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Encyclopedia > Blood plasma

Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. It makes up about 60% of total blood volume. Blood plasma is prepared simply by spinning a tube of fresh blood in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. Blood serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen or the other clotting factors.[1] For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ...


Plasmapheresis is a type of medical therapy involving separation of plasma from red blood cells. Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ...


Fresh frozen plasma

Main article: Fresh frozen plasma

"Fresh frozen plasma" (FFP) is prepared from a single unit of blood or by apheresis, drawn from a single person. It is frozen after collection and can be stored for one year from date of collection. FFP contains all of the coagulation factors and proteins present in the original unit of blood. It is used to treat coagulopathies from warfarin overdose, liver disease, or dilutional coagulopathy. FFP which has been stored more than the standard length of time is sometimes re-classified as simply "frozen plasma," which is identical except that the coagulation factors are no longer considered completely viable.[2] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Look up unit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... For other uses of this word, see Length (disambiguation). ... Viability means in general capacity for survival and is more specifically used to mean a capacity for living, developing, or germinating under favorable conditions. ...


Plasma which has been used as a source of Cryoprecipitate (Plasma, Cryoprecipitate Reduced) is more limited, but still acceptable for many uses. The term "FFP" is sometimes used informally to mean any frozen transfusable plasma product, including products which do not meet the standards for FFP Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ...


Dried plasma

Dried plasma packages used by Britain and US military during WWII
Dried plasma packages used by Britain and US military during WWII

"Dried plasma" was developed and first used in WWII. Prior to the United States' involvement in the war, liquid plasma and "whole blood" were used. The "Blood for Britain" program during the early 1940s was quite successful (and popular in the United States) based in part on Dr. Charles Drew's contribution. A large project was begun in August of the year 1940 to collect blood in New York City hospitals for the export of plasma to Britain. Dr. Drew was appointed medical supervisor of the "Plasma for Britain" project. His notable contribution at this time was to transform the test tube methods of many blood researchers, including himself, into the first successful mass production techniques. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x665, 69 KB) Summary http://history. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x665, 69 KB) Summary http://history. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904_April 1, 1950) was a physician and medical researcher. ... A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... A test tube (Sometimes culture tube) is a kind of laboratory glassware, composed of a fingerlike length of glass tubing, open at the top, sometimes with a rounded lip at the top, and a rounded U shaped bottom. ... This article is about the concept. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


Nonetheless, the decision was made to develop a dried plasma package for the armed forces as it would reduce breakage and make the transportation, packaging, and storage much simpler.[3] Technically, drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state, provided there is a source of heat, and sink of the vapor thus produced. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ...


The resulting Army-Navy dried plasma package came in two tin cans containing 400 cc bottles. One bottle contained enough distilled water to completely reconstitute the dried plasma contained within the other bottle. In about three minutes, the plasma would be ready to use and could stay fresh for around four hours.[4] For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... Naval redirects here. ... For the American naval slang term, see destroyer. ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ...


Following the "Plasma for Britain" invention, Dr. Drew was named director of the Red Cross blood bank and assistant director of the National Research Council, in charge of blood collection for the United States Army and Navy. Dr. Drew argued against the armed forces directive that blood/plasma was to be separated by the race of the donor. Dr. Drew argued that there was no racial difference in human blood and that the policy would lead to needless deaths as soldiers and sailors were required to wait for "same race" blood.[citation needed] Executive director is a title given to a person who is the head of an executive branch of an organization or company. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... -1... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Give blood redirects here. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ... This article is about maritime crew. ...


By the end of the war the American Red Cross had provided enough blood for over six million plasma packages. Most of the surplus plasma was returned to the United States for civilian use. Serum albumin replaced dried plasma for combat use during the Korean War.[5] Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


