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Encyclopedia > Blood

Blood is a specialized bodily fluid (technically a tissue) that is composed of a liquid called blood plasma and blood cells suspended within the plasma. The blood cells present in blood are red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (including both leukocytes and lymphocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). Plasma is predominantly water containing dissolved proteins, salts and many other substances; and makes up about 55% of blood by volume. Mammals have red blood, which is bright red when oxygenated, due to hemoglobin. Some animals, such as the horseshoe crab use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Look up blood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Blood_smear. ... Image File history File links Blood_smear. ... A microscopic view of an abnormal blood film. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ...


By far the most abundant cells in blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates transportation of oxygen by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellularly dissolved in plasma. White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites, and platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Structure of hemoglobin. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ...


Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (BE: haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word "haima" for "blood." Anatomically and histologically, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ...

The circulation of blood through the human heart
The circulation of blood through the human heart
Blood circulationRed = oxygenatedBlue = deoxygenated
Blood circulation
Red = oxygenated
Blue = deoxygenated

Contents

Image File history File links Heart_labelled_large. ... Image File history File links Heart_labelled_large. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 352 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (700 × 1,193 pixels, file size: 581 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source: Image:Grafik blutkreislauf. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 352 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (700 × 1,193 pixels, file size: 581 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source: Image:Grafik blutkreislauf. ...

Functions

Hemoglobin
green = heme groups
red & blue = protein subunits
Heme
Heme

Blood performs many important functions within the body including: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 1,006 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 1,006 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Heme. ... Image File history File links Heme. ...

  • Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin which is carried in red cells)
  • Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins)
  • Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid
  • Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies
  • Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism
  • Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signalling of tissue damage
  • Regulation of body pH (the normal pH of blood is in the range of 7.35 - 7.45)
  • Regulation of core body temperature
  • Hydraulic functions

General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...

Constituents of human blood

Two tubes of EDTA anticoagulated blood.Left tube: after standing the RBCs have settled at the bottom of the tube.Right tube: contains freshly drawn blood.
Two tubes of EDTA anticoagulated blood.
Left tube: after standing the RBCs have settled at the bottom of the tube.
Right tube: contains freshly drawn blood.

Blood accounts for 7% of the human body weight,[1] with an average density of approximately 1060 kg/m³, very close to pure water's density of 1000 kg/m3.[2] The average adult has a blood volume of roughly 5 litres, composed of plasma and several kinds of cells (occasionally called corpuscles); these formed elements of the blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets). By volume the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma constitutes about 55%, and white cells constitute a minute volume. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (848 × 1,176 pixels, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Blutproben, rechts frisch entnommen, links mit EDTA (Gerinnungshemmer) behandelt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (848 × 1,176 pixels, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Blutproben, rechts frisch entnommen, links mit EDTA (Gerinnungshemmer) behandelt. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several white blood cells including knobby lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several white blood cells including knobby lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets.

Whole blood (plasma and cells) exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics; its flow properties are adapted to flow effectively through tiny capillary blood vessels with less resistance than plasma by itself. In addition, if all human haemoglobin was free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectvely. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x2239, 1365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immune system Scanning electron microscope White blood cell Platelet Neutrophil granulocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x2239, 1365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immune system Scanning electron microscope White blood cell Platelet Neutrophil granulocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protects against blood-borne pathogens and moves quickly (aprox. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscosity changes with the applied strain rate. ...


Cells

One microliter of blood contains:

  • 4.7 to 6.1 million (male), 4.2 to 5.4 million (female) erythrocytes:[3] In mammals, mature red blood cells lack a nucleus and organelles. They contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. The red blood cells (together with endothelial vessel cells and other cells) are also marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types. The proportion of blood occupied by red blood cells is referred to as the hematocrit, and is normally about 45%. The combined surface area of all the red cells in the human body would be roughly 2,000 times as great as the body's exterior surface.[4]
  • 4,000-11,000 leukocytes:[5] White blood cells are part of the immune system; they destroy and remove old or aberrant cells and cellular debris, as well as attack infectious agents (pathogens) and foreign substances.
  • 200,000-500,000 thrombocytes:[5] Platelets are responsible for blood clotting (coagulation). They change fibrinogen into fibrin. This fibrin creates a mesh onto which red blood cells collect and clot, which then stops more blood from leaving the body and also helps to prevent bacteria from entering the body.

HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... The hematocrit (Ht or HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are measures of the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ...

Plasma

About 55% of whole blood is blood plasma, a fluid that is the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color. The blood plasma volume totals of 2.7-3.0 litres in an average human. It is essentially an aqueous solution containing 92% water, 8% blood plasma proteins, and trace amounts of other materials. Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins), and removes waste products, such as, carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ...


