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Encyclopedia > Blood vessel

f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. The most important types, arteries and veins, carry blood away from or towards the heart, respectively. Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

Contents

Anatomy

All blood vessels have the same basic structure. The inner lining is the endothelium and is surrounded by subendthelial connective tissue. Around this there is a layer of vascular smooth muscle, which is highly developed in arteries. Finally, there is a further layer of connective tissue known as the adventitia, which contains nerves that supply the muscular layer, as well as nutrient capillaries in the larger blood vessels. The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ...


Capillaries consist of little more than a layer of endothelium and occasional connective tissue. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


When blood vessels connect to form a region of diffuse vascular supply it is called an anastamosis (pl. anastomoses). Anastomoses provide critical alternative routes for blood to flow in case of blockages. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Laid end to end, the blood vessels in an average human body will stretch approximately 62,000 miles. 2.5 times around the earth


Types

There are various kinds of blood vessels:

They are roughly grouped as arterial and venous, determined by whether the blood in it is flowing toward or away from the heart. The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous blood" and blood flowing in the pulmonary vein is rich in oxygen. Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The aorta (generally pronounced or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ... The subclavian artery is a major artery of the upper thorax that mainly supplies blood to the head and arms. ... The celiac trunk is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta. ... Mesenteric arteries can refer to: Superior mesenteric artery Inferior mesenteric artery This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The renal arteries normally arise off the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. ... In human anatomy, iliac artery refers to several anatomical structures located in the pelvis: Common iliac artery - forms at terminus of the aorta. ... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ... The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... In human anatomy, iliac vein refers to several anatomical structures located in the pelvis: External iliac vein - terminates at the common iliac vein, drains the femoral vein. ... The superior and inferior venae cavae are the veins that return de-oxygenated blood from the body into the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ...


Physiology

Blood vessels do not actively engage in the transport of blood (they have no appreciable peristalsis), but arteries - and veins to a degree - can regulate their inner diameter by contraction of the muscular layer.This changes the blood flow to downstream organs, and is determined by the autonomic nervous system. Vasodilation and vasoconstriction are also used antagonistically as methods of thermoregulation. In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells) is the most critical nutrient carried by the blood. In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from the pulmonary vein, the hemoglobin is desaturated at about 70%. (The values are reversed in the pulmonary circulation.) General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ...


The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in millimetres of mercury (1 mmHg = 133 Pa). In the arterial system, this is usually around 120 mmHg systolic (high pressure wave due to contraction of the heart) and 80 mmHg diastolic (low pressure wave). In contrast, pressures in the venous system are constant and rarely exceed 10 mmHg. A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... For the standard botanical author abbreviation Torr. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure or stress (also: Youngs modulus and tensile strength). ... Systolic is the adjective form of systole, typically referring to the contraction activity of the heart. ... Diastolic is the adjective form of diastole referring to relaxation of the heart, between muscle contractions. ...


Vasoconstriction is the constriction of blood vessels (narrowing, becoming smaller in cross-sectional area) by contracting the vascular smooth muscle in the vessel walls. It is regulated by vasoconstrictors (agents that cause vasoconstriction). These include paracrine factors (e.g. prostaglandins), a number of hormones (e.g. vasopressin and angiotensin) and neurotransmitters (e.g. epinephrine) from the nervous system. The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. ... Vasoconstriction is the constriction of blood vessels, in other words, when the lumen narrows. ... Paracrine signalling is a form of signalling in which the target cell is close to the signal releasing cell, and the signal chemical is broken down too quickly to be carried to other parts of the body. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ...


Vasodilation is a similar process mediated by antagonistically acting mediators. The most prominent vasodilator is nitric oxide (termed endothelium-derived relaxing factor for this reason). The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was the tentative name of what was later discovered to be nitric oxide (NO). ...


Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue. It is also increased in inflammation in response to histamine, prostaglandins and interleukins, which leads to most of the symptoms of inflammation (swelling, redness and warmth). The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily...


Capillaries, veins, and arteries are the 3 blood vessels that help with blood pressure. Obviously the veins bring the blood back to the heart but with out these 3 blood vessels you would be no where.


Role in disease

Blood vessels play a role in virtually every medical condition. Cancer, for example, cannot progress unless the tumor causes angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) to supply the malignant cells' metabolic demand. Atherosclerosis, the formation of lipid lumps (atheromas) in the blood vessel wall, is the prime cause of cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in the Western world. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... In pathology, an atheroma (plural: atheromata) is an unhealthy (though typical for most humans) accumulation and swelling (-oma) with cells, or cell debris, which contain lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium mineral and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue within the walls of arteries. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to haemorrhage. In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel (e.g. by a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body) leads to downstream ischemia (insufficient blood supply) and necrosis (tissue breakdown). An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ... In medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... A thrombus is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Death) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Vasculitis is inflammation of the vessel wall, due to autoimmune disease or infection. In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Studies have shown that dark chocolate has been known to improve the blood vessels' functions. [1] Chocolate block in melted chocolate Chocolate is a common ingredient in many kinds of sweets—one of the most popular in the world. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Blood Vessel Disorders - Overview, FAQs - dermatologychannel (771 words)
The blood supply in the skin (cutaneous blood supply) is delivered by an interconnecting network of small arteries (arterioles), veins (venules), and tiny vessels called capillaries that connect the arterioles to the venules.
In the embryo, certain cells are responsible for stimulating blood vessel development.
These are tiny dilated blood vessels found in the skin's surface layer.
Blood vessel Summary (1458 words)
The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous blood" and blood flowing in the pulmonary vein is rich in oxygen.
Blood vessels do not actively engage in the transport of the blood (they have no appreciable peristalsis), but arteries - and veins to a degree - can regulate their caliber by contraction of the muscular layer.
Atherosclerosis, the formation of lipid lumps (atheromas) in the blood vessel wall, is the prime cause of cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in the Western world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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