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Encyclopedia > Blu ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
Media type: High-density optical disc
Encoding: MPEG-2, H.264, and VC-1
Capacity: 25 GB (single layer), 50 GB (dual layer)
Read mechanism: 1x@36 Mbit/s & 2x@72 Mbit/s
Developed by: Blu-ray Disc Association
Usage: Data storage, high-definition video and PlayStation 3 Games
Optical disc authoring
Optical media types
Standards

A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. Image File history File links Blu-ray_Disc. ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... Look up encoding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale) bytes or 230 bytes (1024 mebibytes)[1]. It is commonly abbreviated GB (not to be confused with Gb, which is used for gigabits). ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale) bytes or 230 bytes (1024 mebibytes)[1]. It is commonly abbreviated GB (not to be confused with Gb, which is used for gigabits). ... The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) is responsible for establishing format standards and promoting and further developing business opportunities for Blu-ray Disc. ... This article is about high-definition video technology. ... PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[7] commonly abbreviated PS3) is Sony Computer Entertainments third video game console. ... In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... A CD recorder drive. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... CD and DVD recorders for authoring optical discs such as CD-ROMs and DVDs have a history of various technologies. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JVC has announced they have gotten around to developing dual layered DVD-RW discs (DVD-RW DL). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holographic memory. ... 3D Optical Data Storage is characterized by the ability to inscribe data within the volume of a data storage medium with three-dimensional resolution, as opposed to the two-dimensional resolution afforded by, for example, magnetic tape or CD. This innovation potentially allows very high data densities, but requires addressing... Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was CD-ROM, introduced in 1982, adapted to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... This article is about high-definition video technology. ...

Contents

Overview

The name Blu-ray Disc is derived from the blue-violet laser used to read and write this type of disc. Because of its shorter wavelength (405 nm), substantially more data can be stored on a Blu-ray Disc than on the DVD format, which uses a red, 650 nm laser. A single layer Blu-ray Disc can store 25 GB, over 5 times the size of a single layer DVD at 4.7 GB. A dual layer Blu-ray Disc can store 50 GB, almost 6 times the size of a dual layer DVD at 8.5 GB. Experiment with a laser (likely an argon type) (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand-millionth of a metre, which is the current SI base unit of length. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale) bytes or 230 bytes (1024 mebibytes)[1]. It is commonly abbreviated GB (not to be confused with Gb, which is used for gigabits). ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale) bytes or 230 bytes (1024 mebibytes)[1]. It is commonly abbreviated GB (not to be confused with Gb, which is used for gigabits). ...


Blu-ray Disc is similar to PDD, another optical disc format developed by Sony (which has been available since 2004) but offering higher data transfer speeds. PDD was not intended for home video use and was aimed at business data archiving and backup. PDD, ProDATA or Professional Disc for DATA is a recordable optical disc format which was introduced by Sony in 2003. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... In information technology, backup refers to the copying of data so that these additional copies may be restored after a data loss event. ...


Blu-ray Disc is currently in a "format war" with rival format HD DVD. On June 18, 2007, Blockbuster, Inc[1], the largest chain of video game and DVD rental shops in the world, announced that its next batch of high definition DVDs will be exclusively offered in the Blu-ray format which is causing wide speculation that HD DVD has been dealt a potentially fatal set-back and that Blu-ray will soon become the consumer high-capacity optical disk standard of choice. A format war describes competition between competing, and typically mutually incompatible, electronic media formats, usually very costly to the format-owning parties involved. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blockbuster Inc. ...


Technical specifications

  • About 9 hours of high-definition (HD) video can be stored on a 50 GB disc.
  • About 23 hours of standard-definition (SD) video can be stored on a 50 GB disc.
  • On average, a single-layer disc can hold a High Definition feature of 135 minutes using MPEG-2, with additional room for 2 hours of bonus material in standard definition quality. A dual layer disc will extend this number up to 3 hours in HD quality and 9 hours of SD bonus material.
Physical size Single layer capacity Dual layer capacity
12 cm, single sided 25 GB (23.3 GiB) 50 GB (46.6 GiB)
8 cm, single sided 7.8 GB (7.3 GiB) 15.6 GB (14.6 GiB)

A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale) bytes or 230 bytes (1024 mebibytes)[1]. It is commonly abbreviated GB (not to be confused with Gb, which is used for gigabits). ... A gibibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ...

Laser and optics

The Blu-ray Disc system uses a blue-violet laser operating at a wavelength of 405 nm, similar to the one used for HD DVD, to read and write data. Conventional DVDs and CDs use red and infrared lasers at 650 nm and 780 nm respectively. A packaged laser diode with penny for scale. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ...


Profiles

The BD-ROM specification defines four profiles of Blu-ray players. All video-based profiles are required to have a full implementation of BD-J. BD-J, or Blu-ray Disc Java, is the interactive platform supporting advanced content for Blu-ray Disc. ...


1.0

This is the basic profile that all current Blu-ray players (as of April 2007) are based on. Players based on this profile are only required to have 64 KB of application data area storage, which is typically used for bookmarks and other preference storage.[citation needed] Most players have more than the minimum required 64KB.[citation needed] After October 31, 2007 this profile will be superseded by profile 1.1 as the new minimum profile. A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to the decimal 1024 bytes (2 to the 10th power, or 1,024 bytes based in the binary system). ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


1.1 (mandatory November 2007)

What is typically referred to as "Profile 1.1" (but is more formally known as "Final Standard Profile") adds a secondary video decoder (typically used for picture in picture), secondary audio (typically used for interactive audio and commentary) and capability of supporting a minimum of 256MB of local storage (for storing audio/video and title updates). Compliance with this profile will be mandatory for player models introduced to the market after October 31, 2007[2], but existing products will be unaffected. No players compliant with this profile have been announced or released. A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Some profile 1.0 players may be upgradeable via firmware update to profile 1.1 if they have the appropriate hardware, but no manufacturer has announced any such upgrade. When software authored with interactive features dependent on Profile 1.1 hardware capabilities are played on profile 1.0 players some features may not be available or may offer limited capability. Profile 1.0 players will still be able to play the main feature of the disc, however.


