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Encyclopedia > Blood type
Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells.
Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells.

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system, and some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens, that stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively form a blood group system.[1] Animals and bacteria have cell surface antigens referred to as a blood type. ... Image File history File links ABO_blood_type. ... Image File history File links ABO_blood_type. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...


Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 29 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] Biological inheritance is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ...


Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a different blood type from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn, an illness of low fetal blood counts which can be temporary or treatable, but can occasionally be severe. This article is about pregnancy in female humans. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Molecular surface of an IgG molecule Immunoglobulin G(IgG) is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains γ and two light chains. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ...

Contents

Serology

If an individual is exposed to a blood group antigen that is not recognised as self, the immune system will produce antibodies that can specifically bind to that particular blood group antigen, and an immunological memory against that antigen is formed. The individual will have become sensitized to that blood group antigen. These antibodies can bind to antigens on the surface of transfused red blood cells (or other tissue cells), often leading to destruction of the cells by recruitment of other components of the immune system. When IgM antibodies bind to the transfused cells, the transfused cells can clump. It is vital that compatible blood is selected for transfusions and that compatible tissue is selected for organ transplantation. Transfusion reactions involving minor antigens or weak antibodies may lead to minor problems. However, more serious incompatibilities can lead to a more vigorous immune response with massive RBC destruction, low blood pressure, and even death. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... IgM (Immunglobulin M) antibody molecule consisting of 5 base units. ... Transplant redirects here. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


ABO and Rh blood grouping

Anti-A and Anti-B, the common IgM antibodies to the RBC surface antigens of the ABO blood group system are sometimes described as being "naturally occurring", however, this is a misnomer, because these antibodies are formed in infancy by sensitisation in the same way as other antibodies. The theory that explains how these antibodies are developed states that antigens similar to the A and B antigens occur in nature, including in food, plants and bacteria. After birth an infant gut becomes colonized with normal flora which express these A-like and B-like antigens, causing the immune system to make antibodies to those antigens that the red cells do not possess. So, people who are blood type A will have Anti-B, blood type B will have Anti-A, blood type O will have both Anti-A and Anti-B, and blood type AB will have neither. Because of these so called "naturally occurring" and expected antibodies, it is important to correctly determine a patient's blood type prior to transfusion of any blood component. These naturally occurring antibodies are of the IgM class, which have the capability of agglutinating (clumping) and damaging red cells within the blood vessels, possibly leading to death. It is not necessary to determine any other blood groups because almost all other red cell antibodies can only develop through active immunization, which can only occur through either previous blood transfusion or pregnancy. A test called the Antibody Screen is always performed on patients who may require red blood cell transfusion, and this test will detect most clinically significant red cell antibodies. ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ...


The RhD antigen is also important in determining a person's blood type. The terms "positive" or "negative" refer to either the presence or absence of the RhD antigen irrespective of the presence or absence of the other antigens of the Rhesus system. Anti-RhD is not usually a naturally occurring antibody as the Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies are. Cross-matching for the RhD antigen is extremely important, because the RhD antigen is immunogenic, meaning that a person who is RhD negative is very likely to make Anti-RhD when exposed to the RhD antigen (perhaps through either transfusion or pregnancy). Once an individual is sensitised to RhD antigens their blood will contain RhD IgG antibodies which can bind to RhD positive RBCs and may cross the placenta.


Blood group systems

A total of 29 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] A complete blood type would describe a full set of 29 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of the many possible combinations of blood group antigens. Across the 29 blood groups, over 600 different blood group antigens have been found,[3] but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ...


Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life; but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy or autoimmune disease.[4][5][6][7] An example of this rare phenomenon is the case Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver transplant.[8][9] Another more common cause in blood type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives a bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (ex. a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Transplant redirects here. ...


Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome.[10] Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.[11] The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.[12] McLeod syndrome (or McLeod phenomenon) is a genetic disorder caused by presence of the McLeod phenotype, a recessive anomaly on the X chromosome which alters production of XK protein (a precursor of Kell antigens on the surface of red blood cells). ... Discovery In 1950 the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply transfused hemophiliac in whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


ABO blood group system

ABO blood group system - diagram showing the carbohydrate chains which determine the ABO blood group
ABO blood group system - diagram showing the carbohydrate chains which determine the ABO blood group

The ABO system is the most important blood group system in human blood transfusion. The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually "Immunoglobulin M", abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses. The "O" in ABO is often called "0" (zero/null) in other languages.[13] Image File history File links ABO_blood_group_diagram. ... Image File history File links ABO_blood_group_diagram. ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... IgM (Immunglobulin M) antibody molecule consisting of 5 base units. ... IGM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: The polymeric immunoglobulin, IgM International Grandmaster, a chess ranking intergalactic medium Intragroup medium - see: Intracluster medium IG Metall - the dominant German metalworkers union IGM is an acronym created by Robinson Technologies for several early BBS door games, including Legend of the Red... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...

Phenotype Genotype
A AA or AO
B BB or BO
AB AB
O OO

Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Rhesus blood group system

The Rhesus system is the second most significant blood group system in human blood transfusion. The most significant Rhesus antigen is the RhD antigen because it is the most immunogenic of the five main rhesus antigens. It is common for RhD negative individuals not to have any anti-RhD IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-RhD antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. However, RhD negative individuals can produce IgG anti-RhD antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with RhD positive RBCs. The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...


ABO and Rh distribution by country

ABO and Rh blood type distribution by nation (population averages)
Country O+ A+ B+ AB+  O−  A−  B− AB−
Austria[14] 30% 33% 12% 6% 7% 8% 3% 1%
Australia[15] 40% 31% 8% 2% 9% 7% 2% 1%
Belgium[16] 38.1% 34% 8.5% 4.1% 7% 6% 1.5% 0.8%
Canada[17] 39% 36% 7.6% 2.5% 7% 6% 1.4% 0.5%
Denmark[18] 35% 37% 8% 4% 6% 7% 2% 1%
Finland[19] 27% 38% 15% 7% 4% 6% 2% 1%
France[20] 36% 37% 9% 3% 6% 7% 1% 1%
Germany[21] 35% 37% 9% 4% 6% 6% 2% 1%
Hong Kong, China[22] 40% 26% 27% 7% <0.3% <0.3% <0.3% <0.3%
Ireland[23] 47% 26% 9% 2% 8% 5% 2% 1%
Korea, South[24] 27.2% 35.1% 26.1% 11.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.05%
Netherlands[25] 39.5% 35% 6.7% 2.5% 7.5% 7% 1.3% 0.5%
New Zealand[26] 38% 32% 9% 3% 9% 6% 2% 1%
Poland[27] 31% 32% 15% 7% 6% 6% 2% 1%
Sweden[28] 32% 37% 10% 5% 6% 7% 2% 1%
Turkey[29] 29.8% 37.8% 14.2% 7.2% 3.9% 4.7% 1.6% 0.8%
UK[30] 37% 35% 8% 3% 7% 7% 2% 1%
USA[31] 37.4% 35.7% 8.5% 3.4% 6.6% 6.3% 1.5% 0.6%

Other blood group systems

The International Society of Blood Transfusion currently recognizes 29 blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems).[2] Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rhesus antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the RBC surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB RhD positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system), Lea or Leb negative (Lewis system), and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. ...


Clinical significance

Blood transfusion

Main article: Blood transfusion

Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products. Across the world, blood products must be prescribed by a medical doctor (licensed physician or surgeon) in a similar way as medicines. In the USA, blood products are tightly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... This article is about the medical specialty. ... FDA redirects here. ...


Much of the routine work of a blood bank involves testing blood from both donors and recipients to ensure that every individual recipient is given blood that is compatible and is as safe as possible. If a unit of incompatible blood is transfused between a donor and recipient, a severe acute immunological reaction, hemolysis (RBC destruction), renal failure and shock are likely to occur, and death is a possibility. Antibodies can be highly active and can attack RBCs and bind components of the complement system to cause massive hemolysis of the transfused blood. A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Give blood redirects here. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ...


Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion reaction. Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency. Cross-matching involves mixing a sample of the recipient's blood with a sample of the donor's blood and checking if the mixture agglutinates, or forms clumps. If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. If agglutination occurs, that particular donor's blood cannot be transfused to that particular recipient. In a blood bank it is vital that all blood specimens are correctly identified, so labeling has been standardized using a barcode system known as ISBT 128. Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... Agglutination is the clumping of particles. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ... ISBT 128 is system for identification, labeling and processing of human blood, tissue and organ products using an internationally standardised barcode system. ...


