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Encyclopedia > Blue Mountains
A panoramic view of the Blue Mountains
A panoramic view of the Blue Mountains

The Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, are situated approximately 100 kilometres west of Sydney. They are a range of sandstone geological structures that reach to at least 1,190 metres AHD (in the Lithgow area). The Blue Mountains are not as the name suggests a range of mountains but rather a series of cliffs surrounding a plateau with rugged eroded gorges of up to 760 metres depth. A large majority of the Blue Mountains is incorporated in the Greater Blue Mountains Area World Heritage Site and its constituent seven national parks and a conservation reserve. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x1365, 1161 KB) Summary A panorama the Blue Mountains on an overcast day in June 2005, New South Wales, Australia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x1365, 1161 KB) Summary A panorama the Blue Mountains on an overcast day in June 2005, New South Wales, Australia. ... “NSW” redirects here. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... The Australian Height Datum is a theoretical reference surface (datum) for altitude measurement in Australia. ... Lithgow is a city of approximately 18750 persons situated in central-west New South Wales, Australia and is also a Local Government Area. ... For other uses, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The Greater Blue Mountains Area was inscribed on the World Heritage List at the 24th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairns from 27 November to 2 December 2000. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


The Blue Mountains lie in the local government areas of the City of Blue Mountains, the City of Hawkesbury, the City of Lithgow and Oberon. The Three Sisters are a top attraction of the city The City of Blue Mountains is a local government area of New South Wales, Australia, governed by the Blue Mountains City Council. ... The City of Hawkesbury (formerly Hawkesbury Shire) is a Local Government Area of New South Wales, Australia, part of which is at the fringe of the Sydney metropolitan area, about 50 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district. ... Oberon is a settlement of some 2500 people located on a chilly plateau, 1113 m above sea-level, 42 km south-east of Bathurst and 183 km west of Sydney. ...

Contents

History

The mountains were originally named by Arthur Phillip in 1788 as the Carmarthen Hills for the northern section near Sydney, and the Lansdowne Hills for the southern, however Blue Mountains quickly became preferred as the popular name. [1] Although known by Indigenous Australians for thousands of years, the Blue Mountains were thought to be impenetrable by the early white settlers of Sydney, and were not crossed until convicts and other explorers found their way across. The most famous expedition was in 1813, by Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson. Rather than, like earlier explorers, following the river valleys—only to discover usually that they were terminated by vertical cliffs several hundred metres high—the trio followed the ridges to reach the plateau. This 'first crossing' by Lawson, Blaxland and Wentworth is a common misconception due to various monuments claiming this to be so. Indeed the only geographical reward they received for their efforts was the naming of three hills in the Kanimbla Valley northwest of Mount York. This crossing of the Blue Mountains has traditionally been regarded as a critical step that opened the west of New South Wales to European settlement; however, modern historians point out that until about the time the mountains were first crossed there was still ample land available closer to the coast. The oft-told tale, that the Blue Mountains were a crippling barrier to colonial expansion, is largely myth. Admiral Arthur Phillip RN (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was a British naval officer and colonial administrator. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gregory Blaxland Gregory Blaxland (17 June 1788 — 31 December 1852) was a pioneer farmer and explorer. ... William Wentworth For the Australian politician, see William Wentworth IV William Charles Wentworth (early 1790 – 20 March 1872), Australian explorer, journalist and politician, was one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. ... THE DETAILS BELOW ARE NOT FOR WILL LAWSON (1856-1957) William Lawson (1774 – 1850), explorer of New South Wales, Australia, was born in London and arrived in Sydney as an ensign with the New South Wales Corps in 1800. ...


A road crossing the mountains was built in only 27 weeks by William Cox, at the behest of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, using 30 convict labourers and 8 guards and was completed in early 1815. William Cox (born 19 December 1764 at Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England, died 15 March 1837) was an Australian pioneer. ... Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB (31 January 1762[1] – 1 July 1824), British military officer and colonial administrator, served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development...


Coal and oil shale were mined near Katoomba up until after the Second World War. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Geography

The blue haze in view
The blue haze in view

The name derives from the blueish tinge the range takes on when viewed at a distance, which is caused by the release of volatile oils from eucalyptus forests. (Most mountains and plains in the forested parts of Australia take on a similar hue: the Blue Mountains were a familiar sight to early British settlers in the Sydney district long before the bulk of the continent was explored by non-native people.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the plant genus. ...


