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Encyclopedia > Bloc voting
Electoral methods

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Politics and the Election series A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political process. ...

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Bloc voting (or block voting) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single multimember constituency. There are several variations of bloc voting depending on the ballot type used; however, they all produce similar results. Bloc voting using a series of check boxes similar to a plurality election is also referred to as plurality-at-large or at-large voting, while bloc voting using a preferential ballot is generally described as preferential bloc voting. An example of a plurality ballot. ... An example of runoff voting. ... Preferential voting (or preference voting) is a type of ballot structure used in several electoral systems in which voters rank a list or group of candidates in order of preference. ... The Condorcet candidate or Condorcet winner of an election is the candidate who, when compared in turn with each of the other candidates, is preferred over the other candidate. ... A Condorcet method is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... Copelands method is a Condorcet method in which the winner is determined by finding the candidate with the most pairwise victories. ... The Kemeny-Young method is a voting system that uses preferential ballots, a tally table, and sequence scores to identify the most popular choice, and also identify the second-most popular choice, the third-most popular choice, and so on down to the least-popular choice. ... Minimax is often considered to be the simplest of the Condorcet methods. ... The Borda count can be combined with an Instant Runoff procedure to create hybrid election methods that are called Nanson method and Baldwin method. ... It has been suggested that Maximize Affirmed Majorities be merged into this article or section. ... The Schulze method is a voting system developed in 1997 by Markus Schulze that selects a single winner using votes that express preferences. ... Bucklin is a voting system that can be used for single-member districts and also multi-member districts. ... The Coombs method, created by Clyde Coombs, is a voting system used for single-winner elections in which each voter rank-orders the candidates. ... Example Instant-runoff voting ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting system most commonly used for single member elections in which voters have one vote, but can rank candidates in order of preference. ... On an approval ballot, the voter can vote for any number of candidates. ... Range voting (also called ratings summation, average voting, cardinal ratings, 0–99 voting, or the score system or point system) is a voting system for one-seat elections under which voters score each candidate, the scores are added up, and the candidate with the highest score wins. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... A points method ballot design like this one is the most common for governmental elections using cumulative voting. ... Mixed member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system used to elect representatives to numerous legislatures around the world. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... The DHondt method (equivalent to Jeffersons method, and Budder-Ofer method) is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... The highest averages method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The Sainte-Laguë method of the highest average (equivalent to Websters method or divisor method with standard rounding) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... A points method ballot design like this one is the most common for governmental elections using cumulative voting. ... Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. ... The Single Non-Transferable Vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... An example of a plurality ballot. ... Preferential voting (or preference voting) is a type of ballot structure used in several electoral systems in which voters rank a list or group of candidates in order of preference. ...


Generally, the term at-large is used to describe elections with multiple winners, however the term sometimes refers to an election running across multiple districts, such as a separate election for the mayor of a city with multiple city council districts. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ...

Contents

Plurality-at-large voting and preferential bloc voting

There are two variations of bloc voting used, and both are counted differently: plurality-at-large, and preferential bloc voting.


In plurality-at-large voting, all candidates run against each other for n number of positions. Each voter selects up to n candidates on the ballot, and the n candidates with the most votes win the positions. Often, voters are said to have "n" votes, however they are unable to vote for the same candidate more than once as in cumulative voting. A points method ballot design like this one is the most common for governmental elections using cumulative voting. ...


In preferential bloc voting, each voter places the numbers 1, 2, ..., n on the ballot paper (where n is the number of candidates on the ballot paper). Candidates with the smallest tally of first preference votes are eliminated (and their votes transferred as in instant runoff voting) until a candidate has more than half the vote. The count is repeated with the elected candidates removed and all votes returning to full value until the required number of candidates are elected. This is the method described in Robert's Rules of Order for electing multiple candidates to the same type of office. When the single transferable vote voting system is applied to a single-winner election it is sometimes called instant-runoff voting (IRV), as it is much like holding a series of runoff elections in which the lowest polling candidate is eliminated in each round until someone receives majority vote. ... Voting methods in Roberts Rules of Order are voting systems mentioned in the most commonly-used manual of parliamentary procedure in the United States. ...


Effects of bloc voting

The bloc voting system has a number of features which can make it unrepresentative of the voters' intentions. Bloc voting regularly produces complete landslide majorities for the group of candidates with the highest level of support. Under bloc voting, a slate of clones of the top-place candidate is guaranteed to win every available seat. Although less representative, this does tend to lead to greater agreement among those elected. Like first past the post methods, small cohesive groups of voters can overpower larger numbers of disorganised voters who do not engage in tactical voting, sometimes resulting in a small minority of voters electing an entire slate of candidates by merely constituting a plurality. In politics, a landslide victory (or just a landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming majority in an election. ... In the analysis of voting systems, a clone is an additional candidate who appears as attractive to each voter as an existing candidate. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter supports a candidate other than his or her sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome. ... A plurality, relative majority or simple majority is the largest share of something, which may or may not be considered a majority, i. ...


Tactical voting

Plurality bloc voting, like single-winner plurality voting, is particularly vulnerable to tactical voting. Bullet voting is a strategy where a voter deliberately only makes a mark for a single candidate in an attempt to not accidentally cause him to be beaten by one of his other choices. An example of a plurality ballot. ... In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter supports a candidate other than his or her sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome. ...


Usage of bloc voting

In English-speaking countries, block voting has its origins in common law. It was used in the Australian Senate from 1901 to 1948 (from 1918, this was preferential block voting). It was used for two member constituencies in Parliamentary elections in the United Kingdom until their abolition, and remains in use throughout England and Wales for some local elections. It is also used for elections in Jersey and elections in Guernsey. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... Elections in Jersey gives information on election and election results in Jersey. ... Elections in Guernsey gives information on election and election results in Guernsey. ...


Plurality bloc voting is also used in the election of the Senate of Poland, of the Parliament of Lebanon and of the plurality seats in the Palestinian Legislative Council. (In some Lebanese and Palestinian constituencies, there is only one seat to be filled; in the Palestinian election of 1996 there were only plurality seats, while in 2006, half the seats were elected by plurality, half by proportional representation nationwide.) The Senate of the Philippines is elected by plurality in one nationwide district. The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Lebanese parliament building at Place dÉtoile in Beirut The Parliament of Lebanon is the Lebanese national legislature. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... On January 20, 1996, elections took place in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem for President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and for members of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislative arm of the PNA. The 1996 elections took place in a moment of optimism in... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ...


Plurality bloc voting was used for the elections of both houses of Parliament in Belgium before proportional representation was implemented in 1900. It was, more precisely majority bloc voting: when not enough candidates had the majority of the votes in the first round, a second round was held between the highest ranked candidates of the first round (with two times as much candidates as seats to be filled). In some constituencies there was only one seat to be filled. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Plurality bloc voting is relatively rare in the United States today, where the political scene is dominated by single-member districts. There are exceptions, however, on the state and local levels; for instance, some members of the Maryland House of Delegates and Vermont House of Representatives are elected by bloc voting from multi-member districts. The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland. ... Representatives Hall, where the Vermont House of Representatives convenes in the Vermont State House. ...


Also, bloc voting is often used in corporate elections to elect the boards of directors of corporations including housing cooperatives, with each shareholder's vote being multiplied by the number of shares they own, but cumulative voting is also popular. Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way in which a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ... A points method ballot design like this one is the most common for governmental elections using cumulative voting. ...


Partial bloc voting

See also Limited voting To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Partial bloc voting, also called limited voting, functions similarly to plurality-at-large voting, however in partial bloc voting each voter receives fewer votes than the number of candidates to be elected. This in turn can enable reasonably sized minorities to achieve some representation, as it becomes impossible for a simple majority to sweep every seat. Partial bloc voting is used for elections in Gibraltar to the Gibraltar Parliament, where each voter has 8 votes and 15 seats are open for election; the usual result is that the most popular party wins 8 seats and forms the ruling administration, while the second most popular wins 7 seats and forms the opposition. Partial bloc voting is also used in the Spanish Senate, where there are 4 seats and each voter receives 3 votes. Historically, partial block voting was used in three- and four-member constituencies in the United Kingdom, where voters received two votes, until multimember constituencies were abolished. Elections in Gibraltar gives information on election and election results in Gibraltar. ... The Gibraltar Parliament is the legislature of the British territory of Gibraltar. ... The Spanish Senate (Spanish: Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ...


Under partial bloc voting, the fewer votes each voter is granted the smaller the number of voters needed to win becomes and the more like proportional representation the results can be, provided that voters and candidates use proper strategy. [1] At the extreme, if each voter is limited to only receiving one vote and the threshold for obtaining representation therefore reduces to the Droop Quota, then the voting system becomes equivalent to the Single Non-transferable Vote. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The Droop quota is the quota most commonly used in elections held under the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system. ... The Single Non-Transferable Vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections. ...


Voting as a bloc

The term bloc voting is also used to refer to the concept of voting as a bloc, a system of winner take all decision-making whereby the vote of an entire electoral unit is cast in line with the majority decision of that unit, discounting any contrary votes. The most prominent example of this is the system used by most states for the United States Electoral College - a candidate winning a narrow plurality of votes in a particular state gets every electoral vote for that state. This leads to a "triage" strategy of presidential candidates aggressively trying to win narrow majorities in close swing states while avoiding campaigning in ones with a more certain outcome. Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ... This article is about the US political term. ...


This system of bloc voting is also used in the UK by the Trades Union Congress; in an irony of history, it was introduced in 1895 by supporters of the Liberal Party to prevent or delay the establishment of the Labour Party, and it took the Labour Party from 1900 until 1993 to remove it from its own structures. Combined with a local form of malapportionment, a system of mandatory voting blocs was also used within several states in the United States, especially Georgia in its County Unit system, to deny urban and minority populations equal representation until such systems were ruled unconstitutional in the 1960s with the Supreme Court case of Gray v. Sanders. Image:TradeUnionsCongress20050108 CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the 1920s, and a third party of varying strength and importance up to 1988, when it merged with the Social Democratic Party to form a new party which would become known as... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... Malapportionment is broad and systematic variance in the size of electoral constituencies (at least within electoral systems which have them). ... The County Unit System was used by the U.S. state of Georgia to determine a victor in its elections. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Gray v. ...


The effect of electorally enforced voting blocs on the makeup of the winning slate of candidates produces a similar result to electing the candidates by first-past-the-post bloc voting.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bloc voting - Electowiki (473 words)
Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency.
In first past the post bloc voting, each voter places n Xs on the ballot paper, where n is the number of candidates to be elected.
It was used in the Australian Senate from 1901 to 1948 (from 1918, this was preferential bloc voting), is widely used for local elections in the United Kingdom and is often used to elect the boards of directors of corporations.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Bloc voting (484 words)
Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency.
In first past the post bloc voting, each voter places n Xs on the ballot paper, where n is the number of candidates to be elected.
It was used in the Australian Senate from 1901 to 1948 (from 1918, this was preferential bloc voting), is widely used for local elections in the UK and is often used to elect the boards of directors of corporations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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