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Encyclopedia > Blood donation
A U.S. Navy Petty Officer donating blood.
A U.S. Navy Petty Officer donating blood.

A blood donation is when an individual voluntarily has blood drawn, usually for a blood transfusion to another person. The blood may also be used to manufacture medications using a process called fractionation. Give blood may mean: Give Blood (Brakes album) Give Blood (Bane album) Blood donation Category: ... Download high resolution version (600x897, 93 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x897, 93 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... A Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture of compounds by their boiling point, by heating to high enough temperatures. ...


In the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who give blood for a community supply. In poorer countries, established supplies are limited and donors usually give blood when family or friends need a transfusion. Many donors donate as an act of charity, but some are paid and in some cases there are incentives other than money. A donor can also have blood drawn for their own future use. Donating is relatively safe, but some donors have bruising where the needle is inserted or may feel faint.


Potential donors are evaluated for anything that might make their blood unsafe to use. The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. The donor is also asked about medical history and given a short physical examination to make sure that the donation is not hazardous to their health. How often a donor can give varies from days to months based on what they donate and the laws of the country where the donation takes place. Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... In medicine (gastroenterology), hepatitis is any disease featuring inflammation of the liver. ... The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ...


The amount of blood drawn and the methods vary, but a typical donation is about half of a liter of whole blood. The collection can be done manually or with automated equipment that only takes specific portions of the blood. Some of these components have a short shelf life, and maintaining a constant supply is a persistent problem. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ...

Contents

Types of donation

There are three major kinds of donations.[1] An allogeneic (also called homologous) donation is when a donor gives blood for storage at a blood bank for transfusion to an unknown recipient. A directed or replacement donor donation is when a person, often a family member, donates blood for transfusion to a specific individual.[2] The third kind is a person that has blood stored that will eventually be transfused back, usually after surgery. This is called an autologous donation.[3] Blood that is used to make medications can be made from allogeneic donations or from donations exclusively used for manufacturing.[4] A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...

A blood collection in Poland. Blood banks sometimes use modified recreational vehicles to provide a site for donation.
A blood collection in Poland. Blood banks sometimes use modified recreational vehicles to provide a site for donation.

Directed donations are rare in developed countries like Canada[5] but are common in developing countries such as Ghana.[6] They are often collected immediately before transfusion. Allogeneic donations are typically stored in a blood bank and are rarely used at the location where they were collected.


An event where donors come to give allogeneic blood is sometimes called a blood drive or a blood donor session. These can occur at a blood bank but they are often set up at a location in the community such as a shopping center, workplace, school, or a local house of worship.[7]


The actual process varies according to the laws of the country, and recommendations to donors vary according to the collecting organization.[8][9][10] The process described in this article is based on WHO recommendations,[11] but in developing countries many of these are not followed because large numbers of transfusions are frequently used in emergency situations[12] and there is no established supply to draw from. Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emergency Medicine is a speciality of medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention. ...


Screening

Donors are typically required to give consent for the process and this requirement means that minors cannot donate without parental consent.[13] In some countries, answers are associated with the donor's blood, but not name, to provide anonymity; in others, such as the United States, names are kept to create lists of ineligible donors.[14] If a potential donor does not meet these criteria, they are deferred. This term is used because many donors that are ineligible may be allowed to donate later. Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ...


The donor's race or ethnic background is sometimes important since certain blood types, especially rare ones, are more common in certain ethnic groups.[15] Historically, donors were segregated or excluded on race, religion, or ethnicity, but this is no longer a standard practice.[16] The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ...


Recipient safety

Donors are screened for health risks that might make the donation unsafe for the recipient. Some of these restrictions are controversial, such as restricting donations from men who have sex with men for HIV risk. Autologous donors are not always screened for recipient safety problems since the donor is the only person who will receive the blood.[17] Donors are also asked about medications such as dutasteride since they can be dangerous to a pregnant woman receiving the blood.[18] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... In biology, autologous refers to cells, tissues or even proteins that are reimplanted in the same individual as they come from. ... Dutasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. ...


Donors are examined for signs and symptoms of diseases that can be transmitted in a blood transfusion, such as HIV, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Screening may extend to questions about risk factors for various diseases, such as travel to countries at risk for malaria or variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD).[19] These questions vary from country to country. For example, Québec may defer donors who lived in the United Kingdom for risk of vCJD,[20] but donors in the United Kingdom are only restricted if they have had a blood transfusion in the United Kingdom.[21] In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom can be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see e. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... In medicine (gastroenterology), hepatitis is any disease featuring inflammation of the liver. ... A risk factor is a concept in finance theory such as the CAPM, APT and other theories that use pricing kernels. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Héma-Québec is a non-profit organization that manages the blood supply for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ...