2.0 (BD-Live)

Profile 2, also known as BD-Live, adds network connectivity to the list of mandatory functions and increases mandatory local storage capability to 1 GB. No players have been announced as compatible with this profile. A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale) bytes or 230 bytes (1024 mebibytes)[1]. It is commonly abbreviated GB (not to be confused with Gb, which is used for gigabits). ...


3 (audio only)

Profile 3 is meant for an audio-only player and does not require video decoding or BD-J. BD-J, or Blu-ray Disc Java, is the interactive platform supporting advanced content for Blu-ray Disc. ...


Hard-coating technology

Because the Blu-ray Disc standard places the data recording layer close to the surface of the disc, early discs were susceptible to contamination and scratches and had to be enclosed in plastic caddies for protection. The consortium worried that such an inconvenience would hurt Blu-ray Disc's market adoption. Blu-ray Discs now use a layer of protective material on the surface through which the data is read.


The recent introduction of a clear polymer coating has given Blu-ray Discs substantial scratch resistance. The coating is developed by TDK and is called "Durabis". It allows BDs to be cleaned safely with only a tissue. The coating is said to successfully resist "wire wool scrubbing" according to Samsung Optical technical manager Chas Kalsi. It is not clear, however, whether discs will use the Durabis coating as standard or only in premium discs. A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... TDK Corporation (TDK株式会社), formerly Tokyo Denkikagaku Kogyo K.K. (東京電気化学工業株式会社), (TYO: 6762), NYSE: TDK, LSE: TDK is a Japanese company that manufactures electronic materials, electronic components, and recording and data-storage media. ... Durabis (Latin for you will last) is a brand name for a clear polymer coating developed by the TDK Corporation. ... Steel wool is a bundle of very fine steel filaments, used in finishing and repair work to polish wood or metal objects, and for household cleaning. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... Durabis (Latin for you will last) is a brand name for a clear polymer coating developed by the TDK Corporation. ...


Both Sony and Panasonic replication methods include proprietary hard-coat technologies. Sony's rewritable media are sprayed with a scratch-resistant and antistatic coating. Verbatim recordable and rewritable Blu-ray Disc discs use their own proprietary hard-coat technology called ScratchGuard.


Ongoing development

Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has been finalized, engineers continue working to advance the technology. Quad-layer (100 GB) discs have been demonstrated on a drive with modified optics. Furthermore TDK announced in August 2006 that they have created a working experimental Blu-ray Disc capable of holding 200 GB of data on a single side, using six 33 GB data layers.[3] Such discs would probably not work on today's players, as these devices are only designed and tested on discs that meet the current specification. TDK Corporation ), formerly TDK Electronics Co. ...


Also behind closed doors at CES 2007, Ritek has revealed that they had successfully developed a High Definition optical disc process that extends the disc capacity of both competing formats to 10 layers. That increases the capacity of the discs to 250 GB for Blu-ray compared to 150 GB for HD DVD using the same process. However, they noted that the major obstacle is that current reader and writer technology does not support the additional layers.[4] The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... RITEK Corporation is a Taiwanese electronics company. ...


JVC has developed a three layer technology that allows putting both standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/DVD combo. If successfully commercialized, this would enable the consumer to purchase a disc which could be played on current DVD players, and reveal its HD version when played on a new BD player.[5] This hybrid disc does not appear to be ready for production and no titles have been announced that would utilize this disc structure. Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ...


Paper-based Blu-ray Disc

On April 15, 2004, Sony Corporation and Toppan Printing, a large Japanese printing company, announced the development of the first paper-based Blu-ray Disc.[6] The paper-based Blu-ray disc achieves the same amount of storage as a standard single-layer Blu-ray disc while using less material for each unit of storage. The recording layer in a standard Blu-ray disc lies under a 0.1 millimeter protective layer and on top of a 1.1 millimeter thick substrate, or structural base. This substrate is normally made from a clear polycarbonate plastic, but the new disc replaces this layer with paper. As a result, 51% of the net weight of this disc is composed of paper.[7] April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sony Corporation (Japanese katakana: ソニー) (TYO: 6758), (NYSE: SNE) is a global consumer electronics corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. ...


The paper disc is designed to be more environmentally friendly and more affordable to the public than the standard Blu-ray disc. It is recyclable and more biodegradable, and will be cheaper to mass produce. In addition, the process of labeling the discs will become less expensive and more resource efficient.


However, the disc remains only a prototype at this stage, and is currently[citation needed] under development for more efficient mass reproduction techniques.


BD-9

BD-9 is a red laser DVD with BD contents on. This disc should be rotated at 3X speed or more to satisfy the minimum transfer rate of 30.24 Mbit/s. No commercial production of this format is anticipated.[citation needed]


Software standards

Codecs

Codecs are compression schemes that reduce data storage requirements; both lossy and lossless compression techniques have been developed and are being used. Depending on the application, either can be used to greatly increase the amount of audio or video storable on fixed bit-capacity media. A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. ... This article is about the unit of information. ...


The BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardware decoders (players) and the movie-software (content). For video, all players are required to support ISO MPEG-2, H.264/AVC, and SMPTE VC-1. MPEG-2 video allows decoder backward compatibility for DVDs. H.264, sometimes called MPEG-4 part 10, is a more recent video codec. VC-1 is a competing MPEG-4 derivative codec proposed by Microsoft (based on Microsoft's previous work in Windows Media 9). BD-ROM titles with video must store video using one of the three mandatory codecs (multiple codecs on a single title are allowed). MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers or SMPTE (pronounced simptee or sometimes sumptee) is a US professional association of engineers. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows Media Video (WMV) is a generic name for the set of streaming video technologies developed by Microsoft. ...


The initial version of Sony's Blu-ray Disc-authoring software shipped with support for only 1 video-codec: MPEG-2[citation needed]. Consequently, all launch titles were encoded in MPEG-2 video[citation needed]. A subsequent update allowed the content producers to author titles in any of the 3 supported codecs: MPEG-2, VC-1, or H.264[citation needed]. The choice of codecs affects the producer's licensing/royalty costs, as well as the title's maximum runtime (due to differences in compression efficiency)[citation needed]. Discs encoded in MPEG-2 video typically limit content producers to around two hours of high-definition content on a single-layer (25 GB) BD-ROM. The more advanced video codecs (VC-1 and H.264) typically achieve a video runtime twice that of MPEG-2, with comparable quality. VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ...


For audio, BD-ROM players are required to support Dolby Digital AC-3, DTS, and linear PCM (up to 7.1 channels). Dolby Digital Plus, and lossless formats Dolby TrueHD and DTS HD are player optional. BD-ROM titles must use one of mandatory schemes for the primary soundtrack (linear PCM, Dolby Digital, or DTS). A secondary audiotrack, if present, may use any of the mandatory or optional codecs.[8] For uncompressed PCM and lossless audio in Dolby TrueHD or DTS-HD Master Audio formats, Blu-ray Discs support encoding in up to 24-bit/192 kHz for a maximum of six channels, or up to eight channels with at most 24-bit/96 kHz sampling.[9] Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. ... Dolby Digital Plus (DD+), also known as E-AC-3, was developed specifically for the introduction of HDTV and HD-DVD/Blu-ray discs. ... Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. ... Dolby TrueHD logo Dolby TrueHD, from Dolby Laboratories, is an advanced lossless multi-channel audio codec, intended primarily for high-end home-entertainment equipment, such as Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD. In this application, Dolby TrueHD competes with DTS-HD Master Audio, another lossless codec from Digital Theater System. ... DTS (also known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ...


For users recording digital television programming, the recordable Blu-ray Disc standard's datarate of 54 Mbit/s is more than adequate to record high-definition broadcasts from any source (IPTV, cable/satellite, or terrestrial.) For Blu-ray Disc movies the maximum transfer rate is 48 Mbit/s (1.5x) (both audio and video payloads together), of which a maximum of 40 Mbit/s can be dedicated to video data. This compares favorably to the maximum of 36.55 Mbit/s in HD DVD movies for audio and video data.[10] Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. ...


Java software support

At the 2005 JavaOne trade show, it was announced that Sun Microsystems' Java cross-platform software environment would be included in all Blu-ray Disc players as a mandatory part of the standard. Java will be used to implement interactive menus on Blu-ray Discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD video discs, which uses pre-rendered MPEG segments and selectable subtitle pictures, which is considerably more primitive and less seamless. Java creator James Gosling, at the conference, suggested that the inclusion of a Java Virtual Machine as well as network connectivity in BD devices will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features that are not included on the disc at pressing time. This Java Version will be called BD-J and will be a subset of the Globally Executable MHP (GEM) standard. GEM is the world-wide version of the Multimedia Home Platform standard. JavaOne is an annual conference (since 1996) put on by Sun Microsystems to discuss Java technologies, primarily among Java developers. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The Java platform is the name for a computing environment, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which can run applications developed using the Java programming language and set of development tools. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM), originally developed by Sun Microsystems, is a virtual machine that executes Java bytecode. ... BD-J, or Blu-ray Disc Java, is the interactive platform supporting advanced content for Blu-ray Disc. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Multimedia Home Platform (DVB-MHP) is an open middleware system standard designed by the DVB project for interactive digital television. ...


Region codes

The Blu-ray movie region codes are different from the DVD region codes.[11] The following are the region codes for Blu-ray discs:[12] The following is an excerpt of the article entitled DVD. For the sake of convenience, the terms Region 0, Region 1, Region 2, Region 3, Region 4, Region 5, Region 6, Region 7 and Region 8 redirect to this page. ...

Regions for Blu-Ray standard[13]
Region code Area
A/1 North America, Central America, South America, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
B/2 Europe, Greenland, French territories, Middle East, Africa, Australia and New Zealand.
C/3 India, Nepal, Mainland China, Russia, Central and South Asia.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 30 KB) Regions of the world for blu-ray standard. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 30 KB) Regions of the world for blu-ray standard. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (often abbreviated DOM-TOM for départements doutre-mer, territoires doutre-mer) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...

Digital rights management (DRM)

The Blu-ray format employs several layers of DRM. [14] [15]


AACS

Blu-ray HD content is protected by the Advanced Access Content System (AACS) a standard for content distribution and digital rights management. It is developed by AACS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Matsushita (Panasonic), Warner Brothers, IBM, Toshiba and Sony. The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management, intended to restrict access to and copying of the next generation of optical discs and DVDs. ... Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... Content delivery describes the delivery of digital media content such as digital audio or digital video over a delivery medium such as broadcasting or the Internet. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term referring to technologies used by publishers or copyright owners to control access to or usage of digital data or hardware, and to restrictions associated with a specific instance of a digital work or device. ... A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organisations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal. ... The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Logo for the Panasonic brand Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Warner Bros. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a multinational high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ...