The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion. Frontline German Waffen-SS had such tattoos during World War II. Ironically, this was an easy form of SS identification.[32] For the tag worn by dogs, see dog tag. ... -1... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... SS redirects here. ...


Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals. For example Duffy-negative blood occurs much more frequently in people of African origin,[33] and the rarity of this blood type in the rest of the population can result in a shortage of Duffy-negative blood for patients of African ethnicity. Similarly for RhD negative people, there is a risk associated with travelling to parts of the world where supplies of RhD negative blood are rare, particularly East Asia, where blood services may endeavor to encourage Westerners to donate blood.[34] A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Discovery In 1950 the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply transfused hemophiliac in whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya. ... This article is about the geographical region. ...


Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

A pregnant woman can make IgG blood group antibodies if her fetus has a blood group antigen that she does not have. This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation (e.g. a small fetomaternal hemorrhage at the time of childbirth or obstetric intervention), or sometimes after a therapeutic blood transfusion. This can cause Rh disease or other forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the current pregnancy and/or subsequent pregnancies. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti-RhD antibodies, the RhD blood type of a fetus can be tested by analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to assess the risk to the fetus of Rh disease.[35] One of the major advances of twentieth century medicine was to prevent this disease by stopping the formation of Anti-RhD antibodies by RhD negative mothers with an injectable medication called Rho(D) immune globulin.[36][37] Antibodies associated with some blood groups can cause severe HDN, others can only cause mild HDN and others are not known to cause HDN. Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Rh disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Rho(D) Immune Globulin is a drug introduced under the tradename RhoGAM and MICRhoGAM which is used to prevent maternal sensitization to Rh D antigens on the surface of blood cells in a fetus (i. ...


Compatibility

Blood products

In order to provide maximum benefit from each blood donation and to extend shelf-life, blood banks fractionate some whole blood into several products. The most common of these products are packed RBCs, plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). FFP is quick-frozen to retain the labile clotting factors V and VIII, which are usually administered to patients who have a potentially fatal clotting problem caused by a condition such as advanced liver disease, overdose of anticoagulant, or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture of compounds by their boiling point, by heating to high enough temperatures. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. ... Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. ...


Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units.


Clotting factors synthesized by modern recombinant methods are now in routine clinical use for hemophilia, as the risks of infection transmission that occur with pooled blood products are avoided. Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... GloFish are a type of zebrafish with recombinant DNA. Genes for fluorescent proteins have been inserted into their genome to produce their fluorescent colors. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ...


Red blood cell compatibility

  • Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but can donate blood only to another group AB individual.
  • Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
  • Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
  • Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (ie A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a blood transfusion in a dire emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued.
RBC Compatibility chartIn addition to donating to the same blood group; type O blood donors can give to A, B and AB; blood donors of types A and B can give to AB.
RBC Compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; type O blood donors can give to A, B and AB; blood donors of types A and B can give to AB.
Red blood cell compatibility table[38][39]
Recipient[1] Donor[1]
O− O+ A− A+ B− B+ AB− AB+
O− Check markY
O+ Check markY Check markY
A− Check markY Check markY
A+ Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
B− Check markY Check markY
B+ Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
AB− Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
AB+ Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY

Table note
1. Assumes absence of atypical antibodies that would cause an incompatibility between donor and recipient blood, as is usual for blood selected by cross matching.
Blood plasma is a component of blood. ... IGM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: The polymeric immunoglobulin, IgM International Grandmaster, a chess ranking intergalactic medium Intragroup medium - see: Intracluster medium IG Metall - the dominant German metalworkers union IGM is an acronym created by Robinson Technologies for several early BBS door games, including Legend of the Red... Image File history File links Blood_Compatibility. ... Image File history File links Blood_Compatibility. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ...


A RhD negative patient who does not have any anti-RhD antibodies (never being previously sensitized to RhD positive RBCs) can receive a transfusion of RhD positive blood once, but this would cause sensitization to the RhD antigen, and a female patient would become at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn. If a RhD negative patient has developed anti-RhD antibodies, a subsequent exposure to RhD positive blood would lead to a potentially dangerous transfusion reaction. RhD positive blood should never be given to RhD negative women of childbearing age or to patients with RhD antibodies, so blood banks must conserve Rhesus negative blood for these patients. In extreme circumstances, such as for a major bleed when stocks of RhD negative blood units are very low at the blood bank, RhD positive blood might be given to RhD negative females above child-bearing age or to Rh negative males, providing that they did not have anti-RhD antibodies, to conserve RhD negative blood stock in the blood bank. The converse is not true; RhD positive patients do not react to RhD negative blood. Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ...