Other important components include:

The term serum refers to plasma from which the clotting proteins have been removed. Most of the proteins remaining are albumin and immunoglobulins. You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


The normal pH of human arterial blood is approximately 7.40 (normal range is 7.35-7.45), a weak alkaline solution. Blood that has a pH below 7.35 is too acidic, while blood pH above 7.45 is too alkaline. Blood pH, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and HCO3 are carefully regulated by complex systems of homeostasis, which influence the respiratory system and the urinary system in the control the acid-base balance and respiration. Plasma also circulates hormones transmitting their messages to various tissues. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... The body is very sensitive to its pH level. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ...


Physiology

Cardiovascular system

Main article: Circulatory system

Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. Blood is pumped from the strong left ventricle of the heart through arteries to peripheral tissues and returns to the right atrium of the heart through veins. It then enters the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. Blood then enters the left ventricle to be circulated again. Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to all of the cells of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism by cells, to the lungs to be exhaled. For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Additional return flow may be generated by the movement of skeletal muscles which can compress veins and push blood through the valves in veins towards the right atrium.


The blood circulation was famously described by William Harvey in 1628.[6] This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ...


Production and degradation of blood cells

The various cells of blood are made in the bone marrow in a process called haematopoiesis, which includes erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells; and myelopoiesis, the production of white blood cells and platelets. During childhood, almost every human bone produces red blood cells; as adults, red blood cell production is limited to the larger bones: the bodies of the vertebrae, the breastbone (sternum), the ribcage, the pelvic bones, and the bones of the upper arms and legs. In addition, during childhood, the thymus gland, found in the mediastinum, is an important source of lymphocytes.[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diagram that shows the development of different blood cells from hematopoietic stem cell to mature cells Haematopoiesis (from Ancient Greek: haima blood; poiesis to make) (or hematopoiesis in the United States; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components. ... Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ...


The proteinaceous component of blood (including clotting proteins) is produced predominantly by the liver, while hormones are produced by the endocrine glands and the watery fraction is regulated by the hypothalamus and maintained by the kidney. For the bird, see Liver bird. ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Healthy erythrocytes have a plasma life of about 120 days before they are degraded by the spleen, and the Kupffer cells in the liver. The liver also clears some proteins, lipids and amino acids. The kidney actively secretes waste products into the urine. The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Kupffer cells or Browicz-Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages located in the liver that form part of the reticuloendothelial system. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ...


Oxygen transport

Basic hemoglobin saturation curve. It is moved to the right in higher acidity (more dissolved carbon dioxide) and to the left in lower acidity (less dissolved carbon dioxide)
Basic hemoglobin saturation curve. It is moved to the right in higher acidity (more dissolved carbon dioxide) and to the left in lower acidity (less dissolved carbon dioxide)
Further information: Oxygen transportation

About 98.5% of the oxygen in a sample of arterial blood in a healthy human breathing air at sea-level pressure is chemically combined with the Hgb. About 1.5% is physically dissolved in the other blood liquids and not connected to Hgb. The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and many other species (for exceptions, see below). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 413 pixelsFull resolution (439 × 413 pixel, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/png) A basic oxyhaemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) dissociation curve. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 413 pixelsFull resolution (439 × 413 pixel, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/png) A basic oxyhaemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) dissociation curve. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


With the exception of pulmonary and umbilical arteries and their corresponding veins, arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and deliver it to the body via arterioles and capillaries, where the oxygen is consumed; afterwards, venules and veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... Blood flows from digestive system heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ...


Under normal conditions in humans at rest, hemoglobin in blood leaving the lungs is about 98-99% saturated with oxygen. In a healthy adult at rest, deoxygenated blood returning to the lungs is still approximately 75% saturated.[8][9] Increased oxygen consumption during sustained exercise reduces the oxygen saturation of venous blood, which can reach less than 15% in a trained athlete; although breathing rate and blood flow increase to compensate, oxygen saturation in arterial blood can drop to 95% or less under these conditions.[10] Oxygen saturation this low is considered dangerous in an individual at rest (for instance, during surgery under anesthesia. Sustained hypoxia,(oxygenation of less than 90%) is dangerous to health, and severe hypoxia (saturations of less than 30%) may be rapidly fatal.[11]


A fetus, receiving oxygen via the placenta, is exposed to much lower oxygen pressures (about 21% of the level found in an adult's lungs) and so fetuses produce another form of hemoglobin with a much higher affinity for oxygen (hemoglobin F) in order to function under these conditions.[12] For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... The placenta is a sack of fat present in placental vertebrates, such as some mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ...