Since appearing in devices in 2006, several successful attacks have been made on the format. The first known attack relied on the trusted client problem. In addition, decryption keys have been extracted from a weakly protected player (WinDVD). In computing, a trusted client is a device or program controlled by the user of a service, but with restrictions designed to prevent its use in ways not authorised by the provider of the service. ... The WinDVD interface WinDVD is a commercial DVD player for Microsoft Windows, created by InterVideo. ...


BD+

BD+ is effectively a small virtual machine embedded in authorized players. It allows content providers to include executable programs on Blu-ray discs. Such programs can [16]: In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ...

  • examine the host environment, to see if the player has been tampered with. Every licensed playback device manufacturer must provide the BD+ licensing authority with memory footprints that identifies their devices.
  • verify that the player's keys have not been changed.
  • execute native code, possibly to patch an otherwise unsecure system.
  • transform the audio and video output. Parts of the content will not be viewable without letting the BD+-program descramble it.

If a playback device manufacturer finds that its devices have been hacked, it can potentially release BD+-code that detects and circumvents the vulnerability. These programs can then be included in all new content releases.


The specifications of the BD+ virtual machine are only available to licensed device manufacturers.


BD-ROM Mark

The BD-ROM Mark is a small amount of cryptographical data that is stored physically differently from normal Blu-ray data. Bit-by-bit copies that don't replicate the BD-ROM Mark are impossible to decode. A specially licensed piece of hardware is required to insert the ROM-mark into the media during replication. Through licensing of the special hardware element, the BDA believes that it can eliminate the possibility of mass producing BD-ROMs without authorization.


Mandatory Managed Copy

Blu-ray Disc also mandates a Mandatory Managed Copy system, which allows users to copy content a limited number of times, but requiring registration with the content provider to acquire the keys needed; this feature was originally requested by HP.[17] The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ...


AnyDVD HD

SlySoft have released AnyDVD HD which allows users to watch Blu-ray Disc movies on non-HDCP compliant PC hardware. The movies can be decrypted on the fly direct from the Blu-ray Disc or can be copied to harddisk. AnyDVD HD is also capable of automatically removing any unwanted logos and trailers. They have stated that AnyDVD HD uses several different mechanisms to disable the encryption, and is not dependent on the use of a single compromised encryption key.[citation needed] They have also stated that AACS has even more flaws in its implementation than CSS,[citation needed] rendering it highly vulnerable, but they will release no details for obvious reasons. SlySoft Inc. ... AnyDVD is a Windows driver that decrypts and removes protection from DVDs on-the-fly. ... Content Scramble System (CSS) is a Digital Rights Management (DRM) scheme used on some DVDs. ...


Applications

Compatibility

While it is not compulsory for manufacturers, the Blu-ray Disc Association recommends that Blu-ray Disc drives should be capable of reading standard DVDs for backward compatibility. For instance, Samsung's first Blu-ray Disc drive can read CDs, regular DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs. All other Blu-ray Disc players released support DVD playback as well, however not all support CD playback. This includes Sony, Panasonic, Philips, LG, Pioneer and PC-based players from Alienware, Sony, and Dell. LG has also produced a player that is capable of playing both Blu-ray and HD DVD formats. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... GoldStar logo, prominently used before the introduction of the LG logo LG Group is a large South Korean chaebol (conglomerate), which produces electronics (including domotics), mobile phones, and petrochemical products and operates subsidiaries like LG Electronics. ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ... Alienware is an American computer hardware company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dell Computer Corporation. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Dell Inc. ...


Stand-alone players

VidaBox MAX Dual Blu-ray Disc+HD DVD System

The home video game console system PlayStation 3 (Sony) is shipped with a 2x Blu-ray Disc drive. The drive is read-only as is the case with most game console optical drives. According to Sony's press releases, it supports DVD (8x), CD (24x), and SACD (2x) formats in addition to BD-ROM, BD-R, and BD-RE. Full HD 1080/60p and 24p True Cinema Video Output. AVCHD Media playback with x.v.Color output. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[7] commonly abbreviated PS3) is Sony Computer Entertainments third video game console. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Image File history File links Vidabox_max. ... Image File history File links Vidabox_max. ... VidaBox logo VidaBox is a brand name of media center systems. ... PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[7] commonly abbreviated PS3) is Sony Computer Entertainments third video game console. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... In video technology, 24p refers to a video format that operates at a true 24 frames per second (or 23. ... AVCHD (Advanced Video Codec High Definition) is a new high definition recording format introduced by Sony and Panasonic. ...


On January 4, 2006, at the Consumer Electronics Show Philips announced their first Blu-ray Disc consumer product to the U.S. market. January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On April 13, 2006, Panasonic announced its first Blu-ray Disc player for the U.S. market, the DMP-BD10 would be shipping together in late 2006 along with their first commercially available plasma 1080p HDTVs.[18] April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


On October 18, 2006, VidaBox announced the first Dual HD player / media center capable of playing back both Blu-ray Disc (BD) & HD DVD formats. The VidaBox MAX and VidaBox LUX can have both drives upgraded to play both high-definition formats up to their native 1080p resolutions at 24-bit color.[19] October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... VidaBox logo VidaBox is a brand name of media center systems. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data...


On December 4, 2006, Sony launched their first standalone Blu-ray Disc player, the BDP-S1, to the U.S. market for $1000 USD. December 4th redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


In December of 2006, Dell introduced its XPS M1710 laptop with a BD-ROM player and burner at a base price of US$3,599. For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Dell Inc. ...