Donor safety

The donor is also examined and asked specific questions about their medical history to make sure that donating blood isn't hazardous to their health. The donor's hematocrit or hemoglobin level is tested to make sure that the loss of blood will not make them anemic, and this check is the most common reason that a donor is ineligible.[22] Pulse, blood pressure, and body temperature are also evaluated. Elderly donors are sometimes also deferred on age alone because of health concerns.[23] The safety of donating blood during pregnancy has not been studied thoroughly and pregnant women are usually deferred.[24] In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... The hematocrit (Ht or HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are measures of the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Now darker and more mature, but still as fresh and melody-driven as ever, Anemic make up in killer tunes all they lack in lyrical genius. ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... An elder can refer to various topics: Elder (administrative title) Elder (religious) Elder - person of knowledge or high degree Elderberry plant (Sambucus) Box-elder plant (maple) Box elder bug (Leptocoris trivittatus or Boisea trivittatus) Elderly person - see: Old age William Henry Elder bishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Joycelyn Elders Elder...


Blood testing

A blood type is often determined by the agency that collects the blood, most frequently just A, B, AB, or O, Rh type and screening for antibodies to rare blood types. The blood typing is sometimes repeated and more testing, including a crossmatch, is usually done before a transfusion. Group O is often cited as the "universal donor"[25] but this only refers to red cell transfusions. For plasma transfusions the system is reversed and AB is the universal donor type.[26] This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


Most blood is tested for diseases, including some STDs.[27] The tests used are high-sensitivity screening tests and no actual diagnosis is made. Some of the test results are later found to be false positives using more specific testing.[28] False negatives are rare, but donors are discouraged from using blood donation for the purpose of anonymous STD screening because a false negative could mean a contaminated unit. The blood is usually discarded if these tests are positive, but there are some exceptions, such as autologous donations. The donor is generally notified of the test result.[29] A sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used to identify disease in an unsuspecting population. ...


Donated blood is tested by many methods, but the core tests recommended by the World Health Organization are these four:

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
  • Antibody to Hepatitis C
  • Antibody to HIV, usually subtypes 1 and 2
  • Serologic test for syphilis

The WHO reported in 2006 that 56 out of 124 countries surveyed did not use these basic tests on all blood donations.[30] “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


A variety of other tests for transfusion transmitted infections are often used based on local requirements. Additional testing is expensive, and in some cases the tests are not implemented because of the cost.[31] These additional tests include other infectious diseases such as West Nile Virus.[32] Sometimes multiple tests are used for a single disease to cover the limitations of each test. For example, the HIV antibody test will not detect a recently infected donor, so some blood banks use a p24 antigen or HIV nucleic acid test in addition to the basic antibody test to detect infected donors during that period. Cytomegalovirus is a special case in donor testing in that many donors will test positive for it.[33] The virus is not a hazard to a healthy recipient, but it can harm infants[34] and other recipients with weak immune systems.[33] West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ...


Obtaining the blood

A donor's arm at various stages of donation. The two photographs on the left show a blood pressure cuff being used as a tourniquet.
A donor's arm at various stages of donation. The two photographs on the left show a blood pressure cuff being used as a tourniquet.

There are two main methods of obtaining blood from a donor. The most frequent is simply to take the blood from a vein as whole blood. This blood is typically further processed into components, such as red blood cells and plasma. The other method is to draw blood from the donor, separate it using a centrifuge or a filter, store the desired part, and return the rest to the donor. This process is called apheresis, and it is often done with a machine specifically designed for this purpose. Download high resolution version (1920x640, 54 KB)Blood donation. ... Download high resolution version (1920x640, 54 KB)Blood donation. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ...


For direct transfusions a vein can be used but the blood may be taken from an artery instead.[35] In this case, the blood is not stored and is pumped directly from the donor into the recipient. This was the original method for blood transfusion and is rarely used in modern practice.[36] It is an option in emergent contexts where the normal blood supply is overwhelmed (war, natural disasters). Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ...


