 E7 A7 A7 E |-------------------|-------------------|-------------------|---------------------| B |-------------------|-------------------|-------------------|---------------------| G |-------------------|-------------------|-------------------|---------------------| D |-------------------|-------------------|---2-2--4-4--2-2--4|4--2-2--4-2--5-2--4-2| A |2--2-4--4-2--2-4--4|2--2--4--2--5--2--4|2--0-0--0-0--0-0--0|0--0-0--0-0--0-0--0-0| E |0--0-0--0-0--0-0--0|0--0--0--0--0--0--0|0------------------|---------------------| 

Blues in jazz is much different from blues in other types of music (such as Rock, R&B, Soul, Funk, and Blues in its own category). Jazz blues normally stays on the V chord through bars 9 and 10, emphasizing the dominant - tonic resolution over the subdominant - tonic structure of traditional blues. This final V-I cadence lends itself to many variations, the most basic of which is the ii-V-I progression in bars 9, 10 and 11. From that point, both the dominant approach (ii-V) and the resolution (I) can be altered and "substituted" nearly endlessly, including, for instance, doing away with the I chord altogether (bars 9–12: ii | V | iii, vi | ii, V |) In this case, bars 11 and 12 function as an extended turn-around to the next chorus. Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ...


History of the blues genres

Origins

Main article: Origins of the blues
Okahumkee On The Ocklawaha, 1890s photo of the tourist steamer out of Palatka in Florida with guitar toting blacks

Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of African-American slaves and rural blacks into a wide variety of styles and subgenres, with regional variations across the United States and, later, Europe and Africa. The musical forms and styles that are now considered the "blues" as well as modern "country music" arose in the same regions during the nineteenth century in the southern United States. Recorded blues and country can be found from as far back as the 1920s, when the popular record industry developed and created marketing categories called "race music" and "hillbilly music" to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively. Little is known about the exact origins of the music we now know as the blues. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... Old-time music, a traditional style of American music, has roots in Irish, Scottish and African folk music. ...


At the time, there was no clear musical division between "blues" and "country," except for the ethnicity of the performer, and even that sometimes was documented incorrectly by record companies.[22] Studies have situated the origin of black spirituals inside slaves' exposure to their white Hebridean-originated gospels. African-American economist and historian Thomas Sowell also notes that the southern, black, ex-slave population was acculturated to a considerable degree by and among their Scots-Irish "redneck" neighbours. However, the findings of Kubik and others also clearly attest to the essential Africanness of many essential aspects of blues expression. This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930), is an American economist, political writer, and commentator. ... This article is about a stereotypical description. ...


The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not fully known.[23] The first appearance of the blues is not well defined and is often dated between 1870 and 1900, a period that coincides with Emancipation and the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


Several scholars characterize the early 1900s development of blues music as a move from group performances to a more individualized style. They argue that the development of the blues is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved people. According to Lawrence Levine,[24] "there was a direct relationship between the national ideological emphasis upon the individual, the popularity of Booker T. Washington's teachings, and the rise of the blues." Levine states that "psychologically, socially, and economically, Negroes were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly surprising that their secular music reflected this as much as their religious music did." Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ...


Prewar blues

The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music. By 1912, the sheet music industry published three popular blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley adoption of blues elements: "Baby Seals' Blues" by "Baby" F. Seals (arranged by Artie Matthews), "Dallas Blues" by Hart Wand and "Memphis Blues" by W. C. Handy.[25] Sheet music is written representation of music. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... Artie Matthews (November 15, 1888 _ October 25, 1958) was a songwriter, pianist, and ragtime composer. ... Hart A. Wand was an early white American blues musician and composer from Oklahoma City. ... The Memphis blues is a style of blues music that was created in 1920s and 1930s by Memphis-area musicians like Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Furry Lewis and Memphis Minnie. ... William Christopher Handy (November 16, 1873 – March 28, 1958) was a blues composer and musician, often known as the Father of the Blues. ...


Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an almost symphonic style, with bands and singers. He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime;[26][27] Handy's signature work was the "St. Louis Blues". The habanera is a musical style or genre from Cuba with a characteristic Habanera rhythm; it is one of the oldest mainstays of Cuban music and the first of the dances from Cuba to be exported all over the world. ... St. ...


In the 1920s, the blues became a major element of African American and American popular music, reaching white audiences via Handy's arrangements and the classic female blues performers. The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in nightclubs such as the Cotton Club, and juke joints, such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis. This evolution led to a notable diversification of the styles and to a clearer division between blues and jazz. Several record companies, such as the American Record Corporation, Okeh Records, and Paramount Records, began to record African American music. Theater Owners Booking Association or T.O.B.A. was the vaudeville circuit for African American performers in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... For the 1984 film of the same name, see The Cotton Club The Cotton Club was a famous night club in New York City that operated during and after Prohibition. ... Juke joint (or jook joint) is the vernacular term for an informal establishment featuring blues music, dancing, and alcoholic drinks, primarily operated by African American people in the southeastern United States. ... Beale Street is a street in Memphis, Tennessee and a significant location in African-American history and the history of the blues. ... The American Record Company, often known as ARC Records or simply ARC, was a United States based record company. ... Okeh Records began as an independent record label based in the United States of America in 1918; from the late 1920s on was a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... Paramount Records was a United States based record label, best known for its recordings of African-American jazz and blues. ...


As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Lonnie Johnson, Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community. Sylvester Weaver was the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle. The slide guitar became an important part of the Delta blues.[28] The first blues recordings from the 1920s were in two categories: a traditional, rural country blues and more polished 'city' or urban blues. Armenter Bo Carter Chatmon Armenter Bo Carter Chatmon was born March 21, 1893 in Bolton, Mississippi & died in Memphis, Tennessee on September 21, 1964. ... Blind Lemon Jefferson (October 26, 1894 – December 1929) was an influential blues singer and guitarist from Texas. ... Alfonzo Lonnie Johnson (February 8, 1894 – June 6, 1970) was a pioneering blues and jazz singer/guitarist born in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Tampa Red (1904-1981), born Hudson Woodbridge, was an influential American musician. ... Blind Blake Blind Blake (born Arthur Blake, circa 1893, Jacksonville, Florida; died: circa 1933) was an influential blues singer and guitarist. ... Sylvester Pat Weaver (December 21, 1908 - March 17, 2002) was a network television pioneer and president of NBC between 1953 and 1955. ... For the technique, see Slide (guitar technique). ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Country blues performers often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar. There were many regional styles of country blues in the early 20th century. The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar. Robert Johnson,[29] who was little-recorded, combined elements of both urban and rural blues. Along with Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style were his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House. Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate fingerpicking guitar technique. Georgia also had an early slide tradition.[30] For the technique, see Slide (guitar technique). ... Robert Johnson, born Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians. ... Charley Patton Charley Patton (May 1, 1891–April 28, 1934) was an American delta blues musician, and one of the first mainstream stars of the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blind Willie McTell (May 5, 1908–August 15, 1959), born William Samuel McTell, was an influential American blues singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Blind Boy Fuller (born Fulton Allen) was an American blues guitarist and vocalist. ... The Piedmont blues is a type of blues music characterized by a unique fingerpicking method on the guitar in which a regular, alternating-thumb bass pattern supports a melody using treble strings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fingerstyle guitar. ...


