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Encyclopedia > Blood libel

Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. The alleged victims are often children. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Child sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of children in order to please, propitiate or force supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result. ...


Jews are the most common target of blood libels, but many other groups have been accused, including Christians, Cathars, Carthaginians, Knights Templar, Witches, Christian heretics, Roma, Wiccans, Druids, neopagans, Satanists, evangelical Protestant missionaries, and recently, the Chinese.[citation needed] Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician Kart-hadasht meaning new town, Arabic: ‎, Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... For the book series Wicca see Sweep (book series) and Circle Of Three. ... In the Celtic religion, the modern words Druidry or Druidism denote the practices of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Satanism Associated organizations Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Survival of the fittest | Objectivism | Might Is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...

Contents

Blood libel against followers of Ancient Greek religion

When the Christianization of Greece occurred, there was an attempt to portray all sacrifices as blood sacrifices, but contrary to popular Christian myth sacrifices to the Greek gods were typically in the forms of wealth. Human blood sacrifices were in Greek cities illegal. Early Christians spread myths about the children of Christians being abducted and having their throats slit in various temples. Such myths are similar to the blood libel accusations against Jews. Virtuvian blood sacrifices were seen by the Greek people as barbaric and laws against them were believed to be part of what separated the Greeks from those they considered barbarians, even after Romanization occurred. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ...


Blood libel against Jews

Jews have been, by far, the most frequent target of Blood Libels in history. Blood libels against the Jews were a common form of anti-Semitism during the Middle Ages. There is no ritual involving human blood in Jewish law or custom. The first recorded instance of a blood libel against Jews was in the writings of Apion, who claimed that the Jews sacrificed Greek victims in the Temple. After this there are no existent records of the blood libel against the Jews until the 12th century legend surrounding William of Norwich, first recorded in the Peterborough Chronicle. The libel afterward became an increasingly common accusation. In many subsequent cases, anti-Semitic blood libels served as the basis for a blood libel cult, in which the alleged victim of human sacrifice was venerated as a Christian martyr. Many Jews were killed as a result of false blood libels, which continued into the 20th century, with the Beilis Trial in Russia and the Kielce pogrom in Poland. Blood libel stories persist in the Arab world. Blood libels were the false accusations that Jews used human blood, especially the blood of Christian children, in religious rituals. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Apion, 20s BC - c. ... William of Norwich (1132? - March 1144) was an English boy who was supposedly ritually murdered by Jews. ... The Peterborough Chronicle (also called The Laud Manuscript) is one of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles that contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman Conquest. ... Menahem Mendel Beilis (Russian: ; 1874-1934) was a Ukrainian Jew accused of blood libel and ritual murder in a notorious 1913 trial, known as the Beilis trial or Beilis affair. The process sparked international criticism of the anti-Semitic policies of the Russian Empire. ... Kielce pogrom refers to the events on July 4, 1946, in the Polish town of Kielce, when forty Polish Jews were massacred and eighty wounded out of about two hundred Holocaust survivors who returned home after World War II. Among victims were also two Gentile Poles. ...


Blood libel against Christians

During the first and second centuries, some Roman commentators had various interpretations of the ritual of the Eucharist and related teachings. While celebrating the Eucharist, Christians drink red wine in response to the words "This is the blood of Christ". Propaganda arguing that the Christians literally drank blood based on their belief in transubstantiation was written and used to persecute Christians. Romans were highly suspicious of Christian adoptions of abandoned Roman babies and this was suggested as a possible source of the blood. The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ that, according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, occurs in the Eucharist and that is called in Greek (see Metousiosis). ... First Christians in Kiev by Vasily Perov; Christians worshipping secretly in fear of persecution Christians have experienced persecution from both non-Christians and from other Christians during the history of Christianity. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the birth parents. ...


In the Mandaean scripture, the Ginza Rba, a purportedly Christian group called the "Minunei" are accused of it against the Jews: "They kill a Jewish child, they take his blood, they cook it in bread and they proffer it to them as food." (Ginza Rba 9.1). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... Ginza Rba (in Mandaic, which translates into The Great Treasure) or Siddra Rba (The Great Book) is one of many holy scriptures of the Mandaean religion. ...


Contemporary blood libel myths in the West

Accusations of ritual murder are being advanced by different groups to this day.


One claim stated that physicians in the People's Republic of China who perform abortions consider the fetus a delicacy and eat it. The story, reported from Hong Kong by Bruce Gilley, was investigated by Senator Jesse Helms, and gruesome artwork reminiscent of traditional depictions of blood libel was featured in several anti-abortion campaigns.[1] The only use for "human fetal tissue" is in the medical research field, particularly stem cell research.[2][3] Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ...