On January 8, 2007 Samsung announced their second generation Blu-ray player BD-P1200. It retails for $799. January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


On February 26, 2007 Sony announced their second generation Blu-ray player BDP-S300 for the U.S. market. Full HD 1080/60p and 24p True Cinema Video Output. AVCHD Media playback with x.v.Color output. The player has all the features of the BDP-S1 along with CD playback in a smaller chassis for $499 USD. The player is now available. [20] February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... In video technology, 24p refers to a video format that operates at a true 24 frames per second (or 23. ... AVCHD (Advanced Video Codec High Definition) is a new high definition recording format introduced by Sony and Panasonic. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


Recordable stand-alone players

The first Blu-ray Disc recorder was demonstrated by Sony on March 3, 2003, and was introduced to the Japanese market in April that year. On September 1, 2003, JVC announced Blu-ray Disc-based products at IFA in Berlin, Germany. A technology demo is a prototype, rough example or an otherwise incomplete version of a product, put together with the primary purpose of showcasing the idea, performance, method or the features of the product. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... IFA may refer to: Ifá, a system of divination that originated in West Africa Independent Financial Adviser, an UK Financial Services professional India Foundation for the Arts, a philanthropic grant-giving organisation Indian Football Association, the organisation that administers association football in the state of West Bengal, India Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ...


In June 2004 Panasonic became the second manufacturer to launch a Blu-ray Disc recorder to the Japanese market. Launching in July the DMR-E700BD was one of the first few units to support writing to existing DVD formats, and to single-side dual-layer Blu-ray Discs with a maximum capacity of 50 gigabytes. The launch price of the recorder was $2,780 USD, with 50 GB disc costing around $69 USD and the 25 GB disc costing around $32 USD.[21][22] Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


On September 13, 2006, Panasonic announced a Blu-ray Disc (BD) recorder capable of playing back BDs. The Blu-ray Disc DIGA DMR-BW200 and DMR-BR100 can record high-definition imagery on BD-RE rewritable discs and dub from the built-in hard-disk drive.[23] September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Universal players (Blu-ray and HD DVD)

On January 7, 2007 LG Electronics announced the release of the BH-100, the first player to market that was able to play movies from both high definition formats. It is not able to utilize the interactive menus and features (HDi) of the HD DVD format.[24] January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


On April 13, 2007 Samsung announced their first generation Universal Combo player BD-UP5000. This is the first player announced that supports the full specs of both the Blu-ray and HD DVD formats including all interactive features of both formats.[25] April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


PC Drives

On May 2, 2007 Pioneer announced its BDC-2202 blu-ray computer drive. It will be able to play back blu-ray movies, as well as BD-ROM/BD-R/BD-RE at up to 5X and can read BD-ROM (DL) and BD-R/-RE (DL) at up to 2X speed. It does not have the ability to write Blu-ray discs but does have the ability to record to DVD and CD media. The drive will be available in June at a retail price of $299.[26] May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Recordable PC drives

Main article: Blu-ray Disc recordable

Originally, Blu-ray Disc drives in production could only transfer approximately 4.5 MB/s (megaB/s, equivalent to 36 Mbit/s) (54 Mbit/s required for BD-ROM), but 2x speed drives with a 9 MB/s (72 Mbit/s) transfer rate are now available. Rates of 8x (36 MB/s or 288 Mbit/s) or more are planned for the future. Initially, devices used Parallel ATA but newer ones more commonly use Serial ATA. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A megabit per second (Mbps or Mbit/s or Mb/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,024 kilobits per second or 1048576 bits per second. ... ATA cables: 40 wire ribbon cable top, 80 wire ribbon cable bottom Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA), is a standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The first mass-market internal Blu-ray rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006. It records both single and dual layer BD-R, as well as BD-RE discs. This item had a suggested retail price of $699.[27] As of 2007 several other models by companies such as LiteOn, LG and Pioneer have also been released, including a dual layer device and 4x BD-R writing, and devices capable of working with ordinary DVD and CD as well as Blu-ray. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... LiteOn are a popular manufacturer of DVD and CD writers. ... LG can refer to a number of things: LG Group, a South Korean electronics and petrochemicals conglomerate. ... Look up Pioneer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Corporate support

Main article: List of corporations supporting Blu-ray

Blu-ray Disc has gained a large amount of support in the corporate world,[28] with companies such as Apple Inc., Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and Panasonic supporting it. Blu-ray Disc was first developed[29] by Sony Corporation in 2002 as a next generation data and video storage format alternative to DVD. A Blu-ray Disc is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... Apple Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Dell Inc. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Sony Corporation (Japanese katakana: ソニー) (TYO: 6758), (NYSE: SNE) is a global consumer electronics corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


In a recent interview with GameSpot, when quizzed on the new LG HD DVD/Blu-ray combo players, Sir Howard Stringer, CEO of Sony, had this to say: "It's an expensive way of showing Universal discs. The three biggest box-office winners of this year were, in order: Sony, Disney, and Fox. Those are the three Blu-ray players. When you consider that those three successful studios will be delivering last year's successful box office in home video this year, then that's an enormous advantage. The fourth is Warner, and they release in both formats, so it doesn't hurt. If you are going to be buying discs, you are going to be buying an awful lot of Blu-ray discs going forward—if you want Pirates of the Caribbean or James Bond or Da Vinci Code or Spider-Man. Universal is the only one with HD DVD. I don't feel terribly intimidated." GameSpot is a video gaming website that provides news, reviews, previews, downloads, and other information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Howard Stringer. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ...


Beginning July 2007, Blockbuster Video will be carrying Blu-ray Disc as its dominant high definition alternative to DVD movies in their stores. Online they will still be offering both formats.[30] Blockbuster will continue to offer both formats at its initial 250 stores that currently carry both high-definition formats.[31] Blockbuster video store This article is about the chain of video stores. ...