Site preparation and drawing blood

The blood is typically drawn from the median cubital vein on the inside of the elbow or from any other easily accessible large arm vein close to the skin. The skin over the blood vessel is cleaned with an antiseptic, usually iodine or chlorhexidine,[37] to prevent skin bacteria from contaminating the collected blood,[37] and also to prevent infections starting at the site where the needle pierced the donor's skin.[38] Superficial veins of the upper limb. ... Superficial vein is a term used to describe a vein that is close to the surface of the body. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Chlorhexidine (free base) structure Chlorhexidine Gluconate is an antiseptic used as an active ingredient in mouthwash designed to kill plaque and other oral bacteria. ...


A large needle such as a 16 gauge[39] (1.651 mm) is used to minimize shearing forces that may physically damage red blood cells as they flow through the needle.[40] The flow of blood from a vein into the needle and down tubing into the collection bag is mainly by the pull of gravity; however, in addition a tourniquet is usually lightly wrapped around the upper arm to increase the pressure of the blood in the arm veins and the donor may also be prompted to hold an object and squeeze it repeatedly to increase the blood flow through the vein. Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... In fluid dynamics, the rate of fluid flow is the volume of fluid which passes through a given area per unit time. ... A tourniquet can be defined as a constricting or compressing device used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Skeletal-muscle pump is the pumping effect of skeletal muscle on venous blood flow. ...


Whole blood

A mechanical tray agitates the bag to mix the blood with anticoagulants and prevent clotting.
A mechanical tray agitates the bag to mix the blood with anticoagulants and prevent clotting.

The most common method is collecting the blood from the donor's vein into a container. The amount of blood drawn varies from 200 milliliters to 550 milliliters depending on the country, but 450-500 milliliters is typical.[33] The blood is usually stored in a plastic bag that also contains sodium citrate, phosphate, dextrose, and sometimes adenine. This combination keeps the blood from clotting and preserves it during storage.[41] Other chemicals are sometimes added during processing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 354 KB) Summary This photo was taken by myself (camera phone) at an Australian Red Cross blood bank, and is free for use/distribution. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 354 KB) Summary This photo was taken by myself (camera phone) at an Australian Red Cross blood bank, and is free for use/distribution. ... Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...


The plasma from whole blood can be used to make plasma for transfusions or it can also be processed into other medications using a process called fractionation. This was a development of the dried plasma used to treat the wounded during World War II and variants on the process are still used to make a variety of other medications.[42] [43] Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture of compounds by their boiling point, by heating to high enough temperatures. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Apheresis

A relatively large needle is used for blood donations.
A relatively large needle is used for blood donations.

Usually the component returned is the red blood cells, the portion of the blood that takes the longest to replace. Using this method an individual can donate plasma or platelets much more frequently than they can safely donate whole blood. These can be combined, with a donor giving both plasma and platelets in the same donation. Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 396 KB) Summary This photo was taken by myself (camera phone) of my right arm at an Australian Red Cross blood bank (Sydney), and is free for use/distribution. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 396 KB) Summary This photo was taken by myself (camera phone) of my right arm at an Australian Red Cross blood bank (Sydney), and is free for use/distribution. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ...


Platelets can also be separated from whole blood, but they must be pooled from multiple donations. From three to ten units of whole blood are required for a therapeutic dose.[44] Plateletpheresis provides at least one full dose from each donation. A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...


Plasmapheresis is frequently used to collect source plasma that is used for manufacturing into medications much like the plasma from whole blood. Plasma collected at the same time as plateletpheresis is sometimes called concurrent plasma. Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ...


Apheresis is also used to collect more red blood cells than usual in a single donation and to collect white blood cells for transfusion.[45][46] leukapheresis A laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. ...


Recovery and time between donations

Donors are usually kept at the donation site for 10-15 minutes after donating since most adverse reactions take place during or immediately after the donation.[47] The needle site is covered with a bandage and the donor is directed to keep the bandage on for several hours.[48] Plasma is replaced after 2-3 days.[49] Red blood cells are replaced by bone marrow into the circulatory system at a slower rate, on average 36 days in healthy adult males.[50] A donor effectively burns about 650 calories by donating one pint of blood.[51] Bandages are also used in martial arts to prevent dislocated joints. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ...


These replacement rates are the basis of how frequently a donor can give blood. Plasmapheresis and plateletpheresis donors can give much more frequently, though the exact rate differs from country to country. For example, plasma donors in the United States are allowed to donate large volumes twice a week and could nominally give 83 liters in a year, whereas the same donor in Japan may only donate every other week and could only donate about 16 liters in a year.[52] Red blood cells are the limiting step for whole blood donations, and the frequency of donation varies widely. In Hong Kong it is from three to six months,[53] in Australia it is twelve weeks,[54] and in the United States it is 56 days (eight weeks).[55] Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ...