Another contemporary blood libel in the United States alleges, falsely, that both neopagans and Satanists use human blood, sexual abuse, or ritual murder, especially of children, in their rituals. Often Satanism, all of the diverse neopagan religions, the role playing game Dungeons & Dragons, and sometimes Roman Catholicism and liberal or non-fundamentalist Christian denominations, are portrayed as expressions of one monolithic and ancient global conspiracy of Satan-worshippers. Mike Warnke (The Satan Seller), Bill Schnoebelen (Wicca: Satan's Little White Lie), Lawrence Pazder and Michelle Smith (Michelle Remembers), Jon Watkins[4], Bill Pricer, and Ken Wooden (Child Lures) are some of the voices of these libels. Satanism Associated organizations Church of Satan First Satanic Church First Church of Satan Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Survival of the fittest | Objectivism | Might Is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game (RPG) currently published by Wizards of the Coast. ... Michael Alfred Mike Warnke (born November 19, 1946 in Evansville, Indiana) is a Christian evangelist and comedian who became one of evangelical Christianitys best-known experts on the subject of Satanism until an investigation concluded his involvement with Satanism was a hoax. ... Lawrence Pazder is a late (April 30, 1936 - March 5, 2004) Canadian psychiatrist and a co-author (with Michelle Smith), of Michelle Remembers. Dr. Pazder, a charismatic and popular psychiatrist, was born in Edmonton, Alberta. ... Michelle Smith (born September 27, 1949; maiden name Proby) is a Canadian author. ... Michelle Remembers was written by Dr. Lawrence Pazder, a late (April 30, 1936 - March 5, 2004) Canadian psychiatrist, and co-author and psychiatric patient Michelle Smith. ...

Dave Brown claims that his editorial cartoon (right) is based on Francisco de Goya's painting, Saturn Devouring his Son (left).

Many Jewish groups were shocked by the publication in 2003 by the British newspaper The Independent of a cartoon depicting Ariel Sharon eating a baby.[5] The Israeli government complained to the Press Complaints Commission that the cartoon alluded to the blood libel of Jews eating the children of Christians; Dave Brown, the author, responded that the cartoon was in fact inspired by Francisco de Goya's painting Saturn Devouring his Son[6] and was not anti-Semitic in intent. The PCC accepted Brown's argument, stating "There is nothing inherently anti-semitic about the Goya image or about the myth of Saturn devouring his children, which has been used previously to satirise other politicians accused of sacrificing their own 'children' for political purposes".[7] The cartoon ultimately earned Brown the British Political Cartoon Society's Political Cartoon of the Year award. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... The Press Complaints Commission is a British organisation that has regulated printed newspapers and magazines since 1990. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ...


Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, in his failed bid for re-election in March 2006, said communists have a history of boiling babies. "I have been accused many times of saying communists eat babies," said Berlusconi at a rally of his Forza Italia party. "Go and read the Black Book on Communism and you'll find that under Mao's China they didn't eat babies but they boiled them to fertilise the fields." Despite Berlusconi's 2006 denial that he has ever said that 'communists eat babies,' in the 2001 campaign, Berlusconi said "I can organise a conference in which I will prove communists have really eaten babies and done even worse things. "[8]   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... Forza Italia (Forward Italy) is an Italian party. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book authored by several European academics and senior researchers from CNRS, and edited by Dr. Stéphane Courtois. ...


The decline of belief in ritual murder

Belief in ritual murder has gradually disappeared from mainstream Christianity, and child-martyrs have been purged from the official Catholic calendar of saints. Nevertheless, similar accusations are still being made by some Muslim groups against the Jews, and the same accusations were defended by Nazism and related movements in the twentieth century. National Socialism redirects here. ...


See also

Vampirism is a term used differently in popular culture and in zoology. ... 1533 account of the execution of a witch charged with burning the town of Schiltach in 1531. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Darkness in El Dorado (subtitled: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon) is a controversial book published by the investigative journalist Patrick Tierney in 2000. ...

Bibliography

    • Schmoger, Karl (1974) The Life of Anna Katherina Emmerich: Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books and Publishing: 1974: Volume 1: ISBN 0-89555-059-8
    • Stevenson, Mark (2006) "Evidence May Back Human Sacrifice Claims", Associated Press news story, accessed September 18, 2006.

    External links


      Results from FactBites:
     
    Blood Libel, Host Desecration and other Myths (2416 words)
    In 1817, Czar Alexander I of Russia declared that the blood libel was a myth.
    This event introduced the blood libel myth to the Arab world, where it is still circulating.
    A variation of the blood libel myth developed in Europe early in the 11th century.
    Blood libel - Avoo - Ask Us A Question - (1254 words)
    Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals.
    Blood libels against the Jews were a common form of anti-Semitism during the Middle Ages, though there is no ritual involving human blood in Jewish law or custom.
    The blood libel resurfaced in the work of Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774–1824), a German Catholic nun and alleged visionary, when she commented (pp 547–8) in her biography that an elderly Jewish woman had told her that the blood libel was "true" and that Jews "did" steal Christian children for use in ritual sacrifices.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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