Blu-ray Disc / HD DVD comparison

The primary rival to Blu-ray Disc is HD DVD, championed by Toshiba, NEC Corporation, Microsoft, and Intel. HD DVD has a lower disc capacity per layer (15 GB vs 25 GB). However the vast majority of Blu-ray titles released before 2007 are in the 25 GB single layer format while almost all HD DVD movies are in the 30 GB dual layer format. [32] The first 50 GB release for Blu-Ray was not made until October 2006. The Blu-ray Disc version of the Adam Sandler movie Click was released on October 10, 2006 as the first ever dual-layer release. So far in 2007 approx 42% of the new releases for Blu-ray movies were released in 25 GB Discs with the other 58% being released in 50 GB dual layer format.[33] In 2006, the release of two next-generation optical disc formats attempted to improve upon and eventually replace the DVD standard. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a multinational high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Adam Richard Sandler (born September 9, 1966) is an American comedian, screenwriter, director, producer, actor, and musician. ... Click is a 2006 Academy Award-nominated comedy/drama/fantasy film directed by Frank Coraci. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In terms of audio/video compression, Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD are similar on the surface: both support MPEG-2, VC-1, and H.264 for video compression, and Dolby Digital (AC-3), PCM, and DTS for audio compression. The first generation of Blu-ray Disc movies released used MPEG-2 (the standard currently used in DVDs, although encoded at a much higher video resolution and a much higher bit rate than those used on conventional DVDs), while initial HD DVDs releases used the VC-1 codec. Due to greater total disc capacity, the Blu-ray Disc producers may choose in the future to utilize a higher maximum video bit rate, as well as potentially higher average bit rates. In terms of audio, there are some differences. Blu-ray Disc allows conventional AC-3 audiotracks at 640 kbit/s, which is higher than HD DVD's maximum of 504 kbit/s. Nevertheless, Dolby Digital Plus support is mandatory for standalone HD DVD players at a maximum of 3 Mbit/s, while optional for BD players with support at a bitrate of 1.736 Mbit/s.[34] Blu-ray also supports Dolby TrueHD, lossless encoding of up to 8 channels of audio, DTS-HD High Resolution Audio and DTS-HD Master Audio, a lossless encoding of up to 8 channels of audio.[35] DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ...


Both HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc support the 24p (traditional movie) frame rate, but technical implementations of this mode are different between the formats. Blu-ray Disc supports 24p with its native timing, while HD DVD uses 60i timing for 24p (encoded progressively, replacing missing fields with "repeat field flags"). Decoders can ignore the “flags” to output 24p.[36] There is no impact on picture resolution or storage space as a result of this, as the HD DVD format uses the same video information—it simply adds notational overhead. In video technology, 24p refers to a video format that operates at a true 24 frames per second (or 23. ...


Currently, Blu-ray Disc is exclusively supported by Columbia Pictures and MGM which are both owned by Sony, as well as Disney, 20th century Fox and Lionsgate and Starz Home Entertainment[37] . Both Blu-ray and HD DVD are supported by Paramount Pictures, DreamWorks, Warner Bros. and New Line Cinema. HD DVD is exclusively supported by Universal Studios and The Weinstein Company. The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the major American film studios. ... Lions Gate redirects here. ... Starz Home Entertainment Logo Starz Home Entertainment (formerly Anchor Bay Entertainment) is a home video/television distribution company that was formed in 1989. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... This article is about the film studio. ... Warner Bros. ... New Line Cinema, founded in 1967, is one of the major American film studios. ... Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios), a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is one of the major American film studios that has production studios and offices located at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California, an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County between Los Angeles... The Weinstein Company is an independent American film studio founded by Harvey and Bob Weinstein in 2005 after the pair left the Disney-owned Miramax Films, which they had co-founded in 1979. ...

A Table Comparing The High Definition Optical Media Formats
DVD included for comparison

Mandatory codecs must be supported by the player. Each disc must use one or more of the mandatory codecs.
v  d  e
Blu-ray Disc HD DVD DVD
Laser wavelength 405 nm (blue-violet laser) 650 nm (red laser)
Numerical aperture 0.85 0.65 0.6
Storage
capacity
single layer 25 GB 15 GB 4.7 GB
dual layer 50 GB 30 GB 8.5 GB
Playback
time in

(note 1)
SD with MPEG-2 at 5 Mbit/s 22.2 hours 13.3 hours 3.8 hours
HD with AVC or VC-1 at 13 Mbit/s 8.5 hours 5.1 hours N/A
MPEG-2 at 20 Mbit/s 5.6 hours 3.3 hours N/A
Video codecs MPEG-4 AVC (H.264) / VC-1 / MPEG-2 MPEG-1 / MPEG-2
Audio
codecs
lossy Dolby Digital Mandatory @ 640 Kbit/s Mandatory @ 504 Kbit/s Mandatory @ 448 Kbit/s
DTS Mandatory @ 1.5 Mbit/s Mandatory @ 1.5 Mbit/s Optional @ 756 Kbit/s
Dolby Digital Plus Optional @ 1.7 Mbit/s (note 4) Mandatory @ 3.0 Mbit/s N/A
DTS-HD High Resolution Optional @ 6.0 Mbit/s Optional @ 3.0 Mbit/s N/A
lossless Linear PCM Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Dolby TrueHD Optional Mandatory (note 2) N/A
DTS-HD Master Audio Optional Optional N/A
Maximum
bitrate
Raw data transfer 53.95 Mbit/s 36.55 Mbit/s 11.08 Mbit/s
Audio+Video 48.0 Mbit/s 30.24 Mbit/s 10.08 Mbit/s
Video 40.0 Mbit/s 29.4 Mbit/s 9.8 Mbit/s
Secondary video decoder (PiP) Optional (Profile 1.1, note3) Mandatory N/A
Secondary audio decoder Optional (Profile 1.1) Mandatory N/A
Internet support Optional (Profile 2.0) Mandatory N/A
Video resolution (maximum) 1920×1080 24p or 50/60i HDTV (note 5) 720×480 60i and 720×576 50i SDTV
Content protection system AACS-128bit / BD+ AACS-128bit CSS 40-bit
Region code 3 Regions Region free 6 Regions
Hardcoating of disk Required Optional