Plasma compatibility

Plasma compatibility chartIn addition to donating to the same blood group; plasma from type AB can be given to A, B and O; plasma from types A and B can be given to O.
Plasma compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; plasma from type AB can be given to A, B and O; plasma from types A and B can be given to O.

Recipients can receive plasma of the same blood group, but otherwise the donor-recipient compatibility for blood plasma is the converse of that of RBCs: plasma extracted from type AB blood can be transfused to individuals of any blood group; individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group; and type O plasma can be used only by type O recipients. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (566x873, 65 KB)[edit] Summary Modified from Image:Tearshape. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (566x873, 65 KB)[edit] Summary Modified from Image:Tearshape. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...

Plasma compatibility table
Recipient Donor[1]
O A B AB
O Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
A Check markY Check markY
B Check markY Check markY
AB Check markY

Table note
1. Assumes absence of strong atypical antibodies in donor plasma
Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ...


Rhesus D antibodies are uncommon, so generally neither RhD negative nor RhD positive blood contain anti-RhD antibodies. If a potential donor is found to have anti-RhD antibodies or any strong atypical blood group antibody by antibody screening in the blood bank, they would not be accepted as a donor (or in some blood banks the blood would be drawn the product would be appropriately labeled); therefore, donor blood plasma issued by a blood bank can be selected to be free of RhD antibodies and free of other atypical antibodies, and such donor plasma issued from a blood bank would be suitable for a recipient who may be RhD positive or RhD negative, as long as blood plasma and the recipient are ABO compatible.


Universal donors and universal recipients

With regard to transfusions of whole blood or packed red blood cells, individuals with type O negative blood are often called universal donors, and those with type AB positive blood are called universal recipients (Strictly speaking this is not true and individuals with Hh antigen system (also known as the Bombay blood group) are the universal donors[citation needed]). Although blood donors with particularly strong anti-A, anti-B or any atypical blood group antibody are excluded from blood donation, the terms universal donor and universal recipient are an over-simplification, because they only consider possible reactions of the recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies to transfused red blood cells, and also possible sensitization to RhD antigens. The possible reactions of anti-A and anti-B antibodies present in the transfused blood to the recipients RBCs are not considered, because a relatively small volume of plasma containing antibodies is transfused. Hh antigen system - diagram showing the molecular structure of the ABO(H) antigen system Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen which is present in blood group O). ...

By way of example; considering the transfusion of O RhD negative blood (universal donor blood) into a recipient of blood group A RhD positive, an immune reaction between the recipient's anti-B antibodies and the transfused RBCs is not anticipated. However, the relatively small amount of plasma in the transfused blood contains anti-A antibodies, which could react with the A antigens on the surface of the recipients RBCs, but a significant reaction is unlikely because of the dilution factors. Rhesus D sensitization is not anticipated.

Additionally, red blood cell surface antigens other than A, B and Rh D, might cause adverse reactions and sensitization, if they can bind to the corresponding antibodies to generate an immune response. Transfusions are further complicated because platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) have their own systems of surface antigens, and sensitization to platelet or WBC antigens can occur as a result of transfusion. A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ...


With regard to transfusions of plasma, this situation is reversed. Type O plasma can be given only to O recipients, while AB plasma (which does not contain anti-A or anti-B antibodies) can be given to patients of any ABO blood group. Blood plasma is a component of blood. ...


Conversion

In April 2007 a method was discovered to convert blood types A, B, and AB to O, using enzymes. This method is still experimental and the resulting blood has yet to undergo human trials.[40][41] The method specifically removes or converts antigens on the red blood cells, so other antigens and antibodies would remain. This does not help plasma compatibility, but that is a lesser concern since plasma has much more limited clinical utility in transfusion and is much easier to preserve.


