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Encyclopedia > Blender 3d
  blender

Screenshot of Blender 2.36
Maintainer: The Blender Foundation
Latest release: 2.41 / January 24, 2006
OS: Cross-platform
Genre: 3D computer graphics software
License: GPL
Website: www.blender3d.com

Blender is a free software program for modelling and rendering three-dimensional graphics and animations. Blender is available for several operating systems, including FreeBSD, IRIX, GNU/Linux, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, SkyOS, and MorphOS. Blender icon This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Download high resolution version (959x574, 143 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Software maintenance is one of the activities in software engineering, and is the process of enhancing and optimizing deployed software (software release), as well as remedying defects. ... A software release is to create a new version of the system or program and release it to the user community. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Early computers lacked operating systems. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... A software genre is a classification of software by its common function, type or topic. ... 3D computer graphics software is a program or collection of programs used to create 3D computer-generated imagery. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the user. ... The GNU logo For other uses of GPL, see GPL (disambiguation). ... The front page of the English Wikipedia Website. ... Free software, as defined by the Free Software Foundation, is software which can be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed without restriction. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of a software program. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Early computers lacked operating systems. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free software operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... IRIX is the System V-based Unix Operating System with BSD extensions developed by Silicon Graphics (SGI) to run natively on their 32 and 64-bit MIPS architecture workstations and servers. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Microsoft Windows is a series of popular proprietary operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ... Mac OS X is the operating system that is included with all currently shipping Apple Macintosh computers in the education, the consumer, and in the business markets. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... SkyOS is a proprietary operating system developed by Robert Szeleney. ... MorphOS is a mixed proprietary and open source operating system produced for the PegasosPPC hardware platform by a core development team and contributors. ...

Contents


History

Originally, the program was developed as an in-house application by the Dutch animation studio NeoGeo (not to be confused with the NeoGeo game console) and Not a Number Technologies (NaN); the main author, Ton Roosendaal, founded NaN in June 1998 to further develop and distribute the program. The program was initially distributed as freeware until NaN went bankrupt in 2002. The original Neo-Geo console was greatly advanced for its time. ... Ton_Roosendaals Startup Funded by the Angel Investor (who held assets such as Amiga) during the height of the dot-com era. ... Ton Roosendaal is the lead developer of the free 3D application Blender. ... Freeware is computer software which is: Made available free of charge. ...


The debtors agreed to release Blender as free software, under the terms of the GNU General Public License, for a one-time payment of €100,000. On July 18, 2002, a Blender funding campaign was started by Roosendaal in order to collect donations and on September 7, 2002 it was announced that enough funds had been collected and that the Blender source code would be released. Blender is now an open source program being actively developed by the Blender Foundation. Free software, as defined by the Free Software Foundation, is software which can be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed without restriction. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is the most popular free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The Blender Foundation is the organization representing those developing Blender, an open-source program for three-dimensional modelling that is supported by contributions. ...


Features

Blender has a relatively small installation size and runs on several popular computing platforms. Though it is often distributed without documentation or extensive example scenes, the software is rich with features that are characteristic of high-end modelling software. Among its capabilities are:

  • Support for a variety of geometric primitives, including polygon meshes, fast subdivison surface modeling, Bezier curves and NURBS surfaces, metaballs, polygon sculpting, and vector Typeface fonts.
  • Versatile internal rendering capabilities and integration with the YafRay open source ray tracer.
  • Animation tools including inverse kinematics, armature (skeletal) and lattice deformation, shape keys, keyframes, timeline, non-linear animation, constraints, vertex weighting, soft body dynamics including mesh collision detection, fluid dynamics, hard body dynamics, particle based hair, and a particle system with collision detection.
  • Python scripting for tool creation and prototyping, game scripting logic, or task automation.
  • Basic non-linear video editing and compositing capabilities.
  • Game Blender, a sub-project, offers interactivity features such as collision detection, dynamics engine, and programmable logic. It also allows the creation of stand-alone, Real time applications ranging from architectural visualization to videogame construction.

Look up Polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For other use please see Polygon (disambiguation) A polygon (literally many angle, see Wiktionary for the etymology) is a closed planar path composed of a finite number of sequential line segments. ... In computer graphics, subdivision surfaces are used to create smooth surfaces out of arbitrary meshes. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis a Bézier curve is a parametric curve important in computer graphics. ... NURBS, short for non-uniform, rational B-spline, is a mathematical model commonly used in computer graphics for generating and representing curves and surfaces. ... Metaballs (not to be confused with meatballs) is the name of a computer graphics technique for rendering organic-looking n-dimensional objects. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... External link YafRay homepage Categories: Stub | 3D graphics software ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... A ray traced scene. ... Inverse kinematic animation (IKA) refers to a process utilized in 3D computer graphic animation, to calculate the required articulation of a series of limbs or joints, such that the end of the limb ends up in a particular location. ... Python is an interpreted programming language created by Guido van Rossum in 1990. ... Game Blender is a sub-application of Blender, the popular open source 3D application, used to make games using blender. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ...

Advanced features

  • In Blender, an Object (which represents an entity that interacts with the world) and its Data (the actual shape/function of the object) are distinguishable. Object-data relationships are m:n and dynamically-linkable at all times, allowing for some rapid modelling processes that are unique to blender.
  • An internal filesystem that allows one to pack multiple scenes into a single file (called a ".blend" file).
  • All of blender's ".blend" files are forward, backward, and cross-platform compatible with other versions of blender, and can be used as a library to borrow premade content.
  • Snapshot ".blend" files can be auto-saved periodically by the program, making it easier to survive a program crash.
  • All scenes, objects, materials, textures, sounds, images, post-production effects for an entire animation can be stored in a single ".blend" file.
  • Interface configurations are retained in the ".blend" files, such that what you save is what you get upon load. This file can be stored as "user defaults" so this screen configuration, as well as all the objects stored in it, is used every time you load blender.

User interface

Blender has had a reputation as a program that is difficult to learn. Nearly every function has a direct keyboard shortcut, with the amount of functions blender offers resulting in several different shortcuts per key. Since the open-sourcing, there has been effort to add comprehensive contextual menus as well as make the tool use more logical and streamlined, and also visually enhance the user interface further, with the introduction of color themes, transparent floating widgets, a new and improved object tree overview and other small improvements (color picker widget, etc.).


Blender user interface has the following distinguishing concepts:

  • Editing modes. The two primary modes of work are Object mode and Edit mode , which are toggled with the Tab key. Object mode is used to manipulate individual objects in general, while Edit mode is used to manipulate the actual object data. For example, for polygon meshes, Object mode can be used to move, scale, and rotate entire meshes, and Edit mode is used to manipulate the individual vertices of a single mesh. There are also several other modes, such as Vertex Paint and UV Editing modes.
  • Very heavy use of keyboard hotkeys. Most of the commands are given from keyboard. Until the 2.x and especially the 2.3x versions, this was in fact the only way to give commands, and this was largely responsible for creating Blender's reputation as a difficult-to-learn program. The new versions have more comprehensive GUI menus.
  • Workspace management. The blender GUI is made up of one or more screens, which each can be divided into sections and subsections that can be of any type of blender's views or window-types. Each window-type's own GUI elements can be controlled with the same tools that manipulate 3D view - for example, resulting in the strange feature of being able to zoom in and out of GUI-buttons in the same way one zooms in and out in the 3D viewport. The GUI's layout and setup is fully controllable by the users, making it possible to set up the interface for specific tasks such as video editing or UV mapping and texturing and hiding other features that aren't needed for that specific task.

Although Blender (as of Version 2.41) still lacks features found in current proprietary systems (i.e. ngon based modeling workflow), Blender's workspace management is considered to be amongst the most innovative GUI concepts for graphical tools and is believed to have inspired proprietary software vendors' interface design (e.g., Luxology's Modo). It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... The correct title of this article is modo (software). ...


Development

Since the opening of the source, Blender has improved and experienced substantial refactoring of the initial codebase. This made the addition of features easier. Although Blender is a full featured program, professional users of other programs may find certain areas to be missing, such as the lack of NGon based modeling workflow and some missing or incomplete modeling tools, numerical measuring and manipulation methods, the inability to customize keybindings, lack of a robust cloth dynamics system and will likely encounter limitations in the rendering and materials system such as the lack of node based materials (will be in 2.42), bundled libraries of material presets, multipass rendering (will be in 2.42), motion blur, depth of field or tangent space normal mapping. Blender also tends to lack up-to-date and complete documentation although that has been largely solved by the wikification of the blender documentation project. Refactoring is the process of rewriting written material to improve its readability or structure, with the explicit purpose of keeping its meaning or behavior. ...


Blender 2.40 features

Blender 2.40 adds many new features [1], including:

  • An animation system refresh [2].
  • A mesh "modifier stack" [3].
  • Improvements to the User Interface. [4].
  • New particle options (including hair) and guides. [5]

also added were The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ...

  • Fluid dynamics [6], and
  • Improved Boolean modeling tools [7].

with the sponsorship of Google's Summer of Code.


Blender 2.41 features

Blender 2.41 added a number of improvements [8]. especially to the Game Engine, including:

  • GLSL pixel and vertex shaders for the game engine [9],
  • Subsurf UV Unwrapping [10],
  • and a sculpting tool [11]

Current Development

Current development to be released for 2.42 includes a node based materials system; multipass rendering; node based compositing; improved UV unwrapping; animatable obstacles and fluid sources - for use in the fluid dynamics system; a faster softbody solver; some modeling tool improvements; and vehicle physics for the game engine.


Support

The popularity of Blender has reached approximately 250,000 users using Blender worldwide, and support is widely available. Most users learn Blender through tutorials that various users have written, others learn Blender through many discussion forums on the topic. A popular forum for Blender discussion is Elysiun (http://www.elysiun.com).


Artists using Blender

Notable artists using Blender as their main or only tool are

Usage in the movie industry

The first large professional project in which Blender was used was Spider-Man 2, where it was primarily used to create animatics and previsualizations for the storyboard department. Spider-Man 2 is the sequel to the popular 2002 film Spider-Man and was released in the U.S. on June 30, 2004. ...

"As an animatic artist working in the storyboard department of Spider-Man 2, I used Blender's 3d modeling and character animation tools to enhance the storyboards, re-creating sets and props, and putting into motion action and camera moves in 3d space to help make Sam's vision as clear to other departments as possible."[12] - Anthony Zierhut, Animatic Artist, Los Angeles

The Orange Movie Project

In September 2005, some of the most notable Blender artists and developers began working on a short film using primarily free software. This initiative is known as the Orange Movie Project. Its purpose is primarily to evaluate Blender as a tool for producing quality CGI for professional films. Already, the project has spawned several new features in Blender, such as hair rendering. More info is at http://orange.blender.org/ Free software, as defined by the Free Software Foundation, is software which can be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed without restriction. ... The pseudopod in The Abyss marked CGIs acceptance in the visual effects industry. ...


External links

Wikibooks
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Blender was developed as an in-house application by the Dutch animation studio NeoGeo (not to be confused with the Neo-Geo game console) and Not a Number Technologies (NaN); the main author, Ton Roosendaal, founded NaN in June 1998 to further develop and distribute the program.
On July 18, 2002, a Blender funding campaign was started by Roosendaal in order to collect donations and on September 7, 2002 it was announced that enough funds had been collected and that the Blender source code would be released.
Blender also tends to lack up-to-date and complete documentation although that has been largely solved by the wikification of the blender documentation project and the recently announced Blender Summer of Documentation [1].
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