The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s around Memphis, Tennessee, was influenced by jug bands, such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers. Performers such as Frank Stokes, Blind Old Tom Anderson, Sleepy John Estes, Robert Wilkins, Big Boy Brazier, Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie used a variety of unusual instruments such as washboard, fiddle, kazoo or mandolin. Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style. Pianist Memphis Slim began his career in Memphis, but his quite distinct style was smoother and contained some swing elements. Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement which blended country music and electric blues. The Memphis blues is a style of blues music that was created in 1920s and 1930s by Memphis-area musicians like Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Furry Lewis and Memphis Minnie. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... A jug band is a band employing a jug player and a mix of traditional and home-made instruments. ... This music article needs to be wikified. ... Gus Cannon (September 12, 1883 - October 15, 1979) was an American blues musician who helped to popularize jug bands (such as his own Cannons Jug Stompers) in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Frank stokes played blues!! ... John Adam Estes (25 January 1904 - 5 June 1977), commonly known as Sleepy John Estes or Sleepy John, was a U.S. blues guitarist and vocalist born in Ripley, Tennessee. ... Robert Wilkins is a seminal blues guitarist and vocalist. ... Joe McCoy (born May 11, 1905 – died January 28, 1950) was an African American blues musician. ... Memphis Minnie McCoy (born June 3, 1897 - died August 6, 1973) was an American Blues musician. ... A washboard is a tool designed for hand washing clothing. ... // Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... For the visual effects technology, see ZOO Digital Group. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... Memphis Slim (1915 in Memphis, Tennessee-1988 Paris, France) was a blues pianist and singer. ...

Bessie Smith was a very famous early blues singer.
Bessie Smith was a very famous early blues singer.

City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate.[31] Classic female urban or vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them Mamie Smith, Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Victoria Spivey. Mamie Smith, more a vaudeville performer than a blues artist, was the first African- American to record a blues in 1920; her "Crazy Blues" sold 75,000 copies in its first month.[32] public domain photo from the library of congress From Library of Congress This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... public domain photo from the library of congress From Library of Congress This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Classic female blues spanned from 1920 to 1929 with its peak from 1923 to 1925. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... Mamie Smith on the sleeve of volume 1 of the Complete Recorded Works reissue collection Mamie Smith (May 26, 1883 - September 16, 1946) was a vaudeville singer, dancer, pianist and actress, and appeared in several motion pictures late in her career. ... Gertrude Pridgett Rainey, better known as Ma Rainey (April 26, 1886 - December 22, 1939) was a classic female blues singer, the earliest known professional blues singer3, and one of the first generation of blues singers to record. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Victoria Spivey (died 1976) was an American female blues singer. ...


Ma Rainey, called the "Mother of Blues", and Bessie Smith sang "... each song around centre tones, perhaps in order to project her voice more easily to the back of a room." Smith would "...sing a song in an unusual key, and her artistry in bending and stretching notes with her beautiful, powerful contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed".[33] Urban male performers included popular black musicians of the era, such Tampa Red, Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr. Before WWII, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "The Guitar Wizard." Carr made the then-unusual choice of accompanying himself on the piano.[34] Tampa Red (1904-1981), born Hudson Woodbridge, was an influential American musician. ... Big Bill Broonzy (1893 or 1898-1958) was a prolific United States composer, recorder and performer of blues songs. ... Leroy Carr (March 27, 1905 – April 29, 1935) was an American blues singer, songwriter and pianist who developed a laid-back, crooning technique and whose popularity and style influenced artists like Nat King Cole and Ray Charles. ...

A typical boogie-woogie bassline
A typical boogie-woogie bassline

Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues. While the style is often associated with solo piano, boogie-woogie was also used to accompany singers and, as a solo part, in bands and small combos. Boogie-Woogie style was characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato or riff and shifts of level in the left hand, elaborating each chord and trills and decorations in the right hand. Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio (Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis). Chicago boogie-woogie performers included Clarence "Pine Top" Smith and Earl Hines, who "linked the propulsive left-hand rhythms of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures similar to those of Armstrong's trumpet in the right hand".[35] Image File history File links Boogie-woogie-bassline. ... Image File history File links Boogie-woogie-bassline. ... Boogie-woogie is a style of piano-based blues that became very popular in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music, and even gospel. ... In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English: obstinate) is a motif or phrase which is persistently repeated at the same pitch. ... Riff is also an alternate spelling of Rif, a region of Morocco. ... A level (van der Merwe 1989, also tonality level, Kubiks tonal step, and John Blackings root progression) is a temporary modal frame contrasted with another built on a different foundation note. ... James Edwards Jimmy Yancey (c. ... Albert Ammons (1907-1949) was a rapist on the run ! !!!!Is he really a rapist? Prove it please!!!!!!! ?!?!Is this info had been vandalised?!?! Ammons formed his own band in 1934, and in 1938 performed in the From Spirituals to Swing concert at Carnegie Hall, which among other achievements launched... Peter (Pete) Johnson (March 24/25, 1904 - March 23, 1967) was an American jazz pianist best known as a leading boogie-woogie player. ... Meade Anderson Lux Lewis (1905 - 1964) was a United States pianist and composer noted for his work in the Boogie Woogie style. ... Clarence Smith, better known as Pinetop Smith or Pine Top Smith (11 June 1904 - 15 March 1929) was an influential boogie-woogie style jazz pianist. ... Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, (28 December 1903[1] Duquesne, Pennsylvania – 22 April 1983 in Oakland, California) was one of the most important pianists in the history of jazz. ...


In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed. Jump blues is influenced by big band music and uses saxophone or other brass instruments and the guitar in the rhythm section to create a jazzy, up-tempo sound with declamatory vocals. Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner, based in Kansas City, Missouri, influenced the development of later styles such as rock and roll and rhythm and blues.[36] The smooth Louisiana style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. John blends classic rhythm and blues with blues styles. Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Louis Jordan swinging on sax, Paramount Theatre, NYC, 1946 (Photo: William P. Gottlieb) Louis Jordan (July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering African-American blues, jazz and rhythm & blues musician and songwriter who enjoyed his greatest popularity from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. ... Big Joe Turner (born Joseph Vernon Turner Jr. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... R&B redirects here. ... Professor Longhair (born Henry Roeland Byrd, also known as Roy Bald Head Byrd and as Fess) (December 19, 1918 - January 30, 1980) was a legendary New Orleans blues musician. ... Dr. John is the stage name of Malcolm John Rebennack Jr. ...


