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Encyclopedia > Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. Blood transfusions can be life-saving in some situations, such as massive blood loss due to trauma, or can be used to replace blood lost during surgery. Blood transfusions may also be used to treat a severe anaemia or thrombocytopenia caused by a blood disease. People suffering from hemophilia or sickle-cell disease may require frequent blood transfusions. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... Blood diseases affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, the mechanism of coagulation, etc. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Sickle-cell disease is a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S or Hb S). ...

Contents

History

Early attempts

The first historical attempt at blood transfusion was described by the 15th-century chronicler Stefano Infessura. Infessura relates that, in 1492, as Pope Innocent VIII sank into a coma, the blood of three boys was infused into the dying pontiff (through the mouth, as the concept of circulation and methods for intravenous access did not exist at that time) at the suggestion of a physician. The boys were ten years old, and had been promised a ducat each. However, not only the pope died, but so did the three children. Some authors have discredited Infessura's account, accusing him of anti-papalism. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Stefano Infessura (Rome, ca 1435- ca 1500), an antipapal humanist lawyer is remembered through his Diary of the City of Rome, a gossipy chronicle of events at Rome. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Innocent VIII, né Giovanni Battista Cibo (1432 – July 25, 1492), pope from 1484 to 1492, was born at Genoa, and was the son of Aran Cibo who under Calixtus III had been a senator at Rome. ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ...

World War II syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion

With Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood, more sophisticated research into blood transfusion began in the 17th century, with successful experiments in transfusion between animals. However, successive attempts on humans continued to have fatal results. WWII Syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion. ... WWII Syringe for direct interhuman blood transfusion. ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The first fully-documented human blood transfusion was administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys on June 15, 1667. He transfused the blood of a sheep into a 15-year old boy, who recovered. Denys performed another transfusion into a labourer, who also survived. Both instances were likely due to small amount of blood that was actually transfused into these people. This allowed them to withstand the allergic reaction. Then, Denys performed several transfusions into Mr. Mauroy, who on the third account had died (read Blood and Justice). Much controversy surrounded his death and his wife was accused of his murder; it's likely that the transfusion caused his death. On June 15, 1667, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys administered the first fully-documented human blood transfusion. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Species See text. ...


Richard Lower examined the effects of changes in blood volume on circulatory function and developed methods for cross-circulatory study in animals, obviating clotting by closed arteriovenous connections. His newly devised instruments eventually led to actual transfusion of blood.


"Many of his colleagues were present. . . towards the end of February 1665 [when he] selected one dog of medium size, opened its jugular vein, and drew off blood, until . . . its strength was nearly gone . . . Then, to make up for the great loss of this dog by the blood of a second, I introduced blood from the cervical artery of a fairly large mastiff, which had been fastened alongside the first, until this latter animal showed . . . it was overfilled . . . by the inflowing blood." After he "sewed up the jugular veins," the animal recovered "with no sign of discomfort or of displeasure."


Lower had performed the first blood transfusion between animals. He was then "requested by the Honorable [Robert] Boyle . . . to acquaint the Royal Society with the procedure for the whole experiment," which he did in December of 1665 in the Society’s Philosophical Transactions. On 15 June 1667 Denys, then a professor in Paris, carried out the first transfusion between humans and claimed credit for the technique, but Lower’s priority cannot be challenged.


Six months later in London, Lower performed the first human transfusion in England, where he "superintended the introduction in his [a patient’s] arm at various times of some ounces of sheep’s blood at a meeting of the Royal Society, and without any inconvenience to him." The recipient was Arthur Coga, "the subject of a harmless form of insanity." Sheep’s blood was used because of speculation about the value of blood exchange between species; it had been suggested that blood from a gentle lamb might quiet the tempestuous spirit of an agitated person and that the shy might be made outgoing by blood from more sociable creatures. Lower wanted to treat Coga several times, but his patient wisely refused. No more transfusions were performed. Shortly before, Lower had moved to London, where his growing practice soon led him to abandon research. [1]


The first successes

The science of blood transfusion dates to the first decade of the 19th century, with the discovery of distinct blood types leading to the practice of mixing some blood from the donor and the receiver before the transfusion (an early form of cross-matching). Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ...


In 1818, Dr. James Blundell, a British obstetrician, performed the first successful transfusion of human blood, for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. He used the patient's husband as a donor, and extracted four ounces of blood from his arm to transfuse into his wife. During the years 1825 and 1830, Dr. Blundell performed 10 transfusions, five of which were beneficial, and published his results. He also invented many instruments for the transfusion of blood. He made a substantial amount of money from this endeavour, roughly $50 million in real dollars (adjusted for inflation).[citation needed] 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... In economics, the distinction between nominal and real numbers is often made. ...


In 1840, at St. George's Hospital Medical School in London, Samuel Armstrong Lane, aided by Dr. Blundell, performed the first successful whole blood transfusion to treat hemophilia. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... St Georges, University of London (SGUL) is a specialist medical college of the University of London. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ...


George Washington Crile is credited with performing the first surgery using a direct blood transfusion at the Cleveland Clinic. George Washington Crile (1864 - 1943) was a significant. ... Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Development of blood banking

See also: Blood bank

While the first transfusions had to be made directly from donor to receiver before coagulation, in the 1910s it was discovered that by adding anticoagulant and refrigerating the blood it was possible to store it for some days, thus opening the way for blood banks. The first non-direct transfusion was performed on March 27, 1914 by the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin, who used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. The first blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled was performed on January 1, 1916. Oswald Hope Robertson, a medical researcher and U.S. Army officer, is generally credited with establishing the first blood bank while serving in France during World War I. A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Albert Hustin ( 1882- 1967) was a Belgian medical doctor. ... Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Oswald Hope Robertson (2 June 1886 – 23 March 1966) was an English-born medical scientist who pioneered the idea of blood banks. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The first academic institution devoted to the science of blood transfusion was founded by Alexander Bogdanov in Moscow in 1925. Bogdanov was motivated, at least in part, by a search for eternal youth, and remarked with satisfaction on the improvement of his eyesight, suspension of balding, and other positive symptoms after receiving 11 transfusions of whole blood. Alexander Bogdanov (1873 - 1928) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, writer, and revolutionary. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...


In fact, following the death of Vladimir Lenin, Bogdanov was entrusted with the study of Lenin's brain, with a view toward resuscitating the deceased Bolshevik leader. Tragically, but perhaps not unforeseeably, Bogdanov lost his life in 1928 as a result of one of his experiments, when the blood of a student suffering from malaria and tuberculosis was given to him in a transfusion. Some scholars (e.g. Loren Graham) have speculated that his death may have been a suicide, while others attribute it to blood type incompatibility, which was still incompletely understood at the time.[1] Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: , IPA: , better known by the alias   () (April 22, 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic, until 1922 (or Bolshevist Russia), and the primary theorist of Leninism... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


The modern era

Following Bogdanov's lead, the Soviet Union set up a national system of blood banks in the 1930s. News of the Soviet experience traveled to America, where in 1937 Bernard Fantus, director of therapeutics at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago, established the first hospital blood bank in the United States. In creating a hospital laboratory that preserved and stored donor blood, Fantus originated the term "blood bank". Within a few years, hospital and community blood banks were established across the United States. Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Bernard Fantus (September 1, 1874 -April 14, 1940) was a Hungarian American professor of therapeutics. ... Cook County Hospital is the fictional hospital in the NBC series ER ... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Dr. Charles R. Drew's research led to the discovery that blood could be separated into blood plasma and red blood cells, and that the components could be frozen separately. Blood stored in this way lasted longer and was less likely to become contaminated. Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles Drew Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904 – April 1, 1950) was an American physician and medical researcher. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ...


Another important breakthrough came in 1939-40 when Karl Landsteiner, Alex Wiener, Philip Levine, and R.E. Stetson discovered the Rhesus blood group system, which was found to be the cause of the majority of transfusion reactions up to that time. Three years later, the introduction by J.F. Loutit and Patrick L. Mollison of acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solution, which reduces the volume of anticoagulant, permitted transfusions of greater volumes of blood and allowed longer term storage. Karl Landsteiner Karl Landsteiner (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist and physician. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... Acid Citrate Dextrose Solution (sometimes called Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution) is a solution of citric acid, sodium citrate and dextrose in water. ...


Carl Walter and W.P. Murphy, Jr., introduced the plastic bag for blood collection in 1950. Replacing breakable glass bottles with durable plastic bags allowed for the evolution of a collection system capable of safe and easy preparation of multiple blood components from a single unit of whole blood. Further extending the shelf life of stored blood was an anticoagulant preservative, CPDA-1, introduced in 1979, which increased the blood supply and facilitated resource-sharing among blood banks. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Precautions

Compatibility

See also: Cross-matching and Blood type

Great care is taken in cross-matching to ensure that the recipient's immune system will not attack the donor blood. In addition to the familiar human blood types (A, B, AB and O) and Rh factor (positive or negative) classifications, other minor red cell antigens are known to play a role in compatibility. These other types can become increasingly important in people who receive many blood transfusions, as their bodies develop increasing resistance to blood from other people via a process of alloimmunization. In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... Glycosphingolipids are a subtype of glycolipids containing the amino alcohol phingosine. ... The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... Alloimmunity is a condition in which the body gains immunity, from another individual of the same species, against its own cells. ...


Screening for infection

See also: HIV blood screening

A number of infectious diseases (such as HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, among others) can be passed from the donor to recipient. This has led to strict human blood transfusion standards in developed countries. Standards include screening for potential risk factors and health problems among donors by determining donor hemoglobin levels, administering a set of standard oral and written questions to donors, and laboratory testing of donated units for infection. The lack of such standards in places like rural China, where desperate villagers donated plasma for money and had others' red blood cells reinjected, has produced entire villages infected with HIV. The risk of transmitting HIV infection to blood transfusion recipients has been drastically reduced by improved donor selection and sensitive serologic screening assays in many countries. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


As of mid-2005, all donated blood in the United States is screened for the following infectious agents:[2] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

When a person's need for a transfusion can be anticipated, as in the case of scheduled surgery, autologous donation can be used to protect against disease transmission and eliminate the problem of blood type compatibility. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases. ... Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... In biology, autologous refers to cells, tissues or even proteins that are reimplanted in the same individual as they come from. ...


Processing of blood prior to transfusion

Donated blood is sometimes subjected to processing after it is collected, to make it suitable for use in specific patient populations. Examples include:

  • Leukoreduction, or the removal of stray white blood cells from the blood product by filtration. Leukoreduced blood is less likely to cause alloimmunization (development of antibodies against specific blood types), and less likely to cause febrile transfusion reactions. Also, leukoreduction greatly reduces the chance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission. Leukoreduced blood is appropriate for:[3]
    • Chronically transfused patients
    • Potential transplant recipients
    • Patients with previous febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions
    • CMV seronegative at-risk patients for whom seronegative components are not available
  • Irradiation. In patients who are severely immunosuppressed and at risk for transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, transfused red cells may be subjected to irradiation with at least 25 Gy to prevent the donor T lymphocytes from dividing in the recipient.[4] Irradiated blood products are appropriate for:
    • Patients with hereditary immune deficiencies
    • Patients receiving blood transfusions from relatives in directed-donation programs
    • Patients receiving large doses of chemotherapy, undergoing stem cell transplantation, or with AIDS (controversial).
  • CMV screening. Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is a virus which infects white blood cells. Many people are asymptomatic carriers. In patients with significant immune suppression (e.g. recipients of stem cell transplants) who have not previously been exposed to CMV, blood products that are CMV-negative are preferred. Leukoreduced blood products can substitute for CMV-negative products, since the complete removal of white blood cells removes the source of CMV transmission (see leukoreduction above).

White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Leukoreduction is the reduction of white blood cells or leukocytes from the blood or blood components being transfused to the recipient. ... Alloimmunity is a condition in which the body gains immunity, from another individual of the same species, against its own cells. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which functional immune cells in the transplanted marrow recognize the recipient as foreign and mount an immunologic attack. ... The gray (symbol: Gy) is the SI unit of absorbed dose. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ... Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Leukoreduction is the reduction of white blood cells or leukocytes from the blood or blood components being transfused to the recipient. ...

Neonatal transfusion

To ensure the safety of blood transfusion to pediatric patients, hospitals are taking additional precaution to avoid infection and prefer to use specially tested pediatric blood units that are guaranteed negative for Cytomegalovirus. It is uncertain whether leukodepletion can be adequate for the prevention of CMV, and therefore most guidelines recommend the provision of CMV-negative blood components for newborns or low birthweight infants in whom the immune system is not fully developed.[5] These specific requirements place additional restrictions on blood donors who can donate to babies. Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ...


Terminology

The terms type and screen are used for the testing that (1) determines the blood group (ABO compatibility) and (2) checks for alloantibodies.[6] It takes about 45 minutes to complete.


If time allows more extensive testing, a large number of antibodies are screened. This is known as group & screen and can take up to a day.[6] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


If there is no time the blood is called "uncross-matched blood". Uncross-matched blood is O-positive or O-negative. O-negative is usually used for children and women of childbearing age. In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ...


Procedure

Blood transfusions can be grouped into two main types depending on their source:

  • Homologous transfusions, or transfusions using the stored blood of others.
  • Autologous transfusions, or transfusions using one's own stored blood.

Blood can only be administered intravenously. It therefore requires the insertion of a cannula of suitable caliber. Before the blood is administered, the personal details of the patient are matched with the blood to be transfused, to minimize risk of transfusion reactions. With the recognition that clerical error (eg administering the wrong unit of blood) is a significant source of transfusion reactions, attempts have been made to build redundancy into the matching process that takes place at the bedside. In biology, autologous refers to cells, tissues or even proteins that are reimplanted in the same individual as they come from. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... A cannula (pl. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... In engineering, the duplication of critical components of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the case of a backup or fail-safe, is called redundancy. ...


A unit (up to 500 ml) of blood is typically administered over 4 hours. In patients at risk of congestive heart failure, many doctors administer furosemide to prevent fluid overload. Acetaminophen and/or an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine are sometimes given before the transfusion to prevent a transfusion reaction. Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ...


Blood donation

Main article: Blood donation

Blood is most commonly donated as whole blood by inserting a catheter into a vein and collecting it in a plastic bag (mixed with anticoagulant) via gravity. Collected blood is then separated into components to make the best use of it. Aside from red blood cells, plasma, and platelets, the resulting blood component products also include albumin protein, clotting factor concentrates, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, and immunoglobulins (antibodies). Red cells, plasma and platelets can also be donated individually via a more complex process called apheresis. “Give blood” redirects here. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into serum albumin. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ...


Donations are usually anonymous to the recipient, but products in a blood bank are always individually traceable through the whole cycle of donation, testing, separation into components, storage, and administration to the recipient. This enables management and investigation of any suspected transfusion related disease transmission or transfusion reaction. A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ...


Contraindications to being a blood donor

Blood donation centers in different countries may have different guidelines about who can serve as a blood donor. Common contraindications to being a blood donor include: In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ...

  • previous malaria or hepatitis
  • a history of intravenous drug abuse
  • donors who have received human-derived pituitary hormones
  • donors with high-risk sexual behaviour (variably defined)
  • donors who have previously been transfused (12-month min. deferral)
  • donors under the age of 16 or over 70
  • donors whom have been tattooed in the previous 12 months leading up to their donation
  • donors who are pregnant

Complications and risks

For the donor

Donating whole blood at a modern, well-run blood collection center is safe. The biggest risk is probably that of vasovagal syncope, or "passing out". A large study, involving 194,000 donations during a one-year period at an urban U.S. blood center, found 178 cases of syncope, for an incidence of 0.09%.[7] Only 5 of these incidents required emergency room attention, and there was one long-term complication. Most syncopal episodes occurred at the refreshment table following donation, leading the authors to recommend that donors spend at least 10 minutes at the refreshment table drinking fluids after donation. A Greek study of over 12,000 blood donors found an incidence of vasovagal events of 0.89%.[8] Another study interviewed 1,000 randomly selected blood donors 3 weeks after donation, and found the following adverse effects:[9] “Give blood” redirects here. ... Vasovagal syncope is the most common cause of syncope, also known as fainting. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ...

  • Bruise at the needle site — 23 percent
  • Sore arm — 10 percent
  • Hematoma at needle site — 2 percent
  • Sensory changes in the arm used for donation (eg, burning pain, numbness, tingling) — 1 percent
  • Fatigue — 8 percent
  • Vasovagal symptoms — 5 percent
  • Nausea and vomiting — 1 percent

None of these were severe enough to require medical attention in this study. There is no risk of acquiring an infection at a modern, well-run blood donation center. Hematoma on an elbow, nine days after a blood sample was taken Hematoma on a forearm, one day after repeated shocks A hematoma, or haematoma, is a collection of blood, generally the result of hemorrhage, or, more specifically, internal bleeding. ...


Donation of blood products via apheresis is a more invasive and complex procedure and can entail additional risks, although this procedure is, overall, still very safe for the donor. Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ...


For the recipient

Main article: Transfusion reaction

There are risks associated with receiving a blood transfusion, and these must be balanced against the benefit which is expected. The most common adverse reaction to a blood transfusion is a so-called febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction, which consists of a fever which resolves on its own and causes no lasting problems or side effects. Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ...


Hemolytic reactions include chills, headache, backache, dyspnea, cyanosis, chest pain, tachycardia and hypotension. Dyspnea (R06. ...


Blood products can rarely be contaminated with bacteria; the risk of severe bacterial infection and sepsis is estimated, as of 2002, at about 1 in 50,000 platelet transfusions, and 1 in 500,000 red blood cell transfusions.[10] Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Transmission of viral infection is a common concern with blood transfusion. As of 2006, the risk of acquiring hepatitis B via blood transfusion in the United States is about 1 in 250,000 units transfused, and the risk of acquiring HIV or hepatitis C in the U.S. via a blood transfusion is estimated at 1 per 2 million units transfused. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). ...


Transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI) is an increasingly recognized adverse event associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is a syndrome of acute respiratory distress, often associated with fever, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and hypotension, which may occur as often as 1 in 2000 transfusions.[11] Symptoms can range from mild to life-threatening, but most patients recover fully within 96 hours, and the mortality rate from this condition is less than 10%.[12] In medicine, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious blood transfusion complication characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema. ... There are two forms of respiratory distress syndrome: ARDS, which is acute (or adult) respiratory distress syndrome or infant respiratory distress syndrome which is a complication of premature birth. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ...


Other risks associated with receiving a blood transfusion include volume overload, iron overload (with multiple red blood cell transfusions), transfusion-associated graft-vs.-host disease, anaphylactic reactions (in people with IgA deficiency), and acute hemolytic reactions (most commonly due to the administration of mismatched blood types). Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GvHD) is a rare complication of blood transfusion, in which the donor T lymphocytes mount an immune response against the recipients lymphoid tissue. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction. ... Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic immunodeficiency. ... Hemolysis (alternative spelling haemolysis) literally means the excessive breakdown of red blood cells. ...


Transformation from one type to another

Scientists working at the University of Copenhagen reported in the journal Nature Biotechnology in April 2007 of discovering enzymes, which potentially enable blood from groups A, B and AB to be converted into group O. These enzymes do not affect the Rh group of the blood.[13][14]


Objections to blood transfusion

Objections to blood transfusions may arise for personal, medical, or religious reasons. For example, Jehovah's Witnesses object to blood transfusion primarily on religious grounds, although they have also highlighted possible complications associated with transfusion. One controversial doctrine of the Jehovah’s Witnesses teaches the Bible prohibits consumption, storage and transfusion of blood, including in cases of emergency. ...


Animal blood transfusion

Veterinarians also administer transfusions to animals. Various species require different levels of testing to ensure a compatible match. For example, cats have 3 blood types, cattle have 11, dogs have 12, pigs 16 and horses have 34. However, in many species (especially horses and dogs), cross matching is not required before the first transfusion, as antibodies against non-self cell surface antigens are not espressed constitutively - i.e. the animal has to be sensitised before it will mount an immune response against the transfused blood. Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


The rare and experimental practice of inter-species blood transfusions is a form of xenograft. A xenograft (xenotransplant) is a transplant of tissue from a donor of one species to a recipient of another species. ...


Blood transfusion substitutes

Main article: Blood substitutes

As of mid-2006, there are no clinically utilized oxygen-carrying blood substitutes for humans; however, there are widely available non-blood volume expanders and other blood-saving techniques. These are helping doctors and surgeons avoid the risks of disease transmission and immune suppression, address the chronic blood donor shortage, and address the concerns of Jehovah's Witnesses and others who have religious objections to receiving transfused blood. Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other gases in the cardiovascular system. ...


A number of blood substitutes are currently in the clinical evaluation stage. Most attempts to find a suitable alternative to blood thus far have concentrated on cell-free hemoglobin solutions. Blood substitutes could make transfusions more readily available in emergency medicine and in pre-hospital EMS care. If successful, such a blood substitute could save many lives, particularly in trauma where massive blood loss results. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Emergency medical service (known by the acronym of EMS in the USA and Canada) is a branch of medicine that is performed in the field, pre-hospital, (i. ...


Blood transfusion safety

As mentioned above, the major risks that the patient (donors and receivers) may have encountered are the transmission of infections, transfusion reactions and incorrect blood transfusion. Some of the adverse effect include:

Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In medicine, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious blood transfusion complication characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema. ... The Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) is closely related to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Its discovery in primates has led to some speculation that HIV may have been spread to the human species in Africa through contact with blood from apes and monkeys through hunting bushmeat. ...

References

  1. ^ See Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal. New Myth, New World: From Nietzsche to Stalinism, Pennsylvania State University, 2002, ISBN 0-271-02533-6 pp. 161-162.
  2. ^ American Association of Blood Banks. Standards for Blood Banks and Transfusion Services, 18th ed. American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, MD.
  3. ^ Evidence-based recommendations for the use of WBC-reduced cellular blood components. Ratko TA; Cummings JP; Oberman HA; Crookston KP; DeChristopher PJ; Eastlund DT; Godwin JE; Sacher RA; Yawn DH; Matuszewski KA. Transfusion 2001 Oct;41(10):1310-9.
  4. ^ Quality control of blood irradiation: determination T cells radiosensitivity to cobalt-60 gamma rays. Goes EG; Borges JC; Covas DT; Orellana MD; Palma PV; Morais FR; Pela CA. Transfusion. 2006 Jan;46(1):34-40.
  5. ^ Red blood cell transfusions in newborn infants: Revised guidelines. Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS). Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  6. ^ a b Blood Processing. University of Utah. Available at: http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/BLDBANK/BBPROC.html. Accessed on: December 15, 2006.
  7. ^ Newman B, Graves S (2001). "A study of 178 consecutive vasovagal syncopal reactions from the perspective of safety.". Transfusion 41 (12): 1475-9. PMID 11778059. 
  8. ^ Zervou E, Ziciadis K, Karabini F, Xanthi E, Chrisostomou E, Tzolou A (2005). "Vasovagal reactions in blood donors during or immediately after blood donation.". Transfus Med 15 (5): 389-94. PMID 16202053. 
  9. ^ Newman B, Pichette S, Pichette D, Dzaka E (2003). "Adverse effects in blood donors after whole-blood donation: a study of 1000 blood donors interviewed 3 weeks after whole-blood donation.". Transfusion 43 (5): 598-603. PMID 12702180. 
  10. ^ Blajchman M. "Incidence and significance of the bacterial contamination of blood components.". Dev Biol (Basel) 108: 59-67. PMID 12220143. 
  11. ^ Silliman C, Paterson A, Dickey W, Stroneck D, Popovsky M, Caldwell S, Ambruso D (1997). "The association of biologically active lipids with the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury: a retrospective study.". Transfusion 37 (7): 719-26. PMID 9225936. 
  12. ^ Popovsky M, Chaplin H, Moore S. "Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a neglected, serious complication of hemotherapy.". Transfusion 32 (6): 589-92. PMID 1502715. 
  13. ^ Liu QP, Sulzenbacher G, Yuan H, Bennett EP, Pietz G, Saunders K, Spence J, Nudelman E, Levery SB, White T, Neveu JM, Lane WS, Bourne Y, Olsson ML, Henrissat B, Clausen H (2007). "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol. PMID 17401360. 
  14. ^ BBC: Blood groups can be converted

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ...

Academic resources

  • Transfusion, ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic) 0041-1132 (paper)

See also

Blood doping is the practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance. ... Patient safety is a relatively recent initiative in medicine, emphasizing the reporting, analysis and prevention of medical error and adverse health care events. ...

External links

  • Blood transfusion safety
  • BBC article on blood substitute
  • The Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT)
  • New Scientist article on transfusion-associated lung injury
  • Breakthrough makes all blood types universal - Joyce Howard Price, The Washington Times - April 4, 2007
  • Transfusion Medicine: The Basis and the Future - A Review from the Science Creative Quarterly

  Results from FactBites:
 
blood transfusion. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (433 words)
Blood substitutes, which are under development, are expected ultimately to ease the chronic short supply of blood and to alleviate certain storage and compatibility problems.
Blood is incompatible when certain factors in red blood cells and plasma differ in donor and recipient; when that occurs, agglutinins (i.e., antibodies) in the recipient’s blood will clump with the red blood cells of the donor’s blood.
The most frequent blood transfusion reactions are caused by substances of the ABO blood group system and the Rh factor system.
Healthopedia.com - Blood Transfusion (542 words)
Blood transfusion is a procedure in which the blood or blood components from one person, called a donor, is given to another, called a recipient.
The four blood types are known as A, B, AB, and O. Blood will also be referred to as Rh positive or Rh negative, depending upon whether the Rh antigen is present on the membrane of the red blood cells.
The blood is double checked by two healthcare workers to confirm that the blood about to be given is intended for the person about to receive it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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