Carbon dioxide transport

When blood flows through capillaries, carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues into the blood. Some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood. Some carbon dioxide reacts with hemoglobin and other proteins to form carbamino compounds. The remaining carbon dioxide is converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions through the action of RBC carbonic anhydrase. Most carbon dioxide is transported through the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions. A compound composed by the addition of carbon dioxide with a free amino group in an amino acid or a protein,such as hemoglobin forming carbaminohemoglobin. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ... Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. ...


Carbon dioxide (CO2), the main cellular waste product is carried in blood mainly dissolved in plasma, in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). 86%-90% of CO2 in the body is converted into carbonic acid, which can quickly turn into bicarbonate, the chemical equilibrium being important in the pH buffering of plasma.[13] Blood pH is kept in a narrow range (pH between 7.35-7.45).[14] Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... A buffering agent adjusts the pH of a solution. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Transport of hydrogen ions

Some oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin. Deoxyhemoglobin binds most of the hydrogen ions as it has a much greater affinity for hydrogen ion (H+) than does oxyhemoglobin.


Lymphatic system

Main article: Lymphatic system

In mammals, blood is in equilibrium with lymph, which is continuously formed in tissues from blood by capillary ultrafiltration. Lymph is collected by a system of small lymphatic vessels and directed to the thoracic duct, which drains into the left subclavian vein where lymph rejoins the systemic blood circulation. The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... In human anatomy, the thoracic duct is an important part of the lymphatic system — it is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body. ... The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ...


Thermoregulation

Blood circulation transports heat through the body, and adjustments to this flow are an important part of thermoregulation. Increasing blood flow to the surface (e.g. during warm weather or strenuous exercise) causes warmer skin, resulting in faster heat loss, while decreasing surface blood flow conserves heat. For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


Hydraulic functions

The restriction of blood flow can also be used in specialized tissues to cause engorgement resulting in an erection of that tissue; examples are the erectile tissue in a penis or clitoris. The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present in biologically female mammals. ...


Another example of a hydraulic function is the jumping spider, in which blood forced into the legs under pressure causes them to straighten for a powerful jump, without the need for bulky muscular legs.[15] Diversity 553 genera, 5025 species Genera See List of Salticidae genera The jumping spider family (Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species (Peng , 2002). ...


Invertebrates

In insects, the blood (more properly called hemolymph) is not involved in the transport of oxygen. (Openings called tracheae allow oxygen from the air to diffuse directly to the tissues). Insect blood moves nutrients to the tissues and removes waste products in an open system. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ... Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ...


Other invertebrates use respiratory proteins to increase the oxygen carrying capacity. Hemoglobin is the most common respiratory protein found in nature. Hemocyanin (blue) contains copper and is found in crustaceans and mollusks. It is thought that tunicates (sea squirts) might use vanabins (proteins containing vanadium) for respiratory pigment (bright green, blue, or orange). Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Classes Ascidiacea (2,300 species) Thaliacea Appendicularia Sorberacea Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates, sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons. ... Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a class of metalloproteins containing vanadium. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ...


In many invertebrates, these oxygen-carrying proteins are freely soluble in the blood; in vertebrates they are contained in specialized red blood cells, allowing for a higher concentration of respiratory pigments without increasing viscosity or damaging blood filtering organs like the kidneys. “Red cell” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Giant tube worms have unusual hemoglobins that allow them to live in extraordinary environments. These hemoglobins also carry sulfides normally fatal in other animals. Giant tube worms (Riftia pachyptila) are marine invertebrates in the phylum Pogonophora (formerly grouped in phylum Annelida) related to tubeworms commonly found in the intertidal and pelagic zones. ...


Color

Hemoglobin

A bleeding finger: blood has a distinctive red color.
A bleeding finger: blood has a distinctive red color.

Hemoglobin is the principal determinant of the color of blood in vertebrates. Each molecule has four heme groups, and their interaction with various molecules alters the exact color. In vertebrates and other hemoglobin-using creatures, arterial blood and capillary blood are bright red as oxygen impacts a strong red color to the heme group. Deoxygenated blood is a darker shade of red with a bluish hue; this is present in veins, and can be seen during blood donation and when venous blood samples are taken. Blood in carbon monoxide poisoning is bright red, because carbon monoxide causes the formation of carboxyhemoglobin. In cyanide poisoning, the body cannot utilize oxygen, so the venous blood remains oxygenated, increasing the redness. While hemoglobin containing blood is never blue, there are several conditions and diseases where the color of the heme groups make the skin appear blue. If the heme is oxidized, methemoglobin, which is more brownish and cannot transport oxygen, is formed. In the rare condition sulfhemoglobinemia, arterial hemoglobin is partially oxygenated, and appears dark-red with a bluish hue (cyanosis), but not quite as blueish as venous blood. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 830 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bleeding Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 830 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bleeding Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and haemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled, and hinders delivery of oxygen to the body. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Methemoglobin (also hemiglobin) is a type of hemoglobin that is produced by the oxidation of the ferrous iron contained in hemoglobin to ferric iron which doesnt have the capacity for carrying oxygen. ... Sulfhemoglobinemia is a rare condition in which there is excess sulfhemoglobin (SulfHb) in the blood. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ...


