FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Blue green algae
?
Cyanobacteria
Anabaena sphaerica
Anabaena sphaerica (Nostocales)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Cyanobacteria
Orders

The taxonomy of the
Cyanobacteria is currently
under revision. see [1] Image File history File links Anabaena sperica, a filamentous cyanobacterium. ... Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, found as plankton. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Kingdoms/Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Iya Kodie Lovie :D ŴÕŤ Ú ÚÞ ²? lol ow good am i :P iya nat lv :D im not lookin forward to d. ...

Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are often referred to as blue-green algae, even though it is now known that they are not directly related to any of the other algal groups, which are all eukaryotes. Nonetheless, the description is still sometimes used to reflect their appearance and ecological role. Fossil traces of cyanobacteria are claimed to have been found from around 3.8 billion years ago, but recent evidence has sparked controversy over this assertion. See: Stromatolite Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... Kingdoms/Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Iya Kodie Lovie :D ŴÕŤ Ú ÚÞ ²? lol ow good am i :P iya nat lv :D im not lookin forward to d. ... Leaf. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (also spelled eucaryote) is an organism with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... The word billion and its equivalents in other languages refer to one of two different numbers, depending on whether the writer is using the long or short scale. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ...

Contents


Forms

Cyanobacteria include unicellular, colonial, and filamentous forms. Some filamentous cyanophytes form differentiated cells, called heterocysts, that are specialized for nitrogen fixation, and resting cells called akinetes. Each individual cell typically has a thick, gelatinous cell wall, which stains gram-negative. The cyanophytes lack flagella, but may move about by gliding along surfaces. Most are found in freshwater, but many are marine, occur in damp soil, or even temporarily moistened rocks in deserts. A few are endosymbionts in lichens, plants, various protists, or sponges and provide energy for the host. Some even live in the fur of sloths, providing a form of camouflage. In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) means several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual benefit, such as stronger defences, the ability to attack bigger prey etc. ... A cell is a single unit or compartment, enclosed by a border or wall. ... Heterocysts are specialized nitrogen-fixing cells formed by some filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc punctiforme and Anabaena sperica, during nitrogen starvation. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide). ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Bacterial gliding is a process whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} Protists are definitely... It has been suggested that Porifera/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... Families Megalonychidae Bradypodidae Sloths are medium-sized South American mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae, part of the order Xenarthra. ... Anolis caroliensis showing blending camouflage and counter-shading. ...

Cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea east of Sweden on Aug 2, 1999.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x752, 810 KB) from http://visibleearth. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x752, 810 KB) from http://visibleearth. ...

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis in cyanobacteria generally uses water as an electron donor and produces oxygen as a by-product, though some may also use hydrogen sulfide as occurs among other photosynthetic bacteria. Carbon dioxide is reduced to form carbohydrates via the Calvin cycle. In most forms the photosynthetic machinery is embedded into folds of the cell membrane, called thylakoids. The large amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere are considered to have been first created by the activities of ancient cyanobacteria. Due to their abilities to fix nitrogen in aerobic conditions they are often found as symbionts with a number of other groups of organisms as fungi (lichens), corals, pteridophytes (Azolla), angiosperms (Gunnera) etc. Leaf. ... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Light-independent reaction. ... A thylakoid is a phospholipid bilayer membrane internal to chloroplasts. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ... A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of some twenty thousand species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Species See text Gunnera is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants, some of them gigantic. ...


The water-oxidizing photosynthesis is accomplished by coupling the activity of photosystem (PS) II and I. They are the only group of organisms that are able to fix nitrogen and carbon in aerobic environment which could account for their evolutionary and ecological success. Moreover, they are able to use in anaerobic conditions only PS I—cyclic photophosphorylation—with electron donors other than water (hydrogen sulfide, thiosulphate, or even molecular hydrogen) just like purple photosynthetic bacteria. Also they share an archaebacterial property—the ability to reduce elemental sulfur by anaerobic respiration in the dark. Probably the most intriguing thing about these organisms is that their photosynthetic electron transport shares the same compartment (the thylakoid) and components of the respiratory electron transport. Actually, their plasma membrane contains only components of the respiratory chain, while the thylakoid membrane hosts both respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport. In the process of photosynthesis, light is absorbed by a photosystem (ancient Greek: phos = light and systema = assembly) to begin an energy-producing reaction. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes. ... A thylakoid is a phospholipid bilayer membrane internal to chloroplasts. ...


Attached to thylakoid membrane, phycobilisomes act as light harvesting antennae for either photosystem II or I (see state transition). The phycobilisome components (phycobilin)are responsible for the blue-green pigmentation of most cyanobacteria. The variations to this theme is mainly due to carotenoids and phycoerythrins which give the cells the red-brownish coloration. A thylakoid is a phospholipid bilayer membrane internal to chloroplasts. ... A computer generated 3D view of a phycobilisome showing Phycoerythrin subunits in red, Phycocyanin subunits in dark blue and Allophycocyanin subunits in light blue. ... Phycobilins are the chromophores of phycobiliproteins (photosynthetic pigments) found in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of red algae, glaucophytes and some cryptomonads (though not in green algae and higher plants). ... Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... Phycoerythrin is a red protein from the light-harvesting phycobiliproteins family, isolated from red, blue-green, and crytomonad algae. ...