Early postwar blues

After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago, Detroit and St. Louis. Electric blues used amplified electric guitars, electric bass, drums, and harmonica. Chicago became a center for electric blues in the early 1950s. Chicago blues is influenced to a large extent by the Mississippi blues style, because many performers had migrated from the Mississippi region. Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, and Jimmy Reed were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration. Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums. J. T. Brown who played in Elmore James's or J. B. Lenoir's bands, also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The electric blues is a type of blues music distinguished by the amplification of the guitar, the bass guitar , and/or the harmonica. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Detroit redirects here. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Chester Arthur Burnett (June 10, 1910 – January 10, 1976), better known as Howlin Wolf or sometimes, The Howlin Wolf, was an influential blues singer, guitarist and harmonica player. ... McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1915 – April 30, 1983), better known as Muddy Waters, was an American blues musician and is generally considered the Father of Chicago blues. He is also the actual father of blues musician Big Bill Morganfield. ... Willie Dixons style of blues was one of the inspirations for a new generation of music, rock and roll. ... Jimmy Reed James Jimmy Mathis Reed (September 6, 1925 - August 29, 1976) was an important United States blues singer notable for bringing his distinctive style of blues to mainstream audiences. ... The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses. ... A harmonica is a free reed wind instrument. ... J. T. Brown was born on April 2nd, 1918 in Mississippi. ... Elmore James (January 27, 1918 – May 24, 1963) was an American blues singer and guitarist. ... J. B. Lenoir (March 5, 1929 – April 29, 1967) was an American Chicago blues guitarist, singer and songwriter born in Monticello, Mississippi. ...

Muddy Waters, described as "the guiding light of the modern blues school"
Muddy Waters, described as "the guiding light of the modern blues school"[37]

Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) are well known harmonica (called "harp" by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar. B. B. King and Freddie King (no relation), who did not use slide guitar, were influential guitarists of the Electric blues style, even though they weren't from Chicago. Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1915 – April 30, 1983), better known as Muddy Waters, was an American blues musician and is generally considered the Father of Chicago blues. He is also the actual father of blues musician Big Bill Morganfield. ... Little Walter (born Marion Walter Jacobs) (May 1, 1930 - February 15, 1968) was a blues singer, harmonica player, and guitarist. ... Sonny Boy Williamson, circa 1964 Aleck Rice Miller (December 5, 1899 - May 25, 1965), a. ... There are numerous techniques available for harmonica. ... Big Walter Horton or Walter Shakey Horton (April 6, 1917– December 8, 1981) was an American blues harmonica player. ... B. B. King (born Riley B. King on September 16, 1925) is an American blues guitarist and singer-songwriter. ... Freddie King (September 3, 1934 – December 28, 1976) was an influential American blues guitarist and singer, best known for his recordings Hide Away, Have You Ever Loved A Woman and Going Down. // King was born Frederick Christian in Gilmer, Texas on September 3, 1934. ...


Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene. He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as "Hoochie Coochie Man", "I Just Want to Make Love to You" (both penned for Muddy Waters) and, "Wang Dang Doodle" and "Back Door Man" for Howlin' Wolf. Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records label. Other prominent blues labels of this era included J.O.B. Records and Vee-Jay Records. A blues standard, much like a jazz standard or pop standard, refers to a song that is widely known, performed, and recorded among blues musicians. ... Hoochie Coochie Man (sometimes referred to as (Im Your) Hoochie Coochie Man) is a 1954 song written by Willie Dixon and first performed by Muddy Waters. ... I Just Want to Make Love to You is a 1954 blues song written by Willie Dixon and first recorded by Muddy Waters. ... Wang Dang Doodle written by Willie Dixon in 1977 for Howling Wolf at Chess Records in Chicago. ... Back Door Man is a song written by Willie Dixon and originally performed by Howlin Wolf (released on Chess Records 1777, 1961). ... The Chess Records logo, as featured on this Memphis Slim single. ... J.O.B. Records was a Chicago based record label, founded by James Oden and Joe Brown in mid 1948 and specialized in Southern Blues and city based R & B. The company sparingly released records until early in 1957. ... Vee-Jay Records was a record label, specializing in blues, rhythm and blues and rock and roll. ...


In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music and in particular on the development of rockabilly. While popular musicians like Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic playing styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues. Diddley and Berry's approach to performance was one of the factors that influenced the transition from the blues to rock 'n' roll. Elvis Presley and Bill Haley were more influenced by the jump blues and boogie-woogie styles. They popularized rock and roll within the white segment of the population. Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana's zydeco music, with Clifton Chenier using blues accents. Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards. Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Bo Diddley (born December 30, 1928) aka The Originator, is an influential American rock and roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born 18 October 1926, St. ... Rock and roll emerged as a defined musical style in America in the 1950s, though elements of rock and roll can be seen in rhythm and blues records as far back as the 1920s. ... Elvis redirects here. ... Bill Haley, with his band, the Comets, was one of the first rock and roll acts to tour the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Early Creole musicians playing an accordion and a washboard in front of a store, near New Iberia, Louisiana (1938). ... Clifton Chenier (June 25, 1925 - December 12, 1987) was the pre-eminent performer of zydeco music, a blend of Cajun and Creole music with R&B, jazz and blues influences. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ...


Other blues artists, such as T-Bone Walker, Michael Walton and John Lee Hooker, had influences not directly related to the Chicago style. Dallas-born T-Bone Walker is often associated with the California blues style, which is smoother than Chicago blues and is a transition between the Chicago blues, the jump blues and swing with some jazz-guitar influence. John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal", based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar. Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". His first hit "Boogie Chillen" reached #1 on the R&B charts in 1949.[38] Aaron Thibeaux Walker or T-Bone Walker or Oak Cliff T-Bone (May 28, 1910 – March 16, 1975) was an American blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter who was one of the most important pioneers of electric guitar. ... John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was an influential American post-war blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter born in Coahoma County near Clarksdale, Mississippi. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Little Willie Littlefield, a West Coast blues performer and pianist. ... Swing music, also known as swing jazz, is a form of jazz music that developed during the 1920s and had solidified as a distinctive style by 1935 in the United States. ... Jazz guitar refers to the use of guitar in jazz music. ... John Lee Hooker on Hastings Street. ...


By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge, with performers such as Slim Harpo, Sam Myers and Jerry McCain. Swamp blues has a slower pace and a simpler use of the harmonica than the Chicago blues style performers such as Little Walter or Muddy Waters. Songs from this genre include "Scratch my Back", "She's Tough" and "I'm a King Bee". The swamp blues is a form of blues music that is highly evolved and specialized. ... Capitol Building Baton Rouge is the capital of Louisiana, a state of the United States of America. ... Slim Harpo, born James Moore (11 January 1924, Lobdel, Louisiana, USA, died 31 January 1970) was a blues musician. ... Sam Myers (February 19, 1936 – July 17, 2006) was an American blues musician and songwriter. ... Jerry McCain, noted Blues performer, was born in 1930 in Gadsden Alabama. ...


Blues in the 1960s and 1970s

By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by African American music such as rock and roll and soul were part of mainstream popular music. White performers had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the US and abroad. In the UK, bands emulated US blues legends, and UK blues-rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s. An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ...

Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille"
Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille"

Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York-born Taj Mahal. John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians, creating a musical style that can be heard on the 1971 album Endless Boogie. B. B. King's virtuoso guitar technique earned him the eponymous title "king of the blues". In contrast to the Chicago style, King's band used strong brass support from a saxophone, trumpet, and trombone, instead of using slide guitar or harp. Tennessee-born Bobby "Blue" Bland, like B. B. King, also straddled the blues and R&B genres. During this period, Freddie King and Albert King often played with rock and soul musicians (Eric Clapton, Booker T & the MGs)and had a major influence on those styles of music that has carried through to the present. Image File history File linksMetadata B._B._King. ... Image File history File linksMetadata B._B._King. ... Riley B. King aka B. B. King (b. ... John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was an influential American post-war blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter born in Coahoma County near Clarksdale, Mississippi. ... McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1915 – April 30, 1983), better known as Muddy Waters, was an American blues musician and is generally considered the Father of Chicago blues. He is also the actual father of blues musician Big Bill Morganfield. ... Henry Saint Clair Fredericks, better known by the stage name Taj Mahal (born May 17, 1942), is an American blues musician. ... John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was an influential American post-war blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter born in Coahoma County near Clarksdale, Mississippi. ... B. B. King (born Riley B. King on September 16, 1925) is an American blues guitarist and singer-songwriter. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Bobby Blue Bland was born Robert Calvin Bland, January 27, 1930,[1] in Rosemark, Tennessee) and is an influencial African-American singer, and an original member of The Beale Streeters. ...


The music of the Civil Rights and Free Speech movements in the US prompted a resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music. As well as Jimmi Bass Music festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Skip James, and Reverend Gary Davis. Many compilations of classic prewar blues were republished by the Yazoo Records. J. B. Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums. His songs commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period. His Alabama Blues recording had a song that stated: Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Free Speech Movement was a student protest which began in 1964 - 1965 on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of student Mario Savio and others. ... The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. ... The Newport Folk Festival is an annual folk-oriented music festival founded in 1959 by George Wein, founder of the already-well-established Newport Jazz Festival, and his partner, Albert Grossman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mississippi John Smith Hurt (March 8, 1892 , Teoc, Carroll County, Mississippi - November 2, 1966, Grenada, Mississippi) was an influential blues singer and guitarist. ... Nehemiah Curtis Skip James (June 21, 1902 – October 3, 1969) was an American blues singer, guitarist, pianist and songwriter. ... Reverend Gary Davis also Blind Gary Davis ( April 30, 1896 – May 5, 1972) was an African American blues and gospel singer as well as a renowned guitarist. ... Black Patti label Belzona Records label Yazoo Records is a record label setup in the late 1960s by Nick Perls. ... J. B. Lenoir (March 5, 1929 – April 29, 1967) was an American Chicago blues guitarist, singer and songwriter born in Monticello, Mississippi. ... Willie Dixons style of blues was one of the inspirations for a new generation of music, rock and roll. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

I never will go back to Alabama, that is not the place for me (2x)
You know they killed my sister and my brother,
and the whole world let them peoples go down there free

White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band and the British blues movement. The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as Fleetwood Mac, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, The Rolling Stones, The Yardbirds, and Cream performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions. Paul Butterfield (December 17, 1942 – May 4, 1987) was an American blues harmonica player and singer, and one of the earliest white exponents of the Chicago-originated electric blues style. ... The British blues is a type of blues music that originated in the late 1950s. ... The British blues is a type of blues music that originated in the late 1950s. ... This article is about the band. ... John Mayall and Paul Butterfield, 1967 John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers are a pioneering English blues band, led by singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist John Mayall, OBE, that has included such luminaries as: Eric Clapton and Jack Bruce (both later in Cream), Peter Green, John McVie and Mick Fleetwood (later all... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Yard Birds. ... Cream were a 1960s British rock band comprising guitarist Eric Clapton, bassist Jack Bruce and drummer Ginger Baker. ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The British blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues-rock fusion performers, including Canned Heat, Janis Joplin, Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band, Ry Cooder and The Allman Brothers Band. Many of Led Zeppelin's earlier hits were renditions of traditional blues songs. One blues-rock performer, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock. Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and feedback in his music.[39] Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music. Blues Rock or Blues-rock is a fusion genre of music which combines elements of the blues with rock and roll. ... Canned Heat is a blues-rock/boogie band that formed in Los Angeles in 1965. ... Janis Lyn Joplin (19 January 1943 – 4 October 1970) was an American singer, songwriter, and music arranger, from Port Arthur, Texas. ... John Dawson Johnny Winter III (born on 23 February 1944 in Beaumont, Texas, USA) is an American blues guitarist, singer, and producer. ... The J. Geils Band was an American rock band formed in 1967 in Worcester, Massachusetts, that had a successful R&B-influenced blues rock sound in the 1970s, before moving towards a more pop-influenced sound in the 1980s, which brought them MTV airplay and their 1982 international hit single... Ryland Ry Peter Cooder (born 15 March 1947, in Los Angeles, California) is an American guitarist, singer and composer, known for his slide guitar work, his interest in the American roots music and, more recently, for his collaborations with traditional musicians from many countries. ... The original Allman Brothers Band The Allman Brothers Band is a pioneering and innovative Southern rock group from Macon, Georgia originally popular in the 1970s, described by Rolling Stones George Kimball in 1971 as the best . ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Blues Rock or Blues-rock is a fusion genre of music which combines elements of the blues with rock and roll. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... For other uses, see Distortion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ...


In the late 1960s, the West Side style blues emerged in Chicago with Magic Sam, Magic Slim and Otis Rush. West Side style has strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass electric guitar, and drums. Albert King, Buddy Guy, and Luther Allison had a West Side style that was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Magic Sam was born Sam Maghett (February 2, 1937) in Grenada, Mississippi, USA (died December 12, 1969) and was a blues guitarist and singer. ... The blues singer and guitarist, Magic Slim, along with Magic Sam, is one of the best known representative of the West Side Chicago blues. ... Otis Rush (born April 29, 1934 in Philadelphia, Mississippi) is a blues musician and guitarist. ... Albert King (April 25, 1923 – December 21, 1992) was an influential American blues guitarist and singer. ... George Buddy Guy (born July 30, 1936) is a five-time Grammy Award-winning American blues and rock guitarist and singer. ... Luther Allison (August 17, 1939–August 12, 1997) was an American blues guitarist. ...


Since the early 1970s, The Texas rock-blues style emerged which used guitars in both solo and rhythm roles. In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is strongly influenced by the British rock-blues movement. Major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter, Stevie Ray Vaughan, The Fabulous Thunderbirds, and ZZ Top. These artists all began their musical journey in the 1970s, but they wouldn't achieve major international success until the next decade. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Dawson Johnny Winter III (born on 23 February 1944 in Beaumont, Texas, USA) is an American blues guitarist, singer, and producer. ... Stephen Stevie Ray Vaughan (October 3, 1954 – August 27, 1990), born in Dallas, Texas, was an American blues guitarist. ... The Fabulous Thunderbirds are a blues-rock band, formed in 1974. ... ZZ Top (pronounced ) is an American hard rock band formed in 1969 in Houston, Texas. ...