Veins in the skin appear blue for a variety of reasons only weakly dependent on the color of the blood. Light scattering in the skin, and the visual processing of color play roles as well.[16]


Skinks in the genus Prasinohaema have green blood due to a buildup of the waste product biliverdin.[17] This article is about the reptile. ... Classification Genus Prasinohaema Prasinohaema flavipes Prasinohaema parkeri Prasinohaema prehensicauda Prasinohaema semoni Prasinohaema virens Categories: Skinks ... Biliverdin is a green pigment formed as a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown. ...


Hemocyanin

The blood of most molluscs, including cephalopods and gastropods, as well as some arthropods such as horseshoe crabs contains the copper-containing protein hemocyanin at concentrations of about 50 gm per litre.[18] Hemocyanin is colourless when deoxygenated and dark blue when oxygenated. The blood in the circulation of these creatures, which generally live in cold environments with low oxygen tensions, is grey-white to pale yellow,[18] and it turns dark blue when exposed to the oxygen in the air, as seen when they bleed.[18] This is due to change in color of hemocyanin when is it oxidized.[18] Hemocyanin carries oxygen in extracellular fluid, which is in contrast to the intracellular oxygen transport in mammals by hemoglobin in RBCs.[18] Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Nautilida The Cephalopods (head-foot) are the mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a modification of the mollusc foot into the form of arms or tentacles. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ...


Pathology

General medical disorders

  • Disorders of volume
  • Disorders of circulation
    • Shock is the ineffective perfusion of tissues.
    • Atherosclerosis reduces the flow of blood through arteries, because atheroma lines arteries and narrows them. Atheroma tends to increase with age, and its progression can be compounded by many causes including smoking, high blood pressure, excess circulating lipids (hyperlipidemia), and diabetes mellitus.
    • Coagulation can form a thrombosis which can obstruct vessels.
    • Problems with blood composition, the pumping action of the heart, or narrowing of blood vessels can have many consequences including hypoxia (lack of oxygen) of the tissues supplied. The term ischaemia refers to tissue which is inadequately perfused with blood, and infarction refers to tissue death (necrosis) which can occur when the blood supply has been blocked (or is very inadequate).

Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...

Hematological disorders

See also: Hematology
  • Anemia
    • Insufficient red cell mass (anemia) can be the result of bleeding, blood diseases like thalassemia, or nutritional deficiencies; and may require blood transfusion. Several countries have blood banks to fill the demand for transfusable blood. A person receiving a blood transfusion must have a blood type compatible with that of the donor.
  • Disorders of coagulation
    • Hemophilia is a genetic illness that causes dysfunction in one of the blood's clotting mechanisms. This can allow otherwise inconsequential wounds to be life-threatening, but more commonly results in hemarthrosis, or bleeding into joint spaces, which can be crippling.
    • Ineffective or insufficient platelets can also result in coagulopathy (bleeding disorders).
    • Hypercoagulable state (thrombophilia) results from defects in regulation of platelet or clotting factor function, and can cause thrombosis.
  • Infectious disorders of blood
    • Blood is an important vector of infection. HIV, the virus which causes AIDS, is transmitted through contact between blood, semen, or the bodily secretions of an infected person. Hepatitis B and C are transmitted primarily through blood contact. Owing to blood-borne infections, bloodstained objects are treated as a biohazard.
    • Bacterial infection of the blood is bacteremia or sepsis. Viral Infection is viremia. Malaria and trypanosomiasis are blood-borne parasitic infections.

Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Thalassemia (British spelling, thalassaemia) is an inherited autosomal recessive blood disease. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... Leukemia or leukaemia(Greek leukos λευκός, “white”; aima αίμα, “blood”) (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ... Primary polycythemia, often called polycythemia vera (PCV), polycythemia rubra vera (PRV), or erythremia, occurs when excess red blood cells are produced as a result of an abnormality of the bone marrow. ... Essential thrombocytosis (ET, also known as essential thrombocythemia) is a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow in the absence of an alternative cause. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Hemarthrosis (or haemarthrosis, plural h(a)emarthroses) is a bleeding into joint spaces. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Thrombophilia is the propensity to develop thrombosis (blood clots) due to an abnormality in the system of coagulation. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... A blood-borne disease is one that can be spread by contamination by blood. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English, also known as blood poisoning or toxemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Trypanosomiasis is the name of the diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus trypanosoma in vertebrates. ...