History

The two most significant blood group systems were discovered during early experiments with blood transfusion: the ABO group in 1901[42] and the Rhesus group in 1937.[43] Development of the Coombs test in 1945,[44] the advent of transfusion medicine, and the understanding of hemolytic disease of the newborn led to discovery of more blood groups, and now 29 human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT),[2] and across the 29 blood groups, over 600 different blood group antigens have been found,[45] but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. Blood types have been used in forensic science and in paternity testing, but both of these uses are being replaced by genetic fingerprinting, which provides greater certitude. ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... Coombs test (also known as Coombs test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in [[immunohematology] and immunology. ... Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... Forensics redirects here. ... A maternity or paternity identification test is conducted to establish whether a person is the biological parent of another person. ... Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Dr. Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ...


Cultural beliefs regarding blood types

The Japanese blood type theory of personality is a popular belief that a person's ABO blood type is predictive of their personality, character, and compatibility with others. It was a serious scientific hypothesis which was proposed early in the 20th century, which gained currency within the Japanese public. This theory has long since been rejected by the scientific community. (For a proponent, see Masahiko Nomi). This belief has been carried over to a certain extent into other parts of East Asia, and South Korea. In Japan, asking someone their blood type is considered as normal as asking their astrological sign. It is also common for Japanese-made video games (especially role-playing games) and the manga series to include blood type with character descriptions. It is popularly believed in Japan that a persons ABO blood type or ketsu eki gata is predictive of their personality, character, and compatibility with others, similar to the Western worlds Astrology. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Personality may refer to: // Personality psychology, a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences Personality development, the study of human personality development over time Personality disorders, a class of mental disorders that is characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. ... The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... Masahiko Nomi is a Japanese journalist who has created an interest in blood types through his writing. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ...


The blood type diet is an American system whereby people seek improved health by modifying their food intake and lifestyle according to their ABO blood group and secretor status.[46] This system includes some reference to differences in personality, but not to the extent typical of the Japanese theory. The blood type diet is a diet advocated by Peter DAdamo and outlined in his book Eat Right 4 Your Type. ...