note 1: Playback times are quoted for dual layer discs, for single layer discs divide by two. The numbers represent video only and the choice of audio codec and extra content also affects playback time.
note 2: All HD DVD players are required to be able to decode Dolby TrueHD to two channels, however all current players handle 5.1 decoding.
note 3: Secondary video decoder will become mandatory for new Blu-ray Disc players with Profile 1.1 on October 31, 2007
note 4: On Blu-ray Disc, a Dolby Digital Plus audio is stored as two separate components: the 'core' Dolby Digital bitstream at 640 Kbit/s (which is independently playable), and the 'extension' bitstream at 1 MBit/s.
note 5: Both Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD allow coded video framerates of 24p and 50i/60i. HD DVD additionally allows framerates of 25p and 30p.
HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Experiment with a laser (likely an argon type) (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand-millionth of a metre, which is the current SI base unit of length. ... Numerical aperture is a technical term of multiple uses: Numerical aperture of optical telecommunication fiber Numerical aperture in microscopy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to television systems that have a lower resolution than HDTV systems. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... This article is about high-definition video technology. ... H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10, or AVC, for Advanced Video Coding, is a digital video codec standard which is noted for achieving very high data compression. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... A video codec is a software module that offers compression for digital video. ... H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10, or AVC, for Advanced Video Coding, is a digital video codec standard which is noted for achieving very high data compression. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... An audio codec is a computer program that compresses/decompresses digital audio data according to a given audio file format or streaming audio format. ... In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... Dolby Digital Plus (DD+), also known as E-AC-3, was developed specifically for the introduction of HDTV and HD-DVD/Blu-ray discs. ... DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... Dolby TrueHD logo Dolby TrueHD, from Dolby Laboratories, is an advanced lossless multi-channel audio codec, intended primarily for high-end home-entertainment equipment, such as Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD. In this application, Dolby TrueHD competes with DTS-HD Master Audio, another lossless codec from Digital Theater System. ... DTS may stand for: Digital Theater System (a multichannel audio source for synchronized film sound) Data Transformation Services (Microsoft database tool for Extract, Transform and Load operations) Dragons Tooth Sword (a fictional weapon from the video game Deus Ex) Dallas Theological Seminary (an evangelical Christian seminary in Dallas, TX... Picture in Picture (PIP) allows you to watch more than one TV program(channel) at the same time on television sets or other devices. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... The word resolution has several meanings, depending on context. ... In video technology, 24p refers to a video format that operates at a true 24 frames per second (or 23. ... For the method of incrementally displaying raster graphics, see Interlace (bitmaps). ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... ... The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management, intended to restrict access to and copying of the next generation of optical discs and DVDs. ... BD+ is the DRM scheme embedded in every Blu-ray Disc. ... Regional lockout is the programming practice, code, chip, or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the version of the same device marketed in another country. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Other optical data storage technologies

HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... AVCHD (Advanced Video Codec High Definition) is a new high definition recording format introduced by Sony and Panasonic. ... Digital Multilayer Disk (DMD) is an optical disc format developed by D Data Inc. ... Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD), is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data. ... The Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) is an optical medium-based digital audio/video format, developed to provide a means for playing HDTV content using existing optical media. ... FVD, or Forward Versatile Disc, is an offshoot of DVD developed in Taiwan jointly by the Advanced Optical Storage Research Alliance (AOSRA) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) as a more inexpensive alternative for high-definition content. ... Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD), is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data. ... Picture of an HVD by Optware. ... Protein-Coated Disc (PCD) is a theoretical optical disc technology currently being developed by Professor V Renugopalakrishnan of Harvard Medical School. ... Info A computer disc about the size of a DVD that can hold 60 times more data will go on sale in 2006, according to its American developer InPhase Technologies, a Lucent spin off. ... Versatile Multilayer Disc (VMD) is a high-capacity red laser optical disc technology designed by New Medium Enterprises, Inc. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... PDD, ProDATA or Professional Disc for DATA is a recordable optical disc format which was introduced by Sony in 2003. ...

Released titles

Some Blu-ray Disc movie cases

The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on 20 June 2006. They included the following titles from the following companies: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 826 KB) Hinweis Die Originalversion des Bildes befindet sich auf www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 826 KB) Hinweis Die Originalversion des Bildes befindet sich auf www. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

As of June 12, 2007, 289[38] titles have been released on Blu-ray Disc in the United States. The earliest releases used MPEG-2 video compression. This is the compression method used on DVDs. The first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC codecs were introduced in September 2006.[39] The first movies using dual layer discs (50 GB) were introduced in November 2006. Since January 2007, new releases on dual layer disc have represented about half of all new releases approximately 75 titles and 2.5 mm discs.[40] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hitch is a 2005 romantic comedy film starring Will Smith, Eva Mendes, and Kevin James. ... The Fifth Element (1997) is a science fantasy, action, comedy, techno thriller film, written and directed by Luc Besson, starring Bruce Willis, Gary Oldman, Milla Jovovich, Ian Holm, and Chris Tucker. ... House of Flying Daggers (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a 2004 action/romance movie directed by Zhang Yimou. ... 50 First Dates is a 2004 romantic comedy starring Adam Sandler and Drew Barrymore and directed by Peter Segal. ... XXX (also written xXx), pronounced Triple X, is a 2002 action movie starring Vin Diesel. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... King Arthur is a film first released in the United States on June 28, 2004, dubbed as The Untold True Story That Inspired The Legend by Touchstone Pictures. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ...