Blues from the 1980s to the present

Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the blues among a certain part of the African-American population, particularly around Jackson, MS and other deep South regions. Often termed "soul blues" or "Southern Soul," the music at the heart of this movement was given new life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label: Z. Z. Hill's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton's The Blues is Alright (1984). Contemporary African-American performers who work this vein of the blues include Bobby Rush, Denise LaSalle, Sir Charles Jones, Bettye LaVette, Marvin Sease and Peggy Scott-Adams. Jackson is the capital and largest city in the U.S. state of Mississippi. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... Soul blues is a style of blues music developed in the early late 1960s and 1970s and combining eliments of soul music and urban contemporary music. ... Southern soul is a style of music that falls within the larger soul music and r&b Music genres. ... Malaco Records is an independent record label based out of Jackson, Mississippi. ... Z. Z. Hill (born Arzell Hill September 30, 1935 in Naples, Texas - April 27, 1984 in Dallas) was an American blues singer, in the Soul blues tradition, known for his 1970s and 80s records for Malaco. ... Milton Little Milton Campbell, Jr. ... Bobby Rush (born November 10, 1940) is an American blues and R&B musician, composer and singer. ... Denise LaSalle album, 2004 Denise LaSalle (b Denise Craig, 16 July 1939, Leflore County, Mississippi) is an American Urban, R&B/Soul singer, songwriter, and record producer. ... Sir Charles Jones Sir Charles Jones was born in Akron, Ohio. ... Bettye Lavette (born in Muskegon, Michigan, 1946) is an American soul singer who cut her first record at 16, but achieved only intermittent fame until her 2005 record, Ive Got My Own Hell to Raise. ... Marvin Sease was born on February 16, 1946 in Blackville, South Carolina, where he became a gospel artist. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Texas blues guitarist, Stevie Ray Vaughan

During the 1980s, blues also continued in both traditional and new forms. In 1982, the album Strong Persuader revealed Robert Cray as a major blues artist. The first Stevie Ray Vaughan recording Texas Flood was released in 1983, and the Texas based guitarist exploded onto the international stage. 1989 saw a revival of John Lee Hooker's popularity with the album The Healer. Eric Clapton known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream, made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged, in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. Image File history File links Svaughan. ... Image File history File links Svaughan. ... Stephen Stevie Ray Vaughan (October 3, 1954 – August 27, 1990), born in Dallas, Texas, was an American blues guitarist. ... Cover of Strong Persuader Released in 1986, Strong Persuader was Robert Crays breakthrough album to the mainstream and his small fanbase grew to gigantic proportions. ... Robert Cray (foreground) Robert Cray (born 1 August 1953, in Columbus, Georgia) is a blues musician, guitarist and singer. ... Stephen Stevie Ray Vaughan (October 3, 1954 – August 27, 1990), born in Dallas, Texas, was an American blues guitarist. ... Texas Flood is an electric blues album by rock and roller Stevie Ray Vaughan, released in 1983 (see 1983 in music). ... John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was an influential American post-war blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter born in Coahoma County near Clarksdale, Mississippi. ... The Healer is a blues album by John Lee Hooker, released in 1989. ... Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE[2] (born 30 March 1945) [3], nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... John Mayall and Paul Butterfield, 1967 John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers are a pioneering English blues band, led by singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist John Mayall, OBE, that has included such luminaries as: Eric Clapton and Jack Bruce (both later in Cream), Peter Green, John McVie and Mick Fleetwood (later all... Cream were a 1960s British rock band comprising guitarist Eric Clapton, bassist Jack Bruce and drummer Ginger Baker. ... Unplugged is an album by Eric Clapton released in 1992. ...


In the 1980s and 1990s, blues publications such as Living Blues and Blues Revue began to be distributed, major cities began forming blues societies, outdoor blues festivals became more common, and[40] more nightclubs and venues for blues emerged.[41] Living Blues, the journal of the African-American blues tradition, is Americas oldest and most authoritative blues periodical. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ...


In the 1990s, blues performers explored a range of musical genres, as can be seen, for example, from the broad array of nominees of the yearly Blues Music Awards, previously named W. C. Handy Awards[42] or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album. Contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as: Alligator Records, Ruf Records, Chess Records (MCA), Delmark Records, NorthernBlues Music, and Vanguard Records (Artemis Records). Some labels are famous for their rediscovering and remastering of blues rarities such as Arhoolie Records, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (heir of Folkways Records) and Yazoo Records (Shanachie Records).[43] The W. C. Handy Awards (also called The Handys), named in honour of the pioneering blues musician W. C. Handy, were created by the Blues Foundation to recognize the best blues recordings and performances of the previous year. ... The Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Blues Album has been awarded since 1988. ... The Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album has been awarded since 1983. ... Alligator Records is a Chicago-based independent blues record label founded by Bruce Iglauer in 1971. ... Ruf Records was founded in 1994 by Luther Allison’s manager Thomas Ruf to promote his longstanding artist and master on another level. ... The Chess Records logo, as featured on this Memphis Slim single. ... The Music Corporation of America was a United States based corporation in the music business. ... Growing up in Wichita, Kansas, Delmark founder Bob Koester got hooked on jazz after hearing artists like Lionel Hampton. ... NorthernBlues Music is a Canadian independent record label, which specializes in blues music. ... Vanguard Records was a record label set up in 1950 by brothers Maynard and Seymour Solomon in New York. ... Artemis Records is a New York-based independent record label, founded in July 1999, by current chairman/CEO Danny Goldberg. ... Arhoolie Records is a small record label run by Chris Strachwitz. ... It has been suggested that Folkways Records be merged into this article or section. ... Folkways Records is a record label founded by Moses Asch. ... Black Patti label Belzona Records label Yazoo Records is a record label setup in the late 1960s by Nick Perls. ... Shanchie Records was founded in 1975 by Richard Nevins and Dan Collins. ...


Young blues artists today are exploring all aspects of the blues, from classic delta to more rock-oriented blues, artists born after 1970 like Sean Costello,Anthony Gomes, Shemekia Copeland, Jonny Lang, Corey Harris, Susan Tedeschi,Joe Bonamassa,The White Stripes, North Mississippi Allstars, The Black Keys, Bob Log III, Jose P and Hillstomp developing their own styles.[44] Sean Costello (born 1979, Philadelphia) is a blues guitarist. ... Anthony Gomes (born in 1975) is a Canadian blues and blues-rock guitarist and singer. ... Shemekia Copeland (1979 – ) is a notable American blues singer born in Harlem, New York. ... Jonny Lang (born Jon Gordon Langseth, Jr. ... Corey Harris (Born 1969 in Denver, Colorado) is a Bates College educated anthropologist and blues musician. ... Susan Tedeschi (pronounced te-DES-ki) (November 9, 1970 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an American blues and soul artist. ... Joe Bonamassa (born May 8, 1977) is an American blues guitarist/singer, well known for his gritty voice and technically accomplished playing; Guitar One Magazine has stated that he just might be the best guitarist of his generation. ... This article is about the American duo. ... North Mississippi Allstars is a country blues band from Hernando, Mississippi. ... The Black Keys are a blues-rock duo consisting of Daniel Auerbach (vocals and guitar) and Patrick Carney (drums) from Akron, Ohio. ... Bob Log III is an American blues punk one-man-band. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


In another cotton-producing community, Memphis, Texas, not Memphis, Tennessee, William Daniel McFalls, or Blues Boy Willie, is attempting to revive the past popularity of blues to contemporary society. Memphis is a city in Hall County, Texas, in the United States. ...