References

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  2. ^ a b c d Table of blood group systems. International Society of Blood Transfusion (October 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  3. ^ American Red Cross Blood Services, New England Region, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont. American Red Cross Blood Services - New England Region (2001). Retrieved on 2006-11-14. “there are more than 600 known antigens besides A and B that characterize the proteins found on a person's red cells”
  4. ^ Dean, Laura. "The ABO blood group", Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. online: NCBI. “A number of illnesses may alter a person's ABO phenotype” 
  5. ^ Stayboldt C, Rearden A, Lane T (1987). "B antigen acquired by normal A1 red cells exposed to a patient's serum". Transfusion 27 (1): 41–4. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1987.27187121471.x. PMID 3810822. 
  6. ^ Matsushita S, Imamura T, Mizuta T, Hanada M (1983). "Acquired B antigen and polyagglutination in a patient with gastric cancer". Jpn J Surg 13 (6): 540–2. doi:10.1007/BF02469500. PMID 6672386. 
  7. ^ Kremer Hovinga I, Koopmans M, de Heer E, Bruijn J, Bajema I (2007). "Change in blood group in systemic lupus erythematosus". Lancet 369 (9557): 186–7; author reply 187. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60099-3. PMID 17240276. 
  8. ^ Demi-Lee Brennan has changed blood types and immune system Kate Sikora, Daily Telegraph, January 25, 2008
  9. ^ Aust doctors hail teen's transplant 'miracle' Sean Rubinsztein-Dunlop, ABC News (Australia), January 24, 2008
  10. ^ Allen FH Jr, Krabbe SM, Corcoran PA. A new phenotype (McLeod) in the Kell blood-group system. Vox Sang. 1961 Sep;6:555-60. PMID 13477267
  11. ^ Miller LH, Mason SJ, Clyde DF, McGinniss MH. "The resistance factor to Plasmodium vivax in blacks. The Duffy-blood-group genotype, FyFy." N Engl J Med. 1976 Aug 5;295(6):302-4 PMID 778616
  12. ^ Kwiatkowski, DP (Aug 2005). "How Malaria Has Affected the Human Genome and What Human Genetics Can Teach Us about Malaria". Am J Hum Genet. 77 (2): 171–192. doi:10.1086/432519. PMID 16001361. Full text at PMC: 1224522. Retrieved on 2006-11-16. "The different geographic distributions of α thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, ovalocytosis, and the Duffy-negative blood group are further examples of the general principle that different populations have evolved different genetic variants to protect against malaria".
  13. ^ Your blood – a textbook about blood and blood donation (PDF) 63. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  14. ^ Austrian Red Cross - Blood Donor Information
  15. ^ Blood Types - What Are They?, Australian Red Cross
  16. ^ Rode Kruis Wielsbeke - Blood Donor information material[dead link]
  17. ^ Types & Rh System, Canadian Blood Services
  18. ^ Frequency of major blood groups in the Danish population.
  19. ^ Suomalaisten veriryhmäjakauma
  20. ^ Les groupes sanguins (système ABO) (in French). Centre Hospitalier Princesse GRACE - Monaco. C.H.P.G. MONACO (2005). Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  21. ^ de:Blutgruppe#Häufigkeit der Blutgruppen
  22. ^ Blood Donation, Hong Kong Red Cross
  23. ^ Irish Blood Transfusion Service :: Share Life, Donate Blood
  24. ^ Statistics on annual blood donations 2002-2007, Gyung Nam Blood Center
  25. ^ Blood bank Sanquin - Blood Donor information material
  26. ^ New Zealand Blood Service
  27. ^ Regionalne Centrum Krwiodawstwa i Krwiolecznictwa we Wrocławiu
  28. ^ Frequency of major blood groups in the Swedish population.
  29. ^ Turkey Blood Group Site.
  30. ^ Frequency of major blood groups in the UK.
  31. ^ Blood Types in the U.S.
  32. ^ German Intelligence Agents and Suspected Agents. Highlights of Freedom of Information releases in September 2005. The National Archives (September 2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-20. “... the trademark SS tattoo under his arm of his blood group”
  33. ^ Nickel, RG; Willadsen SA, Freidhoff LR, et. al (1999 Aug). "Determination of Duffy genotypes in three populations of African descent using PCR and sequence-specific oligonucleotides". Hum Immunol. 60 (8): 738–42. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(99)00039-7. PMID 10439320. 
  34. ^ Bruce, MG (May 2002). BCF - Members - Chairman's Annual Report. The Blood Care Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-11-16. “As Rhesus Negative blood is rare amongst local nationals, this Agreement will be of particular value to Rhesus Negative expatriates and travellers”
  35. ^ Daniels G, Finning K, Martin P, Summers J (2006). "Fetal blood group genotyping: present and future.". Ann N Y Acad Sci 1075: 88–95. doi:10.1196/annals.1368.011. PMID 17108196. 
  36. ^ Use of Anti-D Immunoglobulin for Rh Prophylaxis. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (May 2002).
  37. ^ Pregnancy - routine anti-D prophylaxis for RhD-negative women. NICE (May 2002).
  38. ^ RBC compatibility table. American National Red Cross (December 2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  39. ^ Blood types and compatibility bloodbook.com
  40. ^ Blood groups 'can be converted'. BBC News (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  41. ^ Liu Q, Sulzenbacher G, Yuan H, Bennett E, Pietz G, Saunders K, Spence J, Nudelman E, Levery S, White T, Neveu J, Lane W, Bourne Y, Olsson M, Henrissat B, Clausen H (2007). "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol 25: 454. doi:10.1038/nbt1298. PMID 17401360. 
  42. ^ Landsteiner K. Zur Kenntnis der antifermentativen, lytischen und agglutinierenden Wirkungen des Blutserums und der Lymphe. Zentralblatt Bakteriologie 1900;27:357-62.
  43. ^ Landsteiner K, Wiener AS. An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1940;43:223-224.
  44. ^ Coombs RRA, Mourant AE, Race RR. A new test for the detection of weak and "incomplete" Rh agglutinins. Brit J Exp Path 1945;26:255-66.
  45. ^ American Red Cross Blood Services, New England Region, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont. American Red Cross Blood Services - New England Region (2001). Retrieved on 2006-11-14. “there are more than 600 known antigens besides A and B that characterize the proteins found on a person's red cells”
  46. ^ D'Adamo, Dr. Peter J; Whitney, Catherine (1996). Eat Right 4 Your Type: The Individualized Diet Solution to Staying Healthy, Living Longer and Achieving Your Ideal Weight. New York: Penguin Group (USA). ISBN 0-399-14255-X. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... ABC News is a national news service produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... PubMed Central grew from the online Entrez PubMed biomedical literature search system. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is a medical institution in England which is responsible for training and regulating medical practitioners who specialise in obstetrics and gynaecology. ... The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Dean, Laura. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens, a guide to the differences in our blood types that complicate blood transfusions and pregnancy. (HTML, also PDF, Flash and PRC versions). NCBI. Retrieved on September 15, 2006.
  • Mollison PL, Engelfriet CP and Contreras M. "Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine." 1997. 10th edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-86542-881-6