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Substances other than oxygen can bind to hemoglobin; in some cases this can cause irreversible damage to the body. Carbon monoxide, for example, is extremely dangerous when carried to the blood via the lungs by inhalation, because carbon monoxide irreversibly binds to hemoblobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, so that less hemoglobin is free to bind oxygen, and less oxygen can be transported in the blood. This can cause suffocation insidiously. A fire burning in an enclosed room with poor ventilation presents a very dangerous hazard since it can create a build-up of carbon monoxide in the air. Some carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin when smoking tobacco. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and haemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled, and hinders delivery of oxygen to the body. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Medical treatments

Blood products

Further information: Blood transfusion

Blood for transfusion is obtained from human donors by blood donation and stored in a blood bank. There are many different blood types in humans, the ABO blood group system, and the Rhesus blood group system being the most important. Transfusion of blood of an incompatible blood group may cause severe, often fatal, complications, so crossmatching is done to ensure that a compatible blood product is transfused. Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Give blood redirects here. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ...


Other blood products administered intravenously are platelets, blood plasma, cryoprecipitate and specific coagulation factor concentrates. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Intravenous administration

Many forms of medication (from antibiotics to chemotherapy) are administered intravenously, as they are not readily or adequately absorbed by the digestive tract. Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...


After severe acute blood loss, liquid preparations, generically known as plasma expanders, can be given intravenously, either solutions of salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 etc...) at physiological concentrations, or colloidal solutions, such as dextrans, human serum albumin, or fresh frozen plasma. In these emergency situations, a plasma expander is a more effective life saving procedure than a blood transfusion, because the metabolism of transfused red blood cells does not restart immediately after a transfusion.


Bloodletting

Main article: bloodletting

In modern evidence-based medicine bloodletting is used in management of a few rare diseases, including haemochromatosis and polycythemia. However, bloodletting and leeching were common unvalidated interventions used until the 19th century, as many diseases were incorrectly thought to be due to an excess of blood, according to Hippocratic medicine. . Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper dietary iron metabolism (making it an iron overload disorder), which causes the accumulation of iron in a number of body tissues. ... Polycythemia is a condition in which there is a net increase in the total number of red blood cells in the body. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... In pre-scientific medicine, leeching was an alternative form of blood letting in which bad blood would be removed via leeches instead of by bleeding. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ...


History

Classical Greek medicine

In classical Greek medicine, blood was associated with air, springtime, and with a merry and gluttonous (sanguine) personality. It was also believed to be produced exclusively by the liver. For the bird, see Liver bird. ...


Hippocratic medicine

In Hippocratic medicine, blood was considered to be one of the four humors, together with phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... The four humours were four fluids that were thought to permeate the body and influence its health. ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... Choleric is a temperament in the ancient medical theory of the four humours. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ...


Myths, beliefs and religion

Due to its importance to life, blood is associated with a large number of beliefs. One of the most basic is the use of blood as a symbol for family relationships; to be "related by blood" is to be related by ancestry or descendance, rather than marriage. This bears closely to bloodlines, and sayings such as "blood is thicker than water" and "bad blood", as well as "Blood brother". Blood is given particular emphasis in the Jewish and Christian religions because Leviticus 17:11 says "the life of a creature is in the blood." This phrase is part of the Levitical law forbidding the drinking of blood, due to its practice in idol worship by surrounding societies. For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... Blood is thicker than water is an English-language proverb which generally means that the bonds of family and common ancestry are stronger than those bonds between unrelated people. ... The Norwegian warrior Orvar-Odd bids a last farewell to his blood brother, the Swedish warrior Hjalmar, by MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge (1866). ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ...


Mythic references to blood may be connected to the childbirth or menstruation, both bloody but life-affirming events, as opposed to the blood of injury or death. Parturition redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ...


Indigenous Australians

In many indigenous Australian Aboriginal peoples' traditions ochre (particularly red) and blood, both high in iron content and considered Maban, are applied to the bodies of dancers for ritual. As Lawlor states: Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Maban is a magical substance in Australian Aboriginal mythology. ...