The predominant natural vegetation of the higher ridges is eucalypt forest. Heath-like vegetation is present on plateau edges above cliffs. The sheltered gorges often have a temperate rainforest. There are also many hanging swamps with button grass reeds and thick, deep black soil. Wollemia nobilis, the "Wollemi pine", a relic of earlier vegetation of Gondwana, is found in remote and isolated valleys of the Wollemi National Park. The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Binomial name Wollemia nobilis W.G.Jones, K.D.Hill & J.M.Allen Wollemia nobilis is a remarkable coniferous tree that was discovered in 1994 in a remote series of narrow, steep-sided sandstone gorges in a mild temperate-zone rainforest wilderness area of the Wollemi National Park in New... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Wollemi is a national park in New South Wales (Australia), 129 km northwest of Sydney. ...


Many Bushcare Groups carry out bush regeneration to restore and protect the bushland areas on public lands within the City of Blue Mountains. A Bushcare Group is a volunteer group that restores bushland on public land Australian in origin. ... Bush regeneration is an ecological technique practiced in Australia to restore remnant bushland ecological communities that have been invaded by weeds. ... The Three Sisters are a top attraction of the city The City of Blue Mountains is a local government area of New South Wales, Australia, governed by the Blue Mountains City Council. ...


The climate varies with height. At Katoomba (1,010 metres) summer daytime temperatures are usually in 20s with a few days extending into the 30s (Celsius). Night time temperatures are usually in the teens. In winter the temperature is typically about 12 or 13 °C in the daytime with −3 °C or so on clear nights and 2 to 3 °C on cloudy nights. There are two to three snowfalls per year. In the lower mountains, however, the climate is significantly warmer. Annual rainfall is about 48 inches (1,200 mm) with many misty days. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


The main natural disasters to afflict the area are bushfires and severe storms. In recent years the lower mountains has been subjected to a series of bushfires which have caused great loss of property but relatively little loss of life. The upper mountains had not had a major fire for some decades until December 2002 (The Blackheath Glen Fire) and November 2006 when an extensive blaze in the Grose Valley threatened several communities including Bell and Blackheath (The Lawson Long Alley Fire). This latest fire burned for almost a month but was extinguished without loss of human life or property. A program of winter burning seems to have been quite successful in reducing fires in the upper mountains. Backburning in Townsville, Australia. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blackheath (elevation 1065 metres) is a small town located near the top of the Blue Mountains 120 kilometres west of Sydney and 10 kilometres northwest of Katoomba, Australia with a population of 4,100. ... This article is about modern humans. ...


The reason why this site was chosen to be included on the World Heritage list is quoted below.

Three Sisters from Echo Point. The 'cave' (which is accessed by the bridge) is called Honeymoon Point
Three Sisters from Echo Point. The 'cave' (which is accessed by the bridge) is called Honeymoon Point

“Criteria (ii) and (iv): Australia’s eucalypt vegetation is worthy of recognition as of outstanding universal value, because of its adaptability and evolution in post-Gondwana isolation. The site contains a wide and balanced representation of eucalypt habitats from wet and dry sclerophyll, mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps, wetlands, and grassland. 90 eucalypt taxa (13% of the global total) and representation of all four groups of eucalypts occur. There is also a high level of endemism with 114 endemic taxa found in the area as well as 120 nationally rare and threatened plant taxa. The site hosts several evolutionary relic species (Wollemia, Microstrobos, Acrophyllum) which have persisted in highly restricted microsites.” Quoted from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ...



On 21 June 2007 the Climate Action Network Australia, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and the NSW Conservation handed the World Heritage Committee a Petition seeking in danger listing for the site due to the likely effects of climate change. The Petition called for measures to be adopted including reduction of GHG emissions by developed countries in order to protect World Heritage. This is the sixth danger-listing petition to be filed with the Committee, which has failed to acknowledge the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to ensure that World Heritage Sites are transmitted to future generations, as required by the World Heritage Convention. Nations that have signed the UN World Heritage Convention have a legal duty to cut emissions. The sites the groups seek to have added to the "in danger" list are the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, Sagarmatha National Park (which includes Mount Everest), Nepal, Belize Barrier Reef, Belize, Huascaran National Park, Peru and Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, US/Canada border.


