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Encyclopedia > Blood alcohol content

Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. It is usually measured as mass per volume. For example, a BAC of 0.02% means 0.2 ‰ (permille) or 0.02 grams of alcohol per 100 grams of individual's blood, or 0.2 grams of alcohol per 1000 grams of blood. Blood alcohol concentration is measured in many different units and in many different fashions, but they are all relatively synonymous for each other. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A permille or per mille is a tenth of a percent or one part per thousand. ...


Blood alcohol levels


In many countries, BAC is reported as grams of alcohol per liter of blood (g/L). Because the specific gravity of blood is close to 1, the numerical value of BAC measured as mass per volume and that of BAC measured as mass per mass do not differ to any consequential degree other than the placement of the decimal point. For example, 1 g/L is equivalent to 0.94 g/kg.


In the UK, BAC is reported as milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood. For example, a BAC of 0.08% is legally given as a limit of 80 mg per 100 ml [1]. It is also reported in grams per litre, which is an equivalent measurement [2].


The number of drinks consumed is a very poor measure of intoxication largely because of variation in physiology and individual alcohol tolerance. However, it is generally accepted that the consumption from sober of two standard drinks (containing a total of 20 grams) of alcohol will increase the average person's BAC roughly 0.05% (a single standard drink consumed each hour after the first two will keep the BAC at approximately 0.05%), but there is much variation according to body weight, sex, and body fat percentage. Furthermore, neither BAC nor the number of drinks consumed are necessarily accurate indicators of the level of impairment. Tolerance to alcohol varies from one person to another, and can be affected by such factors as genetics, adaptation to chronic alcohol use, and synergistic effects of drugs. Alcohol tolerance refers to a decreased response to the effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. ... Many countries around the world employ a system of Standard Drinks. A standard drink is fixed measure of pure beverage alcohol, but is usually expressed as a measure of beer, wine or spirits for simplicity . ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Alcohol content in blood can be directly measured by a hospital laboratory. More commonly in law enforcement investigations, BAC is estimated from breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) measured with a machine commonly referred to as a Breathalyzer which is a genericized trademark. An Intoximeters Alcosensor IV breathalyzer A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. ... A genericized trademark (also known as a generic trade mark or proprietary eponym) is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for (or synonymous with) a particular class of product or service. ...

Contents

Effects at different levels

See also: Effects of alcohol on the body

Unless a person has developed a high tolerance for alcohol, a BAC rating of 0.20% represents very serious intoxication (most first-time drinkers would be unconscious by about 0.15%)[citation needed], and 0.35% represents potentially fatal alcohol poisoning. 0.40% is the accepted LD50, or lethal dose for 50% of adult humans. For a long-time, heavy drinker, those numbers can at least double. In extreme cases, individuals have survived BACs as high as 0.914.
The effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...