Complications

Donors are screened for health problems that would put them at risk for serious complications from donating. First-time donors, teenagers, and women are at a higher risk of a reaction.[56][57] One study showed that 2% of donors had an adverse reaction to donation.[58] Most of these reactions are minor. A study of 194,000 donations found only one donor with long-term complications.[59] In the United States, a blood bank is required to report any death that might possibly be linked to a blood donation. An analysis of all reports from October 2004 to September 2006 evaluated 22 events and found no deaths related to donation, though one could not be ruled out.[60]

Slight bruising on the arm from the donation needle; shown 24 hours after donation
Slight bruising on the arm from the donation needle; shown 24 hours after donation

Hypovolemic reactions can occur because of a rapid change in blood pressure. Fainting is generally the worst problem encountered.[61] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 631 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1253 × 1191 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Blood donation Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 631 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1253 × 1191 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Blood donation Metadata... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ...


The process has similar risks to other forms of phlebotomy. Bruising of the arm (hematoma) from the needle insertion is the most common concern. One study found that less than 1% of donors had this problem.[62] Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late 19th century, involving the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of blood from a patient in the belief that this would cure or prevent illness and disease. ... Hematoma on thigh, 6 days after a fall down stairs, 150ml of blood drained a few days later A hematoma, or haematoma, is a collection of blood, generally the result of hemorrhage, or, more specifically, internal bleeding. ...


Donors sometimes have adverse reactions to the sodium citrate used in apheresis collection procedures to keep the blood from clotting. Since the anticoagulant is returned to the donor along with blood components that are not being collected, it can bind the calcium in the donor's blood and cause hypocalcemia.[63] These reactions tend to cause tingling in the lips, but may cause convulsions or more serious problems. Donors are sometimes given calcium supplements during the donation to prevent these side effects.[64] Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... In medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of less than a total calcium of 2. ...


In apheresis procedures, the red blood cells are often returned. If this is done manually and the donor receives the blood from a different person, a transfusion reaction can take place. Manual apheresis is extremely rare in the developed world because of this risk and automated procedures are as safe as whole blood donations.[65] Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ...


The final risk to blood donors is from equipment that has not been properly sterilized. This is not a concern in developed countries such as Ireland since all of the equipment that comes in contact with blood is disposed after use.[66] It was a significant problem in China in the 1990s, and up to 250,000 blood plasma donors may have been infected with HIV from shared equipment.[67][68] Sterilization can mean: Sterilization (surgical procedure) - an operation which renders an animal or human unable to procreate Sterilization (microbiology) - the removal of microbiological organisms This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Storage, supply and demand

The collected blood is usually stored as separate components, and some of these have short shelf lives. There are no storage solutions to keep platelets for extended periods of time, though some are being studied as of 2008,[69] and the longest shelf life used is seven days.[70] Red blood cells, the most frequently used component, have a shelf life of 35-42 days at refrigerated temperatures.[71][72] This can be extended with by freezing with a mixture of glycerol[33] but this process is expensive, rarely done, and requires an extremely cold freezer for storage. Plasma can be stored frozen for an extended period of time and is typically given an expiration date of one year[73] and maintaining a supply is less of a problem. Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ...


The limited storage time means that it is difficult to have a stockpile of blood to prepare for a disaster. The subject was discussed at length after the September 11th attacks in the United States, and the consensus was that collecting during a disaster was impractical and that efforts should be focused on maintaining an adequate supply at all times.[74] Blood centers in the U.S. often have difficulty maintaining even a three day supply for routine transfusion demands.[75] The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


The World Health Organization recognizes World Blood Donor Day on 14th June each year to promote blood donation. This is the birthday of Karl Landsteiner, the scientist that discovered the ABO blood group system.[76] WHO redirects here. ... Karl Landsteiner Karl Landsteiner (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist and physician. ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ...


Benefits and incentives

The World Health Organization set a goal in 1997 for all blood donations to come from unpaid volunteer donors,[77] but as of 2006, only 49 of 124 countries surveyed had established this as a standard. Plasmapheresis donors in the United States are still paid for donations.[78] A few countries rely on paid donors to maintain an adequate supply.[79] Some countries, such as Tanzania, have made great strides in moving towards this standard, with 20 percent of donors in 2005 being unpaid volunteers and 80 percent in 2007,[6] but 68 of 124 countries surveyed by WHO had made little or no progress. In some countries, for example Brazil,[80] it is against the law to receive any compensation, monetary or otherwise, for the donation of blood or other human tissues. Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ...


In patients prone to iron overload, blood donation prevents the accumulation of toxic quantities.[81] Blood banks in the United States must label the blood if it is from a therapeutic donor, so most do not accept donations from donors with any blood disease.[82] Others, such as the Australian Red Cross Blood Service, accept blood from donors with hemochromatosis. It is a genetic disorder that does not affect the safety of the blood.[83] Donating blood may reduce the risk of heart disease for men,[84] but the link has not been firmly established. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) is a branch of the Australian Red Cross. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ...


Other incentives are sometimes added by employers, usually time off for the purposes of donating.[85] Blood centers will also sometimes add incentives such as assurances that donors would have priority during shortages or other programs, prize drawings for donors and rewards for organizers of successful drives.[86] Most allogeneic blood donors donate as an act of charity and do not expect to receive any direct benefit from the donation.[87]


See also

Americas Blood Centers, the largest provider of blood in the United States American Red Cross Give Life, a subsidiary of the ARC American Association of Blood Banks New York Blood Center Florida Blood Services Australian Red Cross Blood Service Canadian Blood Services Irish Blood Transfusion Service Hong Kong Red... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ...

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Gao (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is an international public health agency with 100 years of experience in working to improve health and living standards of the countries of the Americas. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Blood donation
  • Blood Donation and Processing
  • British guidelines for transfusion medicine
Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ... leukapheresis A laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Coombs test (also known as Coombs test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in [[immunohematology] and immunology. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... An exchange transfusion is a medical treatment in which apheresis is used to remove one persons red blood cells or platelets and replace them with transfused blood products. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... ISBT 128 is system for identification, labeling and processing of human blood, tissue and organ products using an internationally standardised barcode system. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The Colton antigen system (Co) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney[1] and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Template:Hematology-stub // The Diego system was discovered in 1955 in one Mrs. ... The Duffy antigen is a pair of proteins which appears on the outside of red blood cells. ... Hh antigen system - diagram showing the molecular structure of the ABO(H) antigen system Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen which is present in blood group O). ... Ii antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 6. ... The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. ... XK (also known as Kell blood group precursor) is a protein found on human red blood cells and other tissues which is responsible for the Kx antigen which helps determine a persons blood type. ... The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. ... ICAM4 is an intercellular adhesion molecule responsible for the Landsteiner-Wiener blood type. ... Lewis antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... MNS antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 4. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 22. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other blood gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck Charity, meaning selfless giving, is one conventional English translation of the Greek term agapē. // Etymology In the 1400, charity meant the state of love or simple affection which one was in or out of regarding one... A Donation is a gift given, typically to a cause or/and for charitable purposes. ... Organ donationcan only be peformed by untrained workers who do not have a drivers license and are poor. ... Introduction Prior to the introduction of brain-stem death into law in the mid to late 1970s, all organ transplants from cadaveric donors came from non-heart beating donors (NHBD). ... An egg donor is a woman who provides usually several eggs (ova, oocytes) for another person or couple who want to have a child. ... Sperm donation is the name of the practice by which a man provides his semen with the intention that it be used to produce a baby where the man does not have sexual relations with the recipient of his semen. ... Body donation is the donation of the whole body after death for medical research and education. ... Car donation is the practice of giving away no-longer-wanted automobiles to charity organizations. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ACS :: Blood Donation (1347 words)
People are not allowed to donate blood if their lab tests or questionnaires reveal they may be at high risk for certain diseases.
If you are interested in donating blood, contact the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) for a list of member institutions or visit their blood bank locator.
Blood from directed donors is not usually any safer than blood from other volunteer donors and in some cases may actually be more likely to cause problems.
BADHAN: All About Blood Donation .................. (5983 words)
If blood is treated to prevent clotting and permitted to stand in a container, the red blood cells, which weigh more than the other components, will settle to the bottom; the plasma will stay on top; and the white blood cells and platelets will remain suspended between the plasma and the red blood cells.
In this process, blood is drawn from the donor into an apheresis instrument, which, using centrifugation, separates the blood into its components, retains the platelets, and returns the remainder of the blood to the donor.
Land Steiner classified human blood into A,B and O groups and demonstrated that transfusions between humans of the group A or B did not result in the destruction of new blood cells and that this catastrophe occurred only when a person was transfused with the blood of a person belonging at a different group.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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