Musical impact

Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue.
Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue.

Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music. Prominent jazz, folk or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, Bob Dylan and the White Stripes have performed significant blues recordings. The blues scale is often used in popular songs like Harold Arlen's "Blues in the Night", blues ballads like "Since I Fell for You" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" and "Concerto in F". Image File history File links Rhapsody_in_Blue_cover. ... Image File history File links Rhapsody_in_Blue_cover. ... Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... This article is about the American duo. ... Popular music, sometimes abbreviated pop music, is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are broadly popular. ... Harold Arlen (February 15, 1905 – April 23, 1986) was an American composer of popular music. ... The blues ballad creates the sound of the blues usually using a blues scale and often incorporating blues standard chord progressions though often with a bridge using a different chord progression) with the conventional 32-bar popular song from Tin Pan Alley. ... Gershwin redirects here. ... Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue. ...


The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames, especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (e.g., in "A Hard Day's Night"). Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman, teen idol Fabian's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman's hit "Give Me One Reason". In music a melodic mode (van der Merwe 1989, p. ... A ladder of thirds is similar to the circle of fifths, though ladders of thirds differ in being composed of thirds, major or minor, and may or may not circle back to its starting note and thus may or may not be an interval cycle. ... A Hard Days Night is a 1964 hit song written by John Lennon and credited (as were all their songs) to John Lennon and Paul McCartney, performed by English band The Beatles and produced by George Martin. ... This article is about the 1960s television series. ... For other uses, see Teen idol (disambiguation). ... Fabian on Hollywood Squares, 1979 Fabiano Anthony Forte, who performed as Fabian, (born February 6, 1943 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an American teen idol of the late 1950s and early 1960s. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Tracy Chapman (born March 30, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her singles, Fast Car, Talkin Bout a Revolution, Baby Can I Hold You and Give Me One Reason. She is a multi-platinum and multi-Grammy Award-winning artist. ...


R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts's hymns, mixed with African rhythms and call-and-response forms. Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the "low-down" blues. Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings. Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Isaac Watts (July 17, 1674 – November 25, 1748) is recognised as the Father of English Hymnody, as he was the first prolific and popular English hymnwriter, credited with some 750 hymns. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... A watercolor painting of a camp meeting circa 1839 (New Bedford Whaling Museum). ...


Early country bluesmen such as Skip James, Charley Patton, Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing. Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music. Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet. In the 1950s, soul music by Sam Cooke, Ray Charles and James Brown used gospel and blues music elements. In the 1960s and 1970s, gospel and blues were these merged in soul blues music. Funk music of the 1970s was influenced by soul; funk can be seen as an antecedent of hip-hop and contemporary R&B. Nehemiah Curtis Skip James (June 21, 1902 – October 3, 1969) was an American blues singer, guitarist, pianist and songwriter. ... Charley Patton Charley Patton (May 1, 1891–April 28, 1934) was an American delta blues musician, and one of the first mainstream stars of the genre. ... Thomas A. Dorsey (July 1, 1899 - January 23, 1993) is called the Father of Gospel Music. ... Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. ... The Golden Gate Quartet is the most successful of all of the African-American gospel music groups who sang in the jubilee quartet style. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For Ray Charles, the composer and conductor of the Ray Charles Singers, see Ray Charles (composer). ... For other persons named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). ... Soul blues is a style of blues music developed in the early late 1960s and 1970s and combining eliments of soul music and urban contemporary music. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ...

Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Though Ellington was a jazz artist, he used the blues form extensively.
Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Though Ellington was a jazz artist, he used the blues form extensively.

Before World War II, the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear. Usually jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands, whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues. However, the jump blues of the 1940s mixed both styles. After WWII, blues had a substantial influence on jazz. Bebop classics, such as Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time", used the blues form with the pentatonic scale and blue notes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (595x750, 46 KB) Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (595x750, 46 KB) Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ...


Bebop marked a major shift in the role of jazz, from a popular style of music for dancing, to a "high-art," less-accessible, cerebral "musician's music". The audience for both blues and jazz split, and the border between blues and jazz became the more defined. Artists straddling the boundary between jazz and blues are categorized into the jazz-blues sub-genre. Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ...


The blues' twelve-bar structure and the blues scale was a major influence on rock-and-roll music. Rock-and-roll has been called "blues with a back beat". Carl Perkins called rockabilly "blues with a country beat". Rockabillies were also said to be twelve-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat. "Hound Dog", with its unmodified twelve-bar structure (in both harmony and lyrics) and a melody centered on flatted third of the tonic (and flatted seventh of the subdominant), is a blues song transformed into a rock-and-roll song. Jerry Lee Lewis's style of rock 'n' roll was heavily influenced by the blues and its derivative boogie woogie. His style of music was not exactly rockabilly but it has been often called real rock 'n' roll (this is a label he shares with several African American rock 'n' roll singers). This article is about the 1940s–early 1970s style of music. ... In music a back beat (also called the, or a, backbeat) is a term applied to the beats 2 and 4 in a 4/4 bar or a 12/8 bar [1] as opposed to the odd downbeat, (quarter beat 1). ... For other persons named Carl Perkins, see Carl Perkins (disambiguation). ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... Hound Dog is a twelve-bar blues written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and originally recorded by Willie Mae Big Mama Thornton in 1952. ... Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935), also known by the nickname The Killer, is an American rock and roll and country music singer, songwriter, and pianist. ...


Early country music has also been blues-soaked. Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, Bob Wills, Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different to the country pop of say Eddy Arnold. A lot of the later outlaw country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues. When Jerry Lee Lewis returned to country after the decline of 1950s style rock 'n' roll, he sang his country with a blues feel and often included blues standards on his albums.Many early rock-and-roll songs are based on blues: "That's All Right Mama", "Johnny B. Goode", "Blue Suede Shoes", "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On", "Shake, Rattle, and Roll", and "Long Tall Sally". The early African American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and innuendos of blues music: "Got a gal named Sue, knows just what to do" ("Tutti Frutti", Little Richard) or "See the girl with the red dress on, She can do the Birdland all night long" ("What'd I Say", Ray Charles). Even the subject matter of "Hound Dog" contains well-hidden sexual double entendres. Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... Jimmie Rodgers was the name of two singers: Jimmie Rodgers (country singer) Jimmie Rodgers (pop singer) Jimmie Rodgers (SPC Deputy Director General) Note that there was also a Jimmy Rogers (note the spelling), a blues singer born in 1924. ... Moon Mullican was an American country and western singer and pianist in the late 1940s and 1950s from Louisiana. ... James Robert (Bob) Wills (March 6, 1905 – May 13, 1975) was an American country musician, songwriter, and big band leader. ... For the retired NBC News correspondent of the same name, see Bill Monroe (journalist). ... For other persons named Hank Williams, see Hank Williams (disambiguation). ... Eddy Arnold (May 15, 1918) is an American country music singer. ... Willie Hugh Nelson (born April 30, 1933) is an American singer-songwriter and actor. ... Waylon Arnold Jennings (June 15, 1937 – February 13, 2002) was a respected and influential American country music singer and musician. ... Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935), also known by the nickname The Killer, is an American rock and roll and country music singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Rock and roll - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Thats All Right (Mama) is the name of the first song released by Elvis Presley. ... Music sample Johnny B. Goode Problems? See media help. ... Blue Suede Shoes is a rock and roll standard written and first recorded by Carl Perkins in 1955. ... Whole Lotta Shakin Goin On is a song, written by African American singer/songwriter Dave Curly Williams and white pianist/singer Sunny David. ... Shake, Rattle and Roll is a prototypical blues-form rock and roll song written by Jesse Stone (under his working name Charles Calhoun). ... Long Tall Sally is a rock and roll song first recorded by Little Richard in the mid-1950s, when it became one of the singers best-known hits. ... Tutti Frutti was Little Richards first hit record, released in 1955. ... Richard Wayne Penniman (born December 5, 1932), better known by the stage name Little Richard, is an African-American singer, songwriter, and pianist, who began performing in the 1940s and was a key figure in the transition from rhythm & blues to rock and roll in the mid-1950s. ... This article is about the song by Ray Charles. ... For Ray Charles, the composer and conductor of the Ray Charles Singers, see Ray Charles (composer). ... Hound Dog is a twelve-bar blues written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and originally recorded by Willie Mae Big Mama Thornton in 1952. ... A double entendre is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ...