A few genera, however, lack phycobilins and have chlorophyll b as well as chlorophyll a, giving them a bright green colour. These were originally grouped together as the prochlorophytes or chloroxybacteria, but appear to have developed in several different lines of cyanobacteria.


Relationship to chloroplasts

Chloroplasts found in eukaryotes (algae and higher plants) most likely represent reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. This endosymbiotic theory is supported by various structural and genetic similarities. Primary chloroplasts are found among the green plants, where they contain chlorophyll b, and among the red algae and glaucophytes, where they contain phycobilins. It now appears that these chloroplasts probably had a single origin. Other algae likely took their chloroplasts from these forms by secondary endosymbiosis or ingestion. The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (plastids with chlorophyll a and b are called chloroplasts, some other plastids are called cyanelles and rhodoplasts),which are organelles of eukaryotic cells. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... The glaucophytes are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ...


Classification

The cyanobacteria were traditionally classified by morphology into five sections, referred to by the numerals I-V. The first three - Chroococcales, Pleurocapsales, and Oscillatoriales - are not supported by phylogenetic studies. However, the latter two - Nostocales and Stigonematales - are monophyletic, and make up the heterocystous cyanobacteria.


Most taxa included in the phylum or division Cyanobacteria have not been validly published under the Bacteriological Code. Except: The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governs the scientific names for bacteria. ...

  • The classes Chroobacteria, Hormogoneae and Gloeobacteria
  • The orders Chroococcales, Gloeobacterales, Nostocales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales and Stigonematales
  • The families Prochloraceae and Prochlorotrichaceae
  • The genera Halospirulina, Planktothricoides, Prochlorococcus, Prochloron, Prochlorothrix.

Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria that now includes some three dozen species, differentiated on the basis of their ribosomal DNA. Sallie W. Chisholm of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Robert J. Olson of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and other collaborators (according to the Scientific American article listed...

Other

Certain cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins like Anatoxin-a, Anatoxin-as, Aplysiatoxin, Cylindrospermopsin, Domoic acid, Microcystin LR, Nodularin R (from Nodularia), or Saxitoxin. Sometimes a mass-reproduction of cyanobacteria results in algal blooms. Some are marketed as having nutritional value, such as Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (E3live) or Spirulina. A Cyanotoxin is a toxin secreted by certain cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). ... Chemical structure of Domoic acid Domoic acid, also called Amnesic Shellfish Poison (ASP), is an amino acid phycotoxin (algal toxin) found associated with certain algal blooms [1]. 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the Red alga called Doumoi or Hanayanagi (Chondria armata [2]) in Japan;Doumoi is used as... Nodularia is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae. ... Saxitoxin (STX), is a neurotoxin found in marine dinoflagellates. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... A red tide resulting from a dinoflagellate bloom discoloring the water on the right An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... E3Live and Klamath Lake Blue Green Algae are commercial names for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a non-toxic strain of blue-green algae purported to have nutritional value as an antioxidant and mental faculty enhancing treatment. ... Species Spirulina corakiana Spirulina crispum Spirulina labyrinthiformis Spirulina laxa Spirulina laxissima Spirulina major Spirulina meneghiniana Spirulina nordstedtii Spirulina princeps Spirulina subsalsa Spirulina subtilissima Spirulina platensis Spirulina tenerrima Spirulina weissii Spirulina is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (commonly called blue-green algae), with a coil-like shape. ...


The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was the first photosynthetic organism whose genome was completely sequenced (in 1996, by the Kazusa Research Institute, Japan). It continues to be an important model organism.


At least one secondary metabolite, cyanovirin, has shown to possess anti-HIV activity.


See hypolith for an example of cyanobacteria living in extreme conditions. In Arctic and Antarctic ecology, a hypolith is a photosynthetic organism that lives underneath rocks in climatically extreme deserts such as Cornwallis Island and Devon Island in the Canadian high Arctic. ...


Superfood

Some (Gillian Cribbs, 1997 and Marshall Savage, 1992 & 1994) have suggested that cynaobacteria would make a good source of food for the 21st century and beyond. Marshall T. Savage is an advocate of space travel who wrote The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps and founded the Living Universe Foundation, which was designed to make plans for stellar exploration over the next 1,000 years. ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Herbal Extracts Plus Blue Green Algae (994 words)
Blue Green Algae is an aquatic, one-celled organism that is one of the micro-algae found in warm, freshwater, alkaline, volcanic lakes (and some saline waters) in hot, sunny climates around the world.
Blue Green Algae is a powerful tonic for the immune system and is thought to activate the key immune T-cells, B-cells and anti-cancer Natural Killer cells (NKs), as well as macrophages that engulf and kill germs and fight infection and disease.
Blue Green Algae is believed to help in weight loss programs by curbing the appetite, and according to a 1986 study, overweight patients showed a significant reduction of body weight after including Blue Green Algae in the diet for four weeks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m