Tourist attractions

The Katoomba Scenic Skyway
The Katoomba Scenic Skyway
  • The Giant Staircase which runs down a cliff into the Jamison Valley beside the Three Sisters, offering access to extensive nature walks through the Valley.
  • The Katoomba Scenic Railway, the steepest railway in the world according to the Guinness Book of Records, and originally part of the Katoomba mining tramways constructed between 1878 and 1900. The cable railway line descends 415 metres through sandstone cliffs, via a rock tunnel with a maximum gradient of 52 degrees.
  • The Scenic Skyway: a glass-bottom aerial cable car that traverses an arm of the Jamison Valley at Katoomba.
  • The Scenic Flyway: the steepest aerial cable car in Australia, it is a 545 metre ride.
  • Jenolan Caves, a spectacular series of limestone caves that is regarded as one of the world's best, lies 45 kilometres (70 kilometres by road) to the south west of Katoomba.
  • The Zig Zag Railway: An old-fashioned railway with steam-powered engines near Lithgow.
  • Valley Heights Locomotive Depot Heritage Museum is the home of the oldest remaining roundhouse in New South Wales.
  • The Toy Museum at Leura is home to an interesting collection of toys and trains.
  • The Edge Cinema offers visitors a great view of the Blue Mountains. The Edge Movie, run every 45 minutes, is narrated by Hugo Weaving and is about the geography of this great national park.
  • The Norman Lindsay Gallery and Museum at Faulconbridge. The gallery is operated by The National Trust of Australia and is located inside the former Norman Lindsay homestead, Springwood. The gallery houses a wide variety of artwork including paintings, etchings, model sailing ship replicas and sculptures. The house and surrounding gardens featured in the film Sirens.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (2185 × 1439 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (2185 × 1439 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Three Sisters The Three Sisters towering above the Jamison Valley. ... Scenic World is a popular privately-owned tourist attraction located at the sourthern end of the town of Katoomba in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, about 100 kilometers west of Sydney. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... The Lucas Cave at Jenolan Caves The Jenolan Caves are a series of remarkable caverns in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia; 175 kilometres west of Sydney. ... The steam train at the Top Point Station switch track The Zig Zag Railway is a heritage railway at Lithgow in New South Wales, Australia on the site of the famous Great or Lithgow Zig Zag which operated between 1870 and 1910. ... The Valley Heights Locomotive Depot Heritage Museum is the Blue Mountains Division of the NSW Rail Transport Museum [1]. The Steam Tram and Railway Preservation Society operates the Valley Heights Steam Tramway, which is also located in the former Locomotive Depot at Valley Heights, in the Blue Mountains. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Norman Lindsay Gallery and Museum is based in Faulconbridge of the Blue Mountains, Australia. ... The National Trust of Australia is a community-based, non-government organisation, committed to promoting and conserving Australias indigenous, natural and historic heritage through its advocacy work and its custodianship of heritage places and objects. ... A concrete and steel sculpture by Norman Lindsay depicting a female nude in an erotic pose Norman Alfred William Lindsay (February 22, 1879 – November 21, 1969) was a prolific artist, sculptor, writer, editorial cartoonist, and scale modeler. ... Sirens is a 1994 film written and directed by John Duigan and set in Australia between the two World Wars. ...

Gallery

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Mountains

  • Mount Boyce
  • Mount Piddington
  • Mount York
  • Mount Solitary
  • Mount Banks
  • Mount Trickett
  • Mount Bindo

Mount Boyce, located 2 kilometres north of Blackheath, New South Wales is one of the highest points in the Blue Mountains, standing approx. ... Mount Piddington, or Wirindi, is a peak in the Blue Mountains village of Mount Victoria in New South Wales. ... Mount York is a 1061 metre high mountain in the western Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. ... Mount Trickett (Elev. ...

References

  1. ^ Project Gutenberg Australia

Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Categories: Australia geography stubs | National parks of New South Wales ... List of Mountain peaks in the Blue Mountains: Mount Boyce Mount Bindo Mount Trickett One Tree Hill Mount Piddington Mount York Mount Solitary Mount Banks Mount Stormbreaker Mount Hay Mount Cloudmaker Mount Wilson Mount Irvine Mount Tomah Categories: | | | | ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Blue Mountains, New South Wales
  • Blue Mountains Tourism
  • Blue Mountains Directory
  • National Parks New South Wales
  • Crossing the Blue Mountains - State Library of NSW
  • List of bushwalks in the Blue Mountains (including maps)
  • Blue Mountains Photos
  • Blue Mountains travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Blue Mountains Whats on.!

Coordinates: 33°43′05″S, 150°18′38″E Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Blue Mountains Australia - Accommodation, Attractions... (315 words)
The Blue Mountains is perfect for exploring the best that nature has to offer.
The Blue Mountains is the ideal destination for that romantic getaway or family escape.
The Blue Mountains is situated within a World Heritage area offering a unique, relaxing environment for that perfect lifestyle.
Blue Mountains, Jamaica   -   breathtaking views, bird watching and great hiking places (2129 words)
The 194,000 acre Blue Mountain and John Crow Mountain National Park was established in 1992 to preserve some of the remaining forests and to protect the island’s largest watershed.
The traditional Blue Mountain trek is the 7 mile hike to the peak with an increase in altitude of 3000 ft. Jamaicans prefer to reach the peak at sunrise so the 3-4 hour hike is usually undertaken in darkness.
It is safer to hike in the Blue Mountains during the dry period from December to April because its numerous, rapidly flowing rivers create floods and landslides during heavy rains.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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