Progressive Effects of Alcohol[1]
BAC (%) Behavior Impairment
0.01–0.029
  • Avg. individual appears
    normal
  • Subtle effects that can be
    detected with special tests
0.03–0.059
  • Mild euphoria
  • Sense of well-being
  • Relaxation
  • Talkativeness
  • Joyous
  • Decreased inhibition
  • Alertness
  • Judgment
  • Coordination
  • Concentration
0.06–0.10
  • Blunted Feelings
  • Disinhibition
  • Extroversion
  • Sexual Pleasure
  • Reflexes
  • Reasoning
  • Depth Perception
  • Distance Acuity
  • Peripheral Vision
  • Glare Recovery
0.11–0.20
  • Over-Expression
  • Emotional Swings
  • Angry or Sad
  • Boisterous
  • Reaction Time
  • Gross Motor Control
  • Staggering
  • Slurred Speech
0.21–0.29
  • Stupor
  • Lose Understanding
  • Impaired Sensations
  • Severe Motor Impairment
  • Loss of Consciousness
  • Memory Blackout
0.30–0.39
  • Severe Depression
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death Possible
  • Bladder Function
  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
>0.40
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death
  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
Standard Drink Chart[2]
See also: Alcohol equivalence
Alcohol Amount in ml Amount in fl. oz. Colloquial amount Alcohol % by vol. Alcohol in ml
80 proof liquor 44 millilitres 1.25 oz one small shot 40 18
beer 355 millilitres 12 oz one can 4.5 18
table wine 148 millilitres 5 oz one small glass 10 18
Male
Female
Approximate Blood Alcohol Percentage[3]
Drinks Body Weight
40 kg 45 kg 55 kg 64 kg 73 kg 82 kg 91 kg 100 kg 109 kg
90 lb 100 lb 120 lb 140 lb 160 lb 180 lb 200 lb 220 lb 240 lb
6 st 6 lb 7 st 2 lb 8 st 8 lb 10 st 11 st 6 lb 12 st 12 lb 14 st 4 lb 15 st 10 lb 17 st 2 lb
1
.05
.04
.05
.03
.04
.03
.03
.02
.03
.02
.03
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
2
.10
.08
.09
.06
.08
.05
.07
.05
.06
.04
.05
.04
.05
.03
.04
.03
.04
3
.15
.11
.14
.09
.11
.08
.10
.07
.09
.06
.08
.06
.07
.05
.06
.05
.06
4
.20
.15
.18
.12
.15
.11
.13
.09
.11
.08
.10
.08
.09
.07
.08
.06
.08
5
.25
.19
.23
.16
.19
.13
.16
.12
.14
.11
.13
.09
.11
.09
.10
.08
.09
6
.30
.23
.27
.19
.23
.16
.19
.14
.17
.13
.15
.11
.14
.10
.12
.09
.11
7
.35
.26
.32
.22
.27
.19
.23
.16
.20
.15
.18
.13
.16
.12
.14
.11
.13
8
.40
.30
.36
.25
.30
.21
.26
.19
.23
.17
.20
.15
.18
.14
.17
.13
.15
9
.45
.34
.41
.28
.34
.24
.29
.21
.26
.19
.23
.17
.20
.15
.19
.14
.17
10
.51
.38
.45
.31
.38
.27
.32
.23
.28
.21
.25
.19
.23
.17
.21
.16
.19
Subtract approximately .01% every 40 minutes after drinking.

To use a simple Blood Alcohol Content calculator from the Wisconsin Department of Public Safety, refer to the following link: Blood Alcohol Calculator Alcohol equivalence refers to the fact that United States standard drinks of alcoholic beverages contain equivalent amounts of alcohol, which is 0. ...


Units of measurement

There are several different units in use around the world for defining blood alcohol concentration. Each is defined as either a mass of alcohol per volume of blood or a mass of alcohol per mass of blood (never a volume per volume). 1 milliliter of blood is approximately equivalent to 1 gram of blood, 1.06 grams to be exact. Because of this, units by volume are similar but not identical to units by mass.

Unit Dimensions Equivalent to Used in
1 percent BAC by volume 1/100 (%) g/mL = 1 cg/mL 9.43 mg/g, 217.4 mmol/L United States
1 permille BAC by volume 1/1000 (‰) g/mL = 1 mg/mL 0.943 mg/g, 21.7 mmol/L Netherlands, Lithuania, Poland
1 basis point BAC by volume 1/10,000 () g/mL = 100 μg/mL 94.3 ppm, 2.17 mmol/L Britain
1 permille BAC by mass 1/1000 (‰) g/g = 1 mg/g 1.06 mg/mL, 23 mmol/L Finland, Norway, Sweden
1 part per million 1/1,000,000 (ppm) g/g = 1 μg/g 1.06 μg/mL, 23 μmol/L
1 thousandth Molarity 1 mmol/L 0.0046 cg/mL,[4] 4.34 cg/g Medical personnel

A permille or per mille is a tenth of a percent or one part per thousand. ... A basis point (often denoted as bp, bps or ; rarely, permyriad) is a unit that is equal to 1/100th of 1%. It is commonly used to denote the change in a financial instrument, or the difference (spread) between two interest rates; although it may be used in any case... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...