In many Aboriginal rituals and ceremonies, red ochre is rubbed all over the naked bodies of the dancers. In secret, sacred male ceremonies, blood extracted from the veins of the participant's arms is exchanged and rubbed on their bodies. Red ochre is used in similar ways in less secret ceremonies. Blood is also used to fasten the feathers of birds onto people's bodies. Bird feathers contain a protein that is highly magnetically sensitive.[19]

Lawlor comments that blood employed in this fashion is held by these peoples to attune the dancers to the invisible energetic realm of the Dreamtime. Lawlor then connects these invisible energetic realms and magnetic fields, because iron is magnetic. The name Magnetic Fields has been used by: A 1981 album by Jean Michel Jarre; see Magnetic Fields (album) (Les Chants Magnetiques) A computer game developer; see Magnetic Fields (computer game developer) The Magnetic Fields, a band led by Stephin Merritt For magnetic fields in general, see magnetic field. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ...

Indo-European paganism

Among the Germanic tribes (such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norsemen), blood was used during their sacrifices; the Blóts. The blood was considered to have the power of its originator and after the butchering the blood was sprinkled on the walls, on the statues of the gods and on the participants themselves. This act of sprinkling blood was called bleodsian in Old English and the terminology was borrowed by the Roman Catholic Church becoming to bless and blessing. The Hittite word for blood, ishar was a cognate to words for "oath" and "bond", see Ishara. The Ancient Greeks believed that the blood of the Gods, ichor, was a mineral that was poisonous to mortals. The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... Old English redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Ishara is the Hittite word for treaty, binding promise, also personified as a goddess of the oath. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... In Greek mythology, ichor (Greek ) is the mineral that is the Greek gods blood, sometimes said to have been present in ambrosia or nectar. ...


Judaism

In Judaism, blood cannot be consumed even in the smallest quantity (Leviticus 3:17 and elsewhere); this is reflected in Jewish dietary laws (Kashrut). Blood is purged from meat by salting and soaking in water. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... This article is about the food. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ...


Other rituals involving blood are the covering of the blood of fowl and game after slaughtering (Leviticus 17:13); the reason given by the Torah is: "Because the life of every animal is [in] his blood" (ibid 17:14), although from its context in Leviticus 3:17 it would appear that blood cannot be consumed because it is to be used in the sacrificial service (known as the korbanot), in the Temple in Jerusalem. For other uses, see Fowl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) in Judaism, is commonly called a religious sacrifice or an offering in English, but is known as a Korban in Hebrew because its Hebrew root K [a] R [o] V (קרב) (or K [o] R... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Christianity

Main article: Eucharist

Some Christian churches, including Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and branches of Anglicanism teach that, when consecrated, the Eucharistic wine actually becomes the material Blood of Jesus. Thus in the consecrated wine (now the Most Precious Blood of Christ), Jesus becomes spiritually and physically present. This teaching is rooted in the Last Supper as written in the four gospels of the Bible, in which Jesus stated to his disciples that the bread which they ate was his body, and the wine was his blood. "This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you." (Luke 22:20). For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For...


Various forms of Protestantism, especially those of a Wesleyan or Presbyterian lineage, teach that the wine is no more than a symbol of the blood of Christ, who is spiritually but not physically present. Lutheran theology teaches that the body and blood is present together "in, with, and under" the bread and wine of the Eucharistic feast. Wesley can refer to: The Wesley family, founders of the Methodist Church, including: John Wesley, the Founder of the Methodist denomination of Protestant Christianity Charles Wesley, prolific hymn composer, and brother of John Wesley Samuel Wesley, organist, composer, and son of Charles Wesley Samuel Sebastian Wesley, organist, composer, and son... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ...


Blood (the blood of Jesus Christ) is also seen as the means for atonement for sins for Christians.


Islam

Consumption of food containing blood is forbidden by Islamic dietary laws. This is derived from the statement in the Qur'an, sura Al-Ma'ida (5:3): "Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah." This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surat al-Maida (Arabic: سورة المائدة ) (The Table or The Table Spread) is the fifth chapter of the Quran, with 120 verses. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses

Due to Bible-based beliefs, Jehovah's Witnesses do not eat blood or accept tranfusions of whole blood or its four major components namely, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (thrombocytes), and whole plasma. Members are instructed to personally decide whether or not to accept fractions, and medical procedures that involve their own blood. It has been suggested that Jehovahs Witnesses: Controversial Issues be merged into this article or section. ...


Chinese and Japanese culture

In Chinese culture, it is often said that if a man's nose produces a small flow of blood, this signifies that he is experiencing sexual desire. This often appears in Chinese-language and Hong Kong films as well as in Japanese culture parodied in anime and manga. Characters, mostly males, will often be shown with a nosebleed if they have just seen someone nude or in little clothing, or if they have had an erotic thought or fantasy.[20] Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Animé redirects here. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... For the plant referred to as nosebleed plant, see Yarrow. ... The word nude may refer to: The state of nudity. ...


