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Encyclopedia > Blood bank

A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... List of human blood components and their concentrations Categories: Blood | Lists ... Blood donation is a process by which a blood donor voluntarily has blood drawn for storage in a blood bank for subsequent use in a blood transfusion. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...


An early development leading to the establishment of blood banks occurred in 1915, when Richard Lewison of Mount Sinai Hospital, New York initiated the use of sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. This discovery transformed the blood transfusion procedure from direct (vein-to-vein) to indirect. In the same year, Richard Weil demonstrated the feasibility of refrigerated storage of anticoagulated blood. The introduction of a citrate-glucose solution by Francis Peyton Rous and JR Turner two years later permitted storage of blood in containers for several days, thus opening the way for the first "blood depot" established in Britain during World War I. Oswald Hope Robertson, a medical researcher and U.S. Army officer who established the depots, is now recognized as the creator of the first blood bank. 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Mount Sinai Hospital (zip code 10029) is a hospital in New York City, New York, serving Manhattans Upper East Side and Harlem. ... Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Francis Peyton Rous (October 5, 1879, Texas – February 16, 1970, New York City) was an American pathologist whose discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas. ... Oswald Hope Robertson (2 June 1886 – 23 March 1966) was an English-born medical scientist who pioneered the idea of blood banks. ... US Army Seal HHC, US Army Distinctive Unit Insignia The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


By the mid-1930s, the Soviet Union had set up a system of at least sixty large blood centers and more than 500 subsidiary ones, all storing "canned" blood and shipping it to all corners of the country. News of the Soviet experience traveled to America, where in 1937 Bernard Fantus, director of therapeutics at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago, established the first hospital blood bank in the United States. In creating a hospital laboratory that preserved and stored donor blood, Fantus originated the term "blood bank." Within a few years, hospital and community blood banks were established across the United States. Bernard Fantus (September 1, 1874 -April 14, 1940) was a Hungarian American professor of therapeutics. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ...


An important breakthrough came in 1939-40 when Karl Landsteiner, Alex Wiener, Philip Levine, and R.E. Stetson discovered the Rh blood group system, which was found to be the cause of the majority of transfusion reactions up to that time. Three years later, the introduction by J.F. Loutit and Patrick L. Mollison of acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution, which reduces the volume of anticoagulant, permitted transfusions of greater volumes of blood and allowed longer term storage. Karl Landsteiner (June 14, 1868 - June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist. ... A blood type is a description of an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ...


Carl Walter and W.P. Murphy, Jr., introduced the plastic bag for blood collection in 1950. Replacing breakable glass bottles with durable plastic bags allowed for the evolution of a collection system capable of safe and easy preparation of multiple blood components from a single unit of whole blood. 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Further extending the shelf life of stored blood was an anticoagulant preservative, CPDA-1, introduced in 1979. It increased the blood supply and facilitated resource sharing among blood banks.


Donated blood only lasts 28-42 days. Platelets, which contain clotting agents, last only 5 days.[1] A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


See also: autologous donation, phlebotomist In biology, autologous refers to cells, tissues or even proteins that are reimplanted in the same individual as they come from. ... A phlebotomist is an individual trained to draw blood (venipuncture), either for laboratory tests, or for blood donations. ...


External links

  • American Association of Blood Banks

  Results from FactBites:
 
blood bank. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (288 words)
Blood plasma, the fluid portion of the blood, may be frozen and/or dried and stored indefinitely.
Some centers save umbilical cord blood (blood that is especially rich in stem cells) for use in treatments; however, the cost of preparing and storing such blood is much higher than that of normal blood.
Sometimes parents store their newborn’s cord blood at a private cord blood bank in case the child has need of it, but the use of one own’s cord blood is ineffective or undesirable in many diseases where such blood is used as a treatment.
Encyclopedia: Blood bank (1096 words)
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets).
Blood donation is a process by which a blood donor voluntarily has blood drawn for storage in a blood bank for subsequent use in a blood transfusion.
An early development leading to the establishment of blood banks occurred in 1915, when Richard Lewison of Mount Sinai Hospital, New York initiated the use of sodium citrate as an anticoagulant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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