More sanitized early "white" rock borrowed the structure and harmonics of blues, although there was less harmonic creativity and sexual frankness (e.g., Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock"). Many white musicians who performed black songs changed the words; Pat Boone's performance of "Tutti Frutti" changed the original lyrics ("Tutti frutti, loose booty . . . a wop bop a lu bop, a good Goddamn") to a tamer version. Rock Around the Clock is a rock n roll song from 1952, written by Max C. Freedman and James E. Myers (the latter under the pseudonym Jimmy De Knight). Although first recorded by Sonny Dae & the Knights, the more famous version by Bill Haley & His Comets is not, strictly speaking... Charles Eugene Patrick Pat Boone (born June 1, 1934) is a singer whose smooth style made him a popular performer of the 1950s. ...


In popular culture

The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.
The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.

Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal music, hip hop music, reggae, country music, and pop music, blues has been accused of being the "devil's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior.[45] In the early 20th century, the blues was considered disreputable, especially as white audiences began listening to the blues during the 1920s.[46] In the early twentieth century, W.C. Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans. Image File history File linksMetadata Tajmahalblues. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tajmahalblues. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... William Christopher Handy (November 16, 1873 – March 28, 1958) was a blues composer and musician, often known as the Father of the Blues. ...


During the blues revival of the 1960s and '70s, acoustic blues artist Taj Mahal and legendary Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and performed music that figured prominently in the popularly and critically acclaimed film Sounder (1972). The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination.[47] Almost 30 years later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer style, in, the 2001 movie release "Song Catcher," which focused on the story of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia. Henry Saint Clair Fredericks, better known by the stage name Taj Mahal (born May 17, 1942), is an American blues musician. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organization that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ...


In 2003, Martin Scorsese made significant efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience. He asked several famous directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues.[48] He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... For other uses, see Clint Eastwood (disambiguation). ... Ernst Wilhelm (Wim) Wenders (born August 14, 1945) is a German film director, playwright, photographer, and producer. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...


Grammy-winning blues guitarist and vocalist Keb' Mo' performed his blues rendition of "America, the Beautiful" in 2006 to close out the final season of the popular television series "The West Wing." To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... America the Beautiful is an American patriotic song which rivals The Star-Spangled Banner, the national anthem of the United States, in popularity. ... This article is about a TV show. ...

See also: List of films based on blues music

The Blues Brothers: Dan Aykroyd (left) and John Belushi. ...

References

  • William Barlow (1993). "Cashing In". Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media: 31. 
  • Bransford, Steve. "Blues in the Lower Chattahoochee Valley" Southern Spaces 2004
  • Clarke, Donald (1995). The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11573-3. 
  • Dicaire, David (1999). Blues Singers: Biographies of 50 Legendary Artists of the Early 20th Century. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0606-2. 
  • Ewen, David (1957). Panorama of American Popular Music. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-648360-7. 
  • Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5. 
  • Garofalo, Reebee (1997). Rockin' Out: Popular Music in the USA. Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-13703-2. 
  • Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin Beat. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81018-2. 
  • Schuller, Gunther (1968). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504043-0. 
  • Southern, Eileen (1997). The Music of Black Americans. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-393-03843-2. 
  • Muslim Roots of the Blues. SFGate. Retrieved on August 24, 2005.

is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Brown, Luther. "Inside Poor Monkey's" Southern Spaces June 22 2006.
  • Oakley, Giles (1976). The Devil's Music: a History of the Blues. BBC, 287 pages. ISBN 0-563-16012-8. 
  • Oliver, Paul (1998). The Story Of The Blues, new edition, Northeastern University Press, 212 pages. ISBN 1-55553-355-8. 
  • Palmer, Robert (1981). Deep Blues. Viking, 310 pages. ISBN 0-670-49511-5. 
  • Rowe, Mike (1973). Chicago Breakdown. Eddison Press, 226 pages. ISBN 0-85649-015-6. 
  • Titon, Jeff Todd (1994). Early Downhome Blues: a Musical and Cultural Analysis, 2nd edition, University of North Carolina Press, 318 pages. ISBN 0-8078-4482-9. 