Blood libel

Main article: Blood libel

Various religious and other groups have been falsely accused of using human blood in rituals; such accusations are known as blood libel. The most common form of this is blood libel against Jews. Although there is no ritual involving human blood in Jewish law or custom, fabrications of this nature (often involving the murder of children) were widely used during the Middle Ages to justify anti-Semitic persecution and some have persisted into the 21st century. Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Blood libels are the accusations that Jews use human blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Vampire legends

Vampires are mythological beings which live forever by drinking the blood of the living. Stories of creatures of this kind are known all over the world. Most of these myths in Western culture originate from Eastern European folklore. Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ...


Art

Blood is one of the body fluids that has been used in art.[21] In particular, the performances of Viennese Actionist Hermann Nitsch, Franko B, Lennie Lee, Ron Athey, Yang Zhichao and Kira O' Reilly along with the photography of Andres Serrano, have incorporated blood as a prominent visual element. Marc Quinn has made sculptures using frozen blood, including a cast of his own head made using his own blood. The term Viennese Actionism describes a short and violent movement in 20th century art that can be regarded as part of the many independent efforts of the sixties to develop action art (Fluxus, Happening, Performance, Body Art, etc. ... Hermann Nitsch (b. ... Franko B was born 1960 in Milan, Italy. ... Lennie Lee, Young British Artist, was born March 4, 1958 in Johannesberg, South Africa. ... Ron Athey (born December 16, 1961) is an American extreme performance artist. ... Yang Zhichao, Born in 1963 in Gansu province China, is a Chinese painter and extreme performance artist living and working in Beijing. ... Kira O Reilly specialises in performance art, video art and installation. ... Andres Serrano Andres Serrano (born August 15, 1950) is an American photographer who has become most notorious for his controversial piece Piss Christ, a red-tinged photograph of a crucifix submerged in the artists own urine. ... Quinns sculpture in Carrara marble, Alison Lapper Pregnant (2005), for The Fourth Plinth of Trafalgar Square. ...


See also

Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other blood gases in the cardiovascular system. ... List of human blood components and their concentrations Categories: Blood | Lists ... Soondae, a black pudding from Korea. ... Black pudding (Boudin noir), before cooking Black pudding or less often blood pudding is a sausage made by cooking blood with a filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. ... Tiết canh is a traditional North Vietnamese breakfast pudding made from the raw blood of ducks and on occasion, geese, and sprinkled with crushed peanuts. ... Critics say that games such as Grand Theft Auto 3 advocate real-life crimes, like carjacking. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A medical technologist (MT) is a healthcare professional who performs diagnostic analytic tests on human body fluids such as blood, urine, sputum, stool, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and synovial fluid, as well as other specimens. ...

References

  1. ^ Alberts, Bruce (2005). Leukocyte functions and percentage breakdown. Molecular Biology of the Cell. NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
  2. ^ Density of Blood. The Physics Factbook (2004). Retrieved on 2006-10-04.
  3. ^ Medical Encyclopedia: RBC count. Medline Plus. Retrieved on 18 November 2007.
  4. ^ Martini, Frederic, et al (2006). Human Anatomy. 5th ed. Page 529. San Francisco, California: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-8053-7211-3
  5. ^ a b Ganong, William F.: "Review of medical physiology", twenty first edition, page 518
  6. ^ Harvey, William [1628]. Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (in Latin). 
  7. ^ P.Williams, R.Warwick, M.Dyson,L.Bannister (eds),Gray's Anatomy 37th ed., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh 1989
  8. ^ Ventilation and Endurance Performance
  9. ^ Transplant Support- Lung, Heart/Lung, Heart MSN groups
  10. ^ J Physiol. 2005 July 1
  11. ^ The 'St George' Guide To Pulmonary Artery Catheterisation
  12. ^ Oxygen Carriage in Blood - High Altitude
  13. ^ Biology.arizona.edu. October 2006. Clinical correlates of pH levels: bicarbonate as a buffer.
  14. ^ R.Porter, J.Kaplan, M.Beers (ed), Merck Manual Online
  15. ^ "Spiders: circulatory system". Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved on 2007-11-25. 
  16. ^ Kienle, Alwin; Lothar Lilge, I. Alex Vitkin, Michael S. Patterson, Brian C. Wilson, Raimund Hibst, and Rudolf Steiner (March 1, 1996). "Why do veins appear blue? A new look at an old question". Applied Optics 35 (7): 1151-60. 
  17. ^ Austin CC, Perkins SL (2006). "Parasites in a biodiversity hotspot: a survey of hematozoa and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium in New Guinea skinks". J. Parasitol. 92 (4): 770–7. PMID 16995395. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Shuster, Carl N (2004). "Chapter 11: A blue blood: the circulatory system", in Shuster, Carl N, Jr; Barlow, Robert B; Brockmann, H. Jane: The American Horseshoe Crab. Harvard University Press, pp 276-277. ISBN 0674011597. 
  19. ^ Lawlor, Robert (1991). Voices Of The First Day: Awakening in the Aboriginal dreamtime. Page 102-3. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, Ltd. ISBN 0-89281-355-5
  20. ^ Law of Anime #40 aka Law of Nasal Sanguination at The Anime Cafe
  21. ^ "Nostalgia" Artwork in blood