Legal limits

For purposes of law enforcement, BAC is used to define intoxication and provides a rough measure of impairment. Although degree of impairment may vary among individuals with the same BAC, BAC can be measured objectively and is therefore legally useful and difficult to contest in court. Most countries disallow operation of motor vehicles and heavy machinery above prescribed levels of BAC. Operation of boats and aircraft are also regulated.


Limits by country (BAC: Blood Alcohol Content)

The alcohol level at which a person is considered to be legally impaired varies by country. The list below gives limits by country. These are typically BAC (blood alcohol content) limits for the operation of a vehicle.

BAC Country
0.05% Argentina
0.05% Australia
=Zero= • learner drivers, provisional/probationary drivers and DUI drivers
0.02% • WA and ACT learner, probationary & convicted DUI drivers
0.05% Austria
0.05% Belgium
0.06% Brazil[5]
0.05% Bulgaria
0.08% Canada[3](except 0.05% in Manitoba)[6]
=Zero= • drivers with class G1 or G2 licenses in Ontario, or class 7 or 5P in the Northwest Territories
=Zero= Croatia
=Zero= Czech Republic
0.05% Denmark
0.02% Estonia
0.05% Finland
0.05% France[7]
0.05% Germany
=Zero= *Learner drivers,all drivers under 21 and new drivers for first two years of licence
0.05% Greece
=Zero= Hungary
0.05% Iceland
0.03% India[8]
0.08% Ireland [4]
0.05% Israel
0.05% Italy
0.015% Japan
0.04% Lithuania
0.05% Luxembourg
0.08% Malaysia
0.08% Malta
0.08% Mexico
BAC Country
0.05% Netherlands
=Zero= • drivers in their first five years after gaining a driving license
0.08% New Zealand
0.03% • drivers under 20
0.02% Norway
0.02% Poland
0.05% Portugal
0.05% Republic of Macedonia
=Zero= Romania
=Zero= Russia * up to 01.07.2008
0.03% Russia * from 01.07.2008
=Zero= Saudi Arabia
0.05% Serbia
0.08% Singapore [5]
=Zero= Slovakia
0.05% Slovenia
=Zero= • drivers in their first two years after gaining a drivers licence
0.025% Spain
0.05% • prior to 2003 for drivers and cyclists
0.015% • drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving licence
0.02% Sweden
0.05% Switzerland
0.05% Thailand
0.05% Turkey
=Zero= United Arab Emirates
0.08% United Kingdom [6]
0.02% • operators of aeroplanes
0.08% United States[9]
For further information on U.S. laws,
see Alcohol laws of the United States by state.
0.01% • U.S. operators of common carriers, such as buses
0.04% • U.S. pilots, Federal Aviation Regulations[10]
within eight hours of consumption
0.08% Uruguay

Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This list of alcohol laws of the United States by state provides an overview of alcohol-related laws by state throughout the United States. ...

Limits by country (BrAC: Breath Alcohol Content)

In certain countries, alcohol limits are determined by the Breath Alcohol Content (BrAC), not to be confused with BAC.

  • In Greece, the BrAC limit is 25 micrograms of alcohol per 1000 millilitres of breath. The limit in blood is 0,50 g/l).

Brac 0,25 - 0,40=200 euros fine, Brac 0,40 - 0,60=700 euros fine, plus suspension of driving licence for 90 days, Brac>0,60=2 months imprisonment,plus suspension of driving licence for 180 days,plus 1200 euros fine

  • In The Netherlands and Finland, the BrAC limit is 220 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath (μg/l, colloquially known as "Ugl").
  • In Singapore, the BrAC limit is 35 microgrammes of alcohol per 100 millilitres of breath. [7]
  • In the United Kingdom the BrAC limit is 35 microgrammes of alcohol per 100 millilitres of breath (as well as the above defined BAC).