See also

HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... The Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) is an optical medium-based digital audio/video format, developed to provide a means for playing HDTV content using existing optical media. ... FVD, or Forward Versatile Disc, is an offshoot of DVD developed in Taiwan jointly by the Advanced Optical Storage Research Alliance (AOSRA) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) as a more inexpensive alternative for high-definition content. ... The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) is responsible for establishing format standards and promoting and further developing business opportunities for Blu-ray Disc. ... A format war describes competition between competing, and typically mutually incompatible, electronic media formats, usually very costly to the format-owning parties involved. ... Picture of an HVD by Optware. ... PDD, ProDATA or Professional Disc for DATA is a recordable optical disc format which was introduced by Sony in 2003. ... Protein-Coated Disc (PCD) is a theoretical optical disc technology currently being developed by Professor V Renugopalakrishnan of Harvard Medical School. ... Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD), is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In 2006, the release of two next-generation optical disc formats attempted to improve upon and eventually replace the DVD standard. ...

Royalties

As of 03/07 patent royalties are under negotiation and have not been determined.


Alternative disc technologies

HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... The Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) is an optical medium-based digital audio/video format, developed to provide a means for playing HDTV content using existing optical media. ... FVD, or Forward Versatile Disc, is an offshoot of DVD developed in Taiwan jointly by the Advanced Optical Storage Research Alliance (AOSRA) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) as a more inexpensive alternative for high-definition content. ... PDD, ProDATA or Professional Disc for DATA is a recordable optical disc format which was introduced by Sony in 2003. ... Versatile Multilayer Disc (VMD) is a high-capacity red laser optical disc technology designed by New Medium Enterprises, Inc. ... Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD), is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data. ... Digital Multilayer Disk (DMD) is an optical disc format developed by D Data Inc. ... Picture of an HVD by Optware. ... Info A computer disc about the size of a DVD that can hold 60 times more data will go on sale in 2006, according to its American developer InPhase Technologies, a Lucent spin off. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... AVCHD (Advanced Video Codec High Definition) is a new high definition recording format introduced by Sony and Panasonic. ...

References

  1. ^ Blockbuster to Expand Blu-Ray to 1,700 Stores,Blockbuster Inc. Press Releases 2007-06-18.
  2. ^ Profile 1.1 delay.
  3. ^ TDK ANNOUNCES BLUE LASER DISC TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT 200 GB CAPACITY (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  4. ^ Yam, Marcus (2007-01-10). Three HD Layers Today, Ten Tomorrow (English). DailyTech. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  5. ^ Blu-ray/ DVD Combo ROM Disc Technology (2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-30.
  6. ^ TOPPAN and Sony Successfully Develop 25GB Paper Disc (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  7. ^ Sony Develops Paper-Based Disc Blu-ray Disc (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  8. ^ Dolby Audio Coding for Future Entertainment Formats If Dolby Digital Plus is used, it must be accompanied by an AC-3 soundtrack (which provides the "core" bitstream.) (PDF)
  9. ^ (March 2005). "White Paper Blu-ray Disc Format". Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  10. ^ Blu-ray FAQ
  11. ^ 日本ではHDアナログ出力制限が無効に――AACSのコンテンツ運用規定が決定 (Japanese) (2005). Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
  12. ^ The Authoritative Blu-ray Disc (BD) FAQ: What is Regional Playback Control? (2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
  13. ^ Blu-ray Disc for Video (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  14. ^ Blu-ray Disc™ Next-Generation Optical Storage: Protecting Content on the BD-ROM. DELL. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  15. ^ AJIMA, Kosuke (2006-03-29). Overview of BD-ROM security. Blu-ray Disc Association Content Protection Group. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  16. ^ Blu-ray Disc™ Next-Generation Optical Storage: Protecting Content on the BD-ROM. DELL. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  17. ^ HP to Support HD-DVD High-definition DVD Format and Join HD-DVD Promotions Group (2006-02-05). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  18. ^ Panasonic DMP-BD10 Blu-ray Disc Player (2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  19. ^ VidaBox Introduces World’s First Dual HD-DVD & Blu-Ray Player / Media Center (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  20. ^ Sony price cut for Blu-ray player
  21. ^ Matsushita unveils DVD recorder adopting Blu-ray Disc format+ (2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  22. ^ Panasonic Unveils Blu-ray Recorder (2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  23. ^ Panasonic will Launch a Blu-ray Disc Recorders with BD Playback (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-13.
  24. ^ LG BH100 Combo Drive (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  25. ^ Samsung BD-UP5000 Combo Drive (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  26. ^ Pioneer BDC-2202 Blu-ray Drive - Press release (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  27. ^ Sony BWU-100A rewritable drive (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  28. ^ http://www.blu-raydisc.com/general_information/Section-14009/Index.html
  29. ^ Sony Corporation - Product & Technology Milestones-Recording Media (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  30. ^ Blockbuster to favor Blu-ray high-definition discs over rival HD DVD format (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  31. ^ Blockbuster to Expand Blu-Ray to 1,700 Stores (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  32. ^ Frequently updated list of historical release dates and disc capacities, HD DVD NEWS, High-Def Digest, 15 April 2007
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Dolby Digital plus True HD whitepaper at www.dolby.com
  35. ^ [http://www.blu-ray.com/faq/#bluray_audio_codecs Blu-Ray FAQs at blu-ray.com
  36. ^ High Definition Facts. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  37. ^ Starz to go Blu,HomeMediaMagazine.com,2007-06-19
  38. ^ Total available United States releases.
  39. ^ Full Specs in for Warner's Sept 26 Lineup; Studio to Go VC-1 for Blu-ray?, BLU-RAY NEWS, High-Def Digest, 30 August 2006
  40. ^ Frequently updated list of hostorical release dates and disc capacities, BLU-RAY NEWS, High-Def Digest, 3 April 2007

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dell Inc. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dell Inc. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

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