Robert Franklin Palmer Jr. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The "Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé" provides this etymology to the word blues and George Colman's farce as the first appearance of this term in the English language, see http://atilf.atilf.fr/dendien/scripts/fast.exe?mot=blues
  2. ^ Davis, Francis. The History of the Blues. New York: Hyperion, 1995.
  3. ^ Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, 2002, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-415-29189-5
  4. ^ Tony Bolden, Afro-Blue: Improvisations in African American Poetry and Culture, 2004, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02874-0
  5. ^ Southern, pg. 333
  6. ^ Garofalo, pg. 44
  7. ^ Ferris, pg. 229
  8. ^ Moralttributes this claim to John Storm Roberts in Black Music of Two Worlds, beginning his discussion with a quote from Roberts There does not seem to be the same African quality in blues forms as there clearly is in much Caribbean music.
  9. ^ Garofalo, pg. 44 Gradually, instrumental and harmonic accompaniment were added, reflecting increasing cross-cultural contact. Garofalo cites other authors that also mention the "Ethiopian airs" and "Negro spirituals".
  10. ^ Schuller, cited in Garofalo, pg. 27
  11. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 46–47
  12. ^ Ferris, pg. 230
  13. ^ Ewen, pgs. 142–143
  14. ^ Morales, pg. 277
  15. ^ Ellen Fullman, "The Long String Instrument", MusicWorks, Issue #37 Fall 1987.
  16. ^ A Jazz Improvisation Almanac, Outside Shore Music Online School.
  17. ^ Ewen, pg. 143
  18. ^ Grace notes were common in the Baroque and Classical periods, but they acted as ornamentation rather than as part of the harmonic structure. Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21 has a flatted fifth in the dominant. However, this was a technique for building tension for resolution into the perfect fifth, while a blues melody uses the flatted fifth as part of the scale.
  19. ^ David Hamburger, Acoustic Guitar Slide Basics, 2001, ISBN 1-890490-38-5.
  20. ^ Lesson 72: Basic Blues Shuffle by Jim Burger. Retrieved on November 25, 2005.
  21. ^ Wilbur M. Savidge, Randy L. Vradenburg, Everything About Playing the Blues, 2002, Music Sales Distributed, ISBN 1-884848-09-5, pg. 35
  22. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 44–47 As marketing categories, designations like race and hillbilly intentionally separated artists along racial lines and conveyed the impression that their music came from mutually exclusive sources. Nothing could have been further from the truth... In cultural terms, blues and country were more equal than they were separate. Garofalo claims that artists were sometimes listed in the wrong racial category in record company catalogues.
  23. ^ Philip V. Bohlman, "Immigrant, folk, and regional music in the twentieth century", in The Cambridge History of American Music, ed. David Nicholls, 1999, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45429-8, pg. 285
  24. ^ Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom, Oxford University Press, 1977, ISBN 0-19-502374-9, pg. 223
  25. ^ Garofalo, pg. 27; Garofalo cites Barlow in Handy's sudden success demonstrated [the] commercial potential of [the blues], which in turn made the genre attractive to the Tin Pan Alley acks, who wasted little time in turning out a deluge of imitations. {parentheticals in Garofalo)
  26. ^ Garofalo, pg. 27
  27. ^ Morales, pg. 277
  28. ^ Clarke, pg. 138
  29. ^ Clarke, pg. 141
  30. ^ Clarke, pg. 139
  31. ^ Garofalo, pg. 47
  32. ^ Hawkeye Herman, General background on African American Music, Blues Foundation, Essays: What is the blues?http://www.blues.org/blues/essays.php4?Id=3
  33. ^ Clarke, pg. 137
  34. ^ Clarke, pg. 138
  35. ^ Garofalo, pg. 47
  36. ^ Garofalo, pg. 76
  37. ^ Dicaire (1999), p. 79
  38. ^ Lars Bjorn, Before Motown, 2001, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-06765-6, pg. 175
  39. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 224–225
  40. ^ A directory of the most significant blues festivals can be found at http://blues.about.com/od/bluesfestivals/
  41. ^ A list of important blues venues in the U.S. can be found at http://blues.about.com/cs/venues/
  42. ^ Blues Music Awards information. Retrieved on November 25, 2005.
  43. ^ A complete directory of contemporary blues labels can be found at http://blues.about.com/cs/recordlabels/
  44. ^ Blues Babies.741.com
  45. ^ SFGate
  46. ^ Garofalo, pg. 27
  47. ^ "Sounder"Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 11-02-2007.
  48. ^ "The Blues" (2003) (mini) at the Internet Movie Database

The University of Illinois Press is a major American university press. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Concerto No. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

See also

In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues is a non-fiction book that is an encyclopedic referencing of blues music compiled under the direction of All Media Guide. ... The Blues Hall of Fame is a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. ... The history of blues in New Zealand dates from the 1960s. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Performers in the blues style range from primitive, one-chord Delta players to big bands to country music to rock and roll to classical music. ... A blues standard, much like a jazz standard or pop standard, refers to a song that is widely known, performed, and recorded among blues musicians. ... Alexis Korner Alvin Lee The Animals Billy Nicholls Black Sabbath Blind Faith Blues Incorporated Chicken Shack Cream Cyril Davies Doctors Orders Eric Burdon Eric Clapton Dave Kelly Duster Bennett The Faces Ginger Baker Graham Bond The Hoax Jack Bruce Jeff Beck Jeremy Spencer Jimmy Page Jo Ann Kelly John Mayall... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Mississippi Blues Trail, created by the Mississippi BLues Commission, is a project to place blues interpretive markers at the most notable historical sites related to the growth of the blues throughout the state of Mississippi, United States. ... A revolution occurred in 20th century music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide, and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Article doesnt appear to meet notability according to WP:NOTFILM and makes no assertions that it does. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... Honky tonk was originally the name of a type of bar common throughout the southern United States, also Honkatonk or Honkey-tonk. ... Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. ... Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s. ... IDNIANS SUCK BALLS American Indian music is the musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian tribes and First Nations. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. ... Swamp pop musician Jivin Gene, circa 1959. ... Tejano (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[1] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... Western swing is, first and foremost, a fusion of country music, several styles of jazz, pop music and blues aimed at dancers. ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Early Creole musicians playing an accordion and a washboard in front of a store, near New Iberia, Louisiana (1938). ... Blues can be categorized into a number of genres. ... A jug band is a band employing a jug player and a mix of traditional and home-made instruments. ... The Classic female blues spanned from 1920 to 1929 with its peak from 1923 to 1925. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... The electric blues is a type of blues music distinguished by the amplification of the guitar, the bass guitar , and/or the harmonica. ... Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... Piano blues refers to a variety of blues styles, sharing only the characteristic that they use the piano as the primary musical instrument. ... Fife and Drum blues is a rural derivation of traditional country blues. ... Jazz blues or in its second name Jlues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ... Blues Rock or Blues-rock is a fusion genre of music which combines elements of the blues with rock and roll. ... Soul blues is a style of blues music developed in the early late 1960s and 1970s and combining eliments of soul music and urban contemporary music. ... Allmusic. ... The British blues is a type of blues music that originated in the late 1950s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Detroit blues is blues music played by musicians resident in Detroit, Michigan, particularly that played in the 1940s and 50s. ... Kansas City blues is a genre of blues music. ... The Louisiana blues is a type of blues music that is characterized by plodding rhythms that make the sound dark and tense. ... The Memphis blues is a style of blues music that was created in 1920s and 1930s by Memphis-area musicians like Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Furry Lewis and Memphis Minnie. ... The Piedmont blues is a type of blues music characterized by a unique fingerpicking method on the guitar in which a regular, alternating-thumb bass pattern supports a melody using treble strings. ... The St. ... The swamp blues is a form of blues music that is highly evolved and specialized. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Little Willie Littlefield, a West Coast blues performer and pianist. ... Performers in the blues style range from primitive, one-chord Delta players to big bands to country music to rock and roll to classical music. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Official Blues Traveler Web Site (321 words)
Spring of 1987 in Princeton NJ, a fl cat would show up as 4 high school kids would stroll out of a parents basement after a jam, have a smoke by a tree and ponder their future...
Blues Traveler will be doing their annual Red Rocks show on 4th of July this summer in beautiful Morrison CO. (more...)
Blues Traveler podcast Interview on Cold Turkey is now available at relix.com.
The Blue Highway (0 words)
The blues was born the day the West African shoreline fell from the horizon.
It was raised amid the institutionalized savagery of the Deep South and flourished in the dark heart of America's largest cities.
The Blue Highway, then, is dedicated to the men and women who traveled beyond our ignorant place, and to those who could not.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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