For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ...

Other limitation schemes

  • For South Korea, the penalties for different BAC levels include
    • 0.01–0.049 = No Penalty
    • 0.05–0.09 = 100 days of license cancellation
    • >0.10 = Cancellation of car license.
    • >0.36 = Arrest
    • Getting caught driving while drunk 3 times in 5 years; or 2 times in 3 years results in arrest.[citation needed]

Test assumptions

Blood alcohol tests assume the individual being tested is average in various ways. For example, on average the ratio of BAC to breath alcohol content (the partition ratio) is 2100 to 1. In other words, there are 2100 parts of alcohol in the blood for every part in the breath. However, the actual ratio in any given individual can vary from 1300:1 to 3100:1, or even more widely. This ratio varies not only from person to person, but within one person from moment to moment. Thus a person with a true blood alcohol level of .08 but a partition ratio of 1700:1 at the time of testing would have a .10 reading on a Breathalyzer calibrated for the average 2100:1 ratio.


A similar assumption is made in urinalysis. When urine is analyzed for alcohol, the assumption is that there are 1.3 parts of alcohol in the urine for every 1 part in the blood, even though the actual ratio can vary greatly. A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ...


Breath alcohol testing further assumes that the test is post-absorptive—that is, that the absorption of alcohol in the subject's body is complete. If the subject is still actively absorbing alcohol, his body has not reached a state of equilibrium where the concentration of alcohol is uniform throughout the body. Most forensic alcohol experts reject test results during this period as the amounts of alcohol in the breath will not accurately reflect a true concentration in the blood.


Metabolism and excretion

Alcohol is removed from the bloodstream by a combination of metabolism, excretion, and evaporation. The relative proportion disposed of in each way varies from person to person, but typically about 92 to 98% is metabolised, 1 to 3% is excreted in urine, and 1 to 5% evaporates through the breath. A very small proportion (less than 0.5%) is also excreted in the sweat, tears, etc. Excretion into urine typically begins after about 40 minutes, whereas metabolisation commences as soon as the alcohol is absorbed, and even before alcohol levels have risen in the brain. (In fact, in some males, alcohol dehydrogenase levels in the stomach are high enough that some metabolization occurs even before the alcohol is absorbed.) Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Metabolism is mainly by the group of six enzymes collectively called alcohol dehydrogenase. These convert the ethanol into acetaldehyde (an intermediate that is actually more toxic than ethanol). The enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase then converts the acetaldehyde into non-toxic acetyl-CoA. Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ...


Many physiologically active materials are removed from the bloodstream (whether by metabolism or excretion) at a rate proportional to the current concentration, so that they exhibit exponential decay with a characteristic halflife (see pharmacokinetics). This is not true for alcohol, however. Typical doses of alcohol actually saturate the enzymes' capacity, so that alcohol is removed from the bloodstream at an approximately constant rate. This rate varies considerably between individuals; experienced male drinkers with a high body mass may process up to 30 grams (38 mL) per hour, but a more typical figure is 10 grams (12.7 mL) per hour. Persons below the age of 25, women, persons of certain ethnicities, and persons with liver disease may process alcohol more slowly. Many East Asians (e.g. about half of Japanese) have impaired acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; this causes acetaldehyde levels to peak higher, producing more severe hangovers and other effects such as flushing and tachycardia. Conversely, members of certain ethnicities that traditionally did not brew alcoholic beverages have lower levels of alcohol dehydrogenases and thus "sober up" very slowly, but reach lower aldehyde concentrations and have milder hangovers. Rate of detoxification of alcohol can also be slowed by certain drugs which interfere with the action of alcohol dehydrogenases, notably aspirin, furfural (which may be found in fusel oil), fumes of certain solvents, many heavy metals, and some pyrazole compounds. Also suspected of having this effect are cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), and acetaminophen (Tylenol) (paracetamol). Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... A quantity is said to be subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its value. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1. ... For other uses, see Hangover (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hangover (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... The chemical compound furfural is an industrial chemical derived from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat and wheat bran, and sawdust. ... Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, are higher order (more than two carbons) alcohols formed by fermentation and present in cider, mead, beer, wine, and spirits to varying degrees. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... Pyrazole refers both to the class of simple aromatic ring organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a 5-membered ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms in adjacent positions and to the unsubstituted parent compound. ... Cimetidine (INN) (IPA: ) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits the production of acid in the stomach. ... Cimetidine is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits the production of acid in the stomach. ... Ranitidine (INN) (IPA: ) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). ... Ranitidine is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... For more information about the active ingredient of Tylenol, acetaminophen, see Paracetamol. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ...