External links

  • BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH has details of genes and proteins, and variations thereof, that are responsible for blood types
  • Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 110300 (ABO)
  • Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 111680 (Rhesus D)
  • Farr, A D (April 1979). "Blood group serology—the first four decades (1900--1939)". Med Hist 23 (2): 215–226. Full text at PMC: 1082436 Retrieved on December 15, 2006. 
  • Blood group test, Gentest.ch (HTML, JavaScript). Gentest.ch GmbH.
  • Blood typing systems other than ABO. BloodBook.com (2005-09-10). Retrieved on September 15, 2006.
  • Blood Facts. LifeShare Blood Centers. Retrieved on September 15, 2006.
  • Modern Human Variation: Distribution of Blood Types (HTML). Dr. Dennis O'Neil, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos, California (2001-06-06). Archived from the original on 2006-02-21. Retrieved on November 23, 2006.
  • Racial and Ethnic Distribution of ABO Blood Types - BloodBook.com, Blood Information for Life. bloodbook.com. Retrieved on September 15, 2006.
National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... PubMed Central grew from the online Entrez PubMed biomedical literature search system. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... In ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as ABO HDN) maternal IgG antibodies with specificity for the ABO blood group system pass through the placenta to the fetal circulation where they can cause hemolysis of fetal red blood cells which can lead to fetal anemia and HDN. In... Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell 1) ranges from mild disease to a very severe disease. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Rhc) can range from a mild to a severe disease. ... Rh disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-RhE) is caused by the anti-RhE antibody of the Rhesus blood group system. ... Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ... leukapheresis A laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Coombs test (also known as Coombs test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in [[immunohematology] and immunology. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... An exchange transfusion is a medical treatment in which apheresis is used to remove one persons red blood cells or platelets and replace them with transfused blood products. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... ISBT 128 is system for identification, labeling and processing of human blood, tissue and organ products using an internationally standardised barcode system. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The Colton antigen system (Co) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney[1] and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Template:Hematology-stub // The Diego system was discovered in 1955 in one Mrs. ... The Duffy antigen is a pair of proteins which appears on the outside of red blood cells. ... Hh antigen system - diagram showing the molecular structure of the ABO(H) antigen system Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen which is present in blood group O). ... Ii antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 6. ... The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. ... XK (also known as Kell blood group precursor) is a protein found on human red blood cells and other tissues which is responsible for the Kx antigen which helps determine a persons blood type. ... The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. ... ICAM4 is an intercellular adhesion molecule responsible for the Landsteiner-Wiener blood type. ... Lewis antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... MNS antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 4. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 22. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Give blood redirects here. ... Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other blood gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Excerpt from "The Complete Blood Type Diet Encyclopedia" (0 words)
Two basic blood group B population patterns emerged out of the Neolithic revolution in Asia: an agrarian, relatively sedentary population located in the south and east, and the wandering nomadic societies of the north and west.
The incidence of blood group B was probably very high in these Steppe dwellers, so the appearance of group AB in Europe is probably the result of the intermingling of these Eastern invaders with their European hosts.
Blood group AB is rarely found in European graves prior to 900 A.D. Studies of prehistoric grave exhumations in Hungary indicate a distinct lack of this blood group into the Langobard age (fifth to seventh century A.D.).
EldonCard Blood Type Kit - 915001 (0 words)
Blood typing is determined by the type of antigens or markers that are on the surface of red blood cells (either "A" or "B") and if there are antibodies to a portion of the blood type known as the Rh factor (either "positive" or "negative").
Blood type is inherited from and dependent upon, the blood type of an individual's parents.
In the case of a transfusion, a person's blood type needs to be compatible with the donor's blood type or an allergic-type reaction can occur resulting from the immune system of the recipient attacking the incompatible donor blood cells as invading organisms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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