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External links

Look up Blood in
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Sketch of bone marrow and its cells Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells (PHSCs) are stem cells found in the bone marrow. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, CTL or killer T cell) belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which are capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses (or other... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either cytotoxic CD8+ cells or helper CD4+ cells. ... Regulatory T cells (also known as suppressor T cells) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self. ... γδ T cells represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. ... Natural killer T cells (NK T cells) are a type of lymphocyte, or white blood cell. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. ... Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed following primary infection. ... Natural NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. ... In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumour cells. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Basophil granulocyte Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image of an eosinophil Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates. ... Basophil redirects here. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... Langerhans cells are immature dendritic cells containing large granules called Birbeck granules. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protects against blood-borne pathogens and moves quickly (aprox. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... A Histiocyte is a cell that is part of the human immune system. ... Kupffer cells or Browicz-Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages located in the liver that form part of the reticuloendothelial system. ... Langhans giant cells are large cells found in granulomatous conditions. ... Microglia cells positive for lectins Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... An osteoclast (from the Greek words for bone and broken) is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing the bones mineralized matrix. ... A megakaryoblast is a precursor cell to a promegakaryocyte, which in turn becomes a megakaryocyte. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... A normoblast (or erythroblast) is a type of red blood cell which still retains a cell nucleus. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... Blood flows from digestive system heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The superior and inferior venae cavae are the veins that return de-oxygenated blood from the body into the heart. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The human lungs are the human organs of respiration. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ... Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Whole blood enters the centrifuge on the left and separates into layers so that selected components can be drawn off on the right. ... Plasmapheresis (from the Greek plasma, something molded, and apheresis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return of (components of) blood plasma from blood circulation. ... Plateletpheresis (also called thrombapheresis or thrombocytapheresis) is a special type of blood donation that only extracts platelets, the cells that cause blood clotting, from the blood. ... leukapheresis A laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Coombs test (also known as Coombs test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in [[immunohematology] and immunology. ... In medicine, Cross-matching refers to the process of performing blood tests to determine the similarity between two different blood types. ... An exchange transfusion is a medical treatment in which apheresis is used to remove one persons red blood cells or platelets and replace them with transfused blood products. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) is a scientific society, founded in 1935, which aims to promote the study of blood transfusion, and to spread the know-how about the manner in which blood transfusion medicine and science best can serve the patients interests. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... ISBT 128 is system for identification, labeling and processing of human blood, tissue and organ products using an internationally standardised barcode system. ... Transfusion reactions occur after blood product transfusions when there is an interaction between the recipient and the donor blood. ... The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems). ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. ... The Colton antigen system (Co) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney[1] and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Template:Hematology-stub // The Diego system was discovered in 1955 in one Mrs. ... The Duffy antigen is a pair of proteins which appears on the outside of red blood cells. ... Hh antigen system - diagram showing the molecular structure of the ABO(H) antigen system Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express substance H (the antigen which is present in blood group O). ... Ii antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 6. ... The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. ... XK (also known as Kell blood group precursor) is a protein found on human red blood cells and other tissues which is responsible for the Kx antigen which helps determine a persons blood type. ... The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. ... ICAM4 is an intercellular adhesion molecule responsible for the Landsteiner-Wiener blood type. ... Lewis antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19. ... MNS antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 4. ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 22. ... The term Rhesus blood group system refers to the five main Rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E and e) as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens. ... The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a persons blood type. ... Give blood redirects here. ... Blood substitutes, often called artificial blood, are used to fill fluid volume and/or carry oxygen and other blood gases in the cardiovascular system. ... Cryoprecipitate is a blood product manufactured by warming frozen plasma. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...


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Blood for PC - Blood PC Game - Blood Computer Game (191 words)
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