There are currently no known drugs or other ingestible agents which will accelerate alcohol metabolism. Alcohol ingestion can be slowed by ingesting alcohol on a full stomach. Spreading the total absorption of alcohol over a greater period of time decreases the maximum alcohol level, decreasing the hangover effect. Thus, drinking on a full stomach, or drinking while taking aspirin, furfural, or other drugs which slow the release of acetaldehyde, will reduce the maximum blood levels of this substance, and decrease the hangover. Alcohol in non-carbonated beverages is absorbed more slowly than alcohol in carbonated drinks. For other uses, see Hangover (disambiguation). ...


Retrograde extrapolation

Retrograde extrapolation is the mathematical process by which someone's blood alcohol concentration at the time of driving is estimated by projecting backwards from a later chemical test. This involves estimating the absorption and elimination of alcohol in the interim between driving and testing. The rate of elimination in the average person is commonly estimated at .015 to .020 percent per hour, although again this can vary from person to person and in a given person from one moment to another. Metabolism can be affected by numerous factors, including such things as body temperature, the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, and the amount and type of food consumed. In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of constructing new data points outside a discrete set of known data points. ...


In an increasing number of states, laws have been enacted to facilitate this speculative task: the BAC at the time of driving is legally presumed to be the same as when later tested. There are usually time limits put on this presumption, commonly two or three hours, and the defendant is permitted to offer evidence to rebut this presumption.


Forward extrapolation can also be attempted. If the amount of alcohol consumed is known, along with such variables as the weight and sex of the subject and period and rate of consumption, the blood alcohol level can be estimated by extrapolating forward. Although subject to the same infirmities as retrograde extrapolation—guessing based upon averages and unknown variables—this can be relevant in estimating BAC when driving and/or corroborating or contradicting the results of a later chemical test.


Blood alcohol content calculation

BAC can be roughly estimated using a mathematical approach. While a mathematical BAC estimation is not as accurate as a breathalyzer, it can be useful for calculating a BAC level that is not currently testable, or a level that may be present in the future. While there are several ways to calculate a BAC, one of the most effective ways is to simply measure the total amount of alcohol consumed divided by the total amount of water in the body—effectively giving the percent alcohol per volume water in the blood. An Intoximeters Alcosensor IV breathalyzer A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. ...


The total water weight of an individual can be calculated by multiplying his or her body weight by their percent water. For example, a 150 pound woman would have a total amount of water of 73.5 pounds (150 x .49). For easiest calculations, this weight should be in kilograms, which can be easily converted by dividing the total pounds by 2.205. 73.5 pounds of water is equivalent to 33.3 kilograms of water. 33.3 kilograms of water is equivalent to 33,300 mL of water (1 L of water has a mass of 1 kg, and 1 L = 1000 mL).


Gender plays an important role in the total amount of water that a person has. In general, men have a higher percent of water per pound (58%) than women (49%). This fact alone strongly contributes to the generalization that men require more alcohol than women to achieve the same BAC level. Additionally, men are, on average, heavier than women. The more water a person has, the more alcohol is required to achieve the same alcohol:blood ratio, or BAC level. Further, studies have shown that women's alcohol metabolism varies from that of men due to such biochemical factors as different levels of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (the enzyme which breaks down alcohol) and the effects of oral contraceptives. [8] Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1. ...


