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Encyclopedia > Bleeding
Blood from a finger
Blood from a finger

Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhage (American English), haemorrhage (British English), or hæmorrhage, is the loss of blood from the circulatory system.[1] Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body or externally, either through a natural opening such as the vagina, mouth or rectum, or through a break in the skin. The complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination,[2] and desanguination is a massive blood loss. Loss of 10-15% of total blood volume can be endured without clinical sequelae in a healthy person, and blood donation typically takes 8-10% of the donor's blood volume.[3] Bleeding usually means the loss of blood from the body. ... Fuel is a rock band formed by guitarist/songwriter Carl Bell and bassist Jeff Abercrombie in 1989. ... Hemorrhage (In My Hands) is a first single off the album Something Like Human by the rock band Fuel. ... Haemorrhage is a Spanish goregrind band. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 830 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bleeding Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 830 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bleeding Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ... Desanguination, refers to a massive loss of blood. ... A sequela, (IPA ) (plural sequelæ) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, or other trauma. ... Give blood redirects here. ...

Contents

Causes, prevalence, and risk factors

Hemorrhage generally becomes dangerous, or even fatal, when it causes hypovolemia (low blood volume) or hypotension (low blood pressure). In these scenarios various mechanisms come into play to maintain the body's homeostasis. These include the "retro-stress-relaxation" mechanism of cardiac muscle, the baroreceptor reflex and renal and endocrine responses such as the renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system (RAAS). In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Baroreceptors (or baroceptors) in the human body detect the pressure of blood flowing though them, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ...


Certain diseases or medical conditions, such as haemophilia and low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) may increase the risk of bleeding or may allow otherwise minor bleeds to become health or life threatening. Anticoagulant medications, such as warfarin can mimic the effects of haemophilia, preventing clotting, and allowing free blood flow. Haemophilia (also spelled as hemophilia, from the Greek haima blood and philia to love[1]) is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the bodys ability to control blood clotting or coagulation. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ...


Death from hemorrhage can generally occur surprisingly quickly. This is because of 'positive feedback'. An example of this is 'cardiac repression', when poor heart contraction depletes blood flow to the heart, causing even poorer heart contraction. This kind of effect causes death to occur more quickly than expected. Positive feedback is a feedback system in which the system responds to the perturbation in the same direction as the perturbation (It is sometimes referred to as cumulative causation). ...


Types of bleeding

A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common and relatively minor post-LASIK complication.
A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common and relatively minor post-LASIK complication.

Hemorrhage is broken down into 4 classes by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS).[4] Image File history File links Picture of a post-LASIK hemorrhage of the eye Taken by Raul654 on July 14, 2005. ... Image File history File links Picture of a post-LASIK hemorrhage of the eye Taken by Raul654 on July 14, 2005. ... A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common and relatively minor post-LASIK complication. ... LASIK is the acronym for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, a type of refractive laser eye surgery performed by ophthalmologists for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. ... Advanced Trauma Life Support is a training program in acute management of trauma cases, developed in 1976 by the American College of Surgeons. ...

  • Class I Hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume. There is typically no change in vital signs and fluid resuscitation is not usually necessary.
  • Class II Hemorrhage involves 15-30% of total blood volume. A patient is often tachycardic (rapid heart beat) with a narrowing of the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The body attempts to compensate with peripheral vasoconstriction. Skin may start to look pale and be cool to the touch. The patient might start acting differently. Volume resuscitation with crystaloids (Saline solution or Lactated Ringer's solution) is all that is typically required. Blood transfusion is not typically required.
  • Class III Hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume. The patient's blood pressure drops, the heart rate increases, peripheral perfusion, such as capillary refill worsens, and the mental status worsens. Fluid resuscitation with crystaloid and blood transfusion are usually necessary.
  • Class IV Hemorrhage involves loss of >40% of circulating blood volume. The limit of the body's compensation is reached and aggressive resuscitation is required to prevent death.

Individuals in excellent physical and cardiovascular shape may have more effective compensatory mechanisms before experiencing cardiovascular collapse. These patients may look deceptively stable, with minimal derangements in vital sounds, while having poor peripheral perfusion (shock). Elderly patients or those with chronic medical conditions may have less tolerance to blood loss, less ability to compensate, and may take medications such as betablockers that can potentially blunt the cardiovascular response. Care must be taken in the assessment of these patients. In medicine, saline is a solution of sodium chloride (a substance also commonly known as table salt) in sterile water, used frequently for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation (or the yogic practice called jala neti). ... Lactated Ringers solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...

See also: WHO bleeding scale

The World Health Organization, or WHO, made a standardized grading scale to measure the severity of bleeding. ...

Causes

Minor traumatic bleeding from the head
Minor traumatic bleeding from the head

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 120 KB) Bleeding from a head wound. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 120 KB) Bleeding from a head wound. ...

Traumatic

Traumatic bleeding is caused by some type of injury. There are different types of wounds which may cause traumatic bleeding. These include: Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ...