References

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  2. ^ Blood Plasma Donation Centers Reviewed
  3. ^ Transfusion before World War I
  4. ^ Plasma Equipment and Packaging, and Transfusion Equipment
  5. ^ The Plasma Program
Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ... leukapheresis A laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Coombs test (also known as Coombs test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in [[immunohematology] and immunology. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... An exchange transfusion is a medical treatment in which apheresis is used to remove one persons red blood cells or platelets and replace them with transfused blood products. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... ISBT 128 is system for identification, labeling and processing of human blood, tissue and organ products using an internationally standardised barcode system. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The Colton antigen system (Co) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney[1] and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Template:Hematology-stub // The Diego system was discovered in 1955 in one Mrs. ... The Duffy antigen is a pair of proteins which appears on the outside of red blood cells. ... Hh antigen system - diagram showing the molecular structure of the ABO(H) antigen system Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen which is present in blood group O). ... Ii antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 6. ... The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. ... XK (also known as Kell blood group precursor) is a protein found on human red blood cells and other tissues which is responsible for the Kx antigen which helps determine a persons blood type. ... The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. ... ICAM4 is an intercellular adhesion molecule responsible for the Landsteiner-Wiener blood type. ... Lewis antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... MNS antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 4. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 22. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Give blood redirects here. ... Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other blood gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Sketch of bone marrow and its cells Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells (PHSCs) are stem cells found in the bone marrow. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, CTL or killer T cell) belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which are capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses (or other... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either cytotoxic CD8+ cells or helper CD4+ cells. ... Regulatory T cells (also known as suppressor T cells) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self. ... γδ T cells represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. ... Natural killer T cells (NK T cells) are a type of lymphocyte, or white blood cell. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. ... Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed following primary infection. ... Natural NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. ... In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumour cells. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Basophil granulocyte Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image of an eosinophil Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates. ... Basophil redirects here. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... Langerhans cells are immature dendritic cells containing large granules called Birbeck granules. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protects against blood-borne pathogens and moves quickly (aprox. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... A Histiocyte is a cell that is part of the human immune system. ... Kupffer cells or Browicz-Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages located in the liver that form part of the reticuloendothelial system. ... Langhans giant cells are large cells found in granulomatous conditions. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... An osteoclast (from the Greek words for bone and broken) is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing the bones mineralized matrix. ... A megakaryoblast is a precursor cell to a promegakaryocyte, which in turn becomes a megakaryocyte. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... A normoblast (or erythroblast) is a type of red blood cell which still retains a cell nucleus. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ... Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... In the physiology of the kidney, renal blood flow (RBF) is the volume of blood delivered to the kidney per unit time. ... In biological terms, Ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the renal corpuscle or Bowmans capsule in the kidneys. ... Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some component of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a permeable barrier between them. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In medicine, the clearance, also renal clearance or renal plasma clearance (when referring to the function of the kidney), of a substance is the inverse of the time constant that describes its removal rate from the body divided by its volume of distribution (or total body water). ... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ... The renal clearance ratio is found with the following equation: X is the analyte substance Cx is the renal plasma clearance of X Cin is the renal plasma clearance of inulin. ... For the Scottish river see: Urr Water The urea reduction ratio (URR), is a dimensionless number used to quantify hemodialysis treatment adequacy. ... In medicine, Kt/V is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy. ... Standardized Kt/V, also std Kt/V, is a way of measuring (renal) dialysis adequacy. ... Hemodialysis product (HDP) - is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy. ... Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Darrow Yannet diagram is a schematic used in physiology to identify how the volumes of extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid alter in response to conditions such as adrenal insufficiency and SIADH. It was developed in 1935. ... A significant fraction of the human body is water. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ... In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... The cytosol (cf. ... Transcellular fluid is the portion of total body water contained within epithelial lined spaces. ... In human physiology, the base excess (see: base) excess refers to the amount of acid required to return the blood pH of an individual to the normal value. ... In acid base physiology, the Davenport Diagram is a graphical tool, developed by Horace Davenport, that allows a clinician or investigator to describe blood bicarbonate concentrations and blood pH following a respiratory and/or metabolic acid-base disturbance. ... The anion gap is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... The Bicarbonate buffering system is the most important buffer for mantaining a relatively constant pH in the plasma. ... Respiratory compensation is a mechanism by which plasma pH can be altered by varying the respiratory rate. ... Renal compensation is a mechanism by which the kidneys can regulate the plasma pH. It is slower than respiratory compensation, but has a greater ability to restore normal values. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Blood: Plasma - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, made possible by Unisys (164 words)
It might seem like plasma is less important than the blood cells it carries.
Microbe-fighting antibodies travel to the battlefields of disease by hitching a ride in the plasma.
Without plasma, the life-giving blood cells would be left floundering without transportation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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