It is not strictly accurate to say that the water content of a person alone is responsible for the dissolution of alcohol within the body, because alcohol does dissolve in fatty tissue as well. When it does, a certain amount of alcohol is temporarily taken out of the blood and briefly stored in the fat. For this reason, most calculations of alcohol to body mass simply use the weight of the individual, and not specifically his water content.


See also

Booze redirects here. ... For other uses, see Under the influence. ...

References

  1. ^ A hybridizing of effects as described at Alcohol's Effects from Virginia Tech and Federal Aviation Regulation (CFR) 91.17: Alcohol and Flying (hosted on FlightPhysical.com)
  2. ^ Standard Drinks Chart from Virginia Tech
  3. ^ BAC Charts from Virginia Tech
  4. ^ Information obtained from Alcotest 7410 GLC Calibrator's Manual. Last Amended October 2000 page 3A-6.
  5. ^ Campos VR, Salgado R, Rocha MC, Duailibi S, Laranjeira R. [Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. [Article in Portuguese]. Cad Saude Publica. 2008 Apr;24(4):829-34]
  6. ^ untitled
  7. ^ Between 0.05% and 0.08%, drivers can be fined 135€ and have six points removed from their licence. Above 0.08% the punishment is more severe with possible imprisonment of up to two years, heavy fines and licence suspension. http://www2.securiteroutiere.gouv.fr/ressources/conseils/l-alcool-au-volant.html (in French)
  8. ^ This is according to Section 185 of Motor Vehicles Act 1988. On first offence, the punishment is imprisonment of 6 months and/or fine of 2000 Indian Rupees (INR). If the second offence is committed within three years, the punishment is 2 years and/or fine of 3000 Indian Rupees (INR). The clause of 30 mg/dL was added by an amendment in 1994. It came into effect beginning 14 November 1994.
  9. ^ Drivers under 21 (the American drinking age), however, are held to stricter standards under zero tolerance laws. Adopted in varying forms in all states, these laws hold the driver to much lower BAC levels for criminal and/or license suspension purposes, commonly 0.01% to 0.05%. Many states have statutory regulations regarding driving while "under the influence" of an intoxicant and a different law for driving beyond the legal blood alcohol concentration.
  10. ^ FindLaw for Legal Professionals - Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
  • The Handy Science Answer Book. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Library, 1997.
  • Taylor, L. Drunk Driving Defense, 6th edition. New York: Aspen Law and Business, 2006.
  • Perham, N. R., Moore, S. C., Shepherd, J. P. & Cusens, B. (2007). Identifying drunkenness in the night time economy. Addiction, 102(3), 377-380

This article or section should include material from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. ... This article or section should include material from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. ... This article or section should include material from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. ... Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ...

External links

  • Wisconsin DOT BAC calculator
  • International Blood Alcohol Limits
  • Blood Alcohol levels with practical exercises

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ignition Interlock by Smart Start - Blood Alcohol Content Calculator (193 words)
Blood alcohol content (or blood alcohol concentration), often abbreviated BAC, is the concentration of alcohol in blood, measured, by volume, as a percentage.
For example, a BAC of 0.20% means 1 part per 500 in an individual's blood is alcohol.
Use this blood alcohol content calculator to estimate just how little alcohol it takes to put you on the "wrong side of the law".
Blood Alcohol Content, BAC Tests & State DUI Minimum at Total DUI (715 words)
The central issue in almost every DUI case is whether your blood alcohol content (BAC) is equal to or greater to than the statutory minimum.
In fact, although most states' laws provide that a blood alcohol content of.08 percent is the level at which you are considered legally intoxicated, some studies conclude that a blood alcohol content as low as.02 affects your ability to drive and increases the likelihood of an accident.
Your BAC is usually determined by breath, blood, saliva or urine testing, which is typically performed shortly after you're stopped for suspicion of DUI.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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