  • Abrasion - Also called a graze, this is caused by transverse action of a foreign object against the skin, and usually does not penetrate below the epidermis
  • Excoriation - In common with Abrasion, this is caused by mechanical destruction of the skin, although it usually has an underlying medical cause
  • Hematoma - (also called a blood tumor) - caused by damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin.
  • Laceration - Irregular wound caused by blunt impact to soft tissue overlying hard tissue or tearing such as in childbirth. In some instances, this can also be used to describe an incision.
  • Incision - A cut into a body tissue or organ, such as by a scalpel, made during surgery.
  • Puncture Wound - Caused by an object penetrated the skin and underlying layers, such as a nail, needle or knife
  • Contusion - Also known as a bruise, this is a blunt trauma damaging tissue under the surface of the skin
  • Crushing Injuries - caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a long period of time. The extent of a crushing injury may not immediately present itself.
  • Gunshot wounds - Caused by a projectile weapon, this may include two external wounds (entry and exit) and a contiguous wound between the two

The pattern of injury, evaluation and treatment will vary with the mechanism of the injury. Blunt trauma causes injury via a shock effect; delivering energy over an area. Wounds are often not straight and unbroken skin may hide significant injury. Penetrating trauma follows the course of the injurious device. As the energy is applied in a more focused fashion, it requires less energy to cause significant injury. Any body organ, including bone and brain, can be injured and bleed. Bleeding may not be readily apparent; internal organs such as the liver, kidney and spleen may bleed into the abdominal cavity. The only apparent signs may come with blood loss. Bleeding from a bodily orifice, such as the rectum, nose, ears may signal internal bleeding, but cannot be relied upon. Bleeding from a medical procedure also falls into this category. Abrasion on the palm of a right hand, shortly after falling Abrasions on elbow and lower arm, still healing. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An excoriation is an erosion or destruction of the skin by mechanical means, which appears in the form of a scratch or abrasion of the skin. ... Hematoma on thigh, 6 days after a fall down stairs, 150ml of blood drained a few days later A hematoma, or haematoma, is a collection of blood, generally the result of hemorrhage, or, more specifically, internal bleeding. ... Definition A cut is an injury that results in a break or opening in the skin. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... For other uses, see Scalpel (disambiguation). ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... This article refers to the punk band. ... A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of patients, used by medical or paramedical personnel. ...


Due to underlying medical conditions

Medical bleeding is that associated with an increased risk of bleeding due to an underlying medical condition. It will increase the risk of bleeding related to underlying anatomic deformities, such as weaknesses in blood vessels (aneurysm or dissection), arteriovenous malformation, ulcerations. Similarly, other conditions that disrupt the integrity of the body such as tissue death, cancer, or infection may lead to bleeding. Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... Arteriovenous malformation or AVM is a congenital disorder of the veins and arteries that make up the vascular system . ...


The underlying scientific basis for blood clotting and hemostasis is discussed in detail in the articles, Coagulation, haemostasis and related articles. The discussion here is limited to the common practical aspects of blood clot formation which manifest as bleeding. Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Hemostasisis the physiologic process which results in the cessation of bleeding in most animals with a closed circulatory system. ...


Certain medical conditions can also make patients susceptible to bleeding. These are conditions that affect the normal "hemostatic" functions of the body. Hemostasis involves several components. The main components of the hemostatic system include platelets and the coagulation system. Hemostasis refers to a process whereby bleeding is halted in most animals with a closed circulatory system. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ...


Platelets are small blood components that form a plug in the blood vessel wall that stops bleeding. Platelets also produce a variety of substances that stimulate the production of a blood clot. One of the most common causes of increased bleeding risk is exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (or "NSAIDs"). The prototype for these drugs is aspirin, which inhibits the production of thromboxane. NSAIDs inhibit the activation of platelets, and thereby increase the risk of bleeding. The effect of aspirin is irreversible; therefore, the inhibitory effect of aspirin is present until the platelets have been replaced (about ten days). Other NSAIDs, such as "ibuprofen" (Motrin) and related drugs, are reversible and therefore, the effect on platelets is not as long-lived. A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


There are several named coagulation factors that interact in a complex way to form blood clots, as discussed in the article on coagulation. Deficiencies of coagulation factors are associated with clinical bleeding. For instance, deficiency of Factor VIII causes classic Hemophilia A while deficiencies of Factor IX cause "Christmas disease"(hemophilia B). Antibodies to Factor VIII can also inactivate the Factor VII and precipitate bleeding that is very difficult to control. This is a rare condition that is most likely to occur in older patients and in those with autoimmune diseases. von Willebrand disease is another common bleeding disorder. It is caused by a deficiency of or abnormal function of the "von Willebrand" factor, which is involved in platelet activation. Deficiencies in other factors, such as factor XIII or factor VII are occasionally seen, but may not be associated with severe bleeding and are not as commonly diagnosed. This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Haemophilia A (also spelt Hemophilia A or Hæmophilia A) is a blood clotting disorder caused by a mutation of the Factor VIII gene, leading to a deficiency in Factor VIII. It is the most common hemophilia. ... Haemophilia B (also spelled Hemophilia B or Hæmophilia B) is a blood clotting disorder caused by a mutation of the Factor IX gene. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. ...


In addition to NSAID-related bleeding, another common cause of bleeding is that related to the medication, warfarin ("Coumadin" and others). This medication needs to be closely monitored as the bleeding risk can be markedly increased by interactions with other medications. Warfarin acts by inhibiting the production of Vitamin K in the gut. Vitamin K is required for the production of the clotting factors, II, VII, IX, and X in the liver. One of the most common causes of warfarin-related bleeding is taking antibiotics. The gut bacteria make vitamin K and are killed by antibiotics. This decreases vitamin K levels and therefore the production of these clotting factors. Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ...


Deficiencies of platelet function may require platelet transfusion while deficiciencies of clotting factors may require transfusion of either fresh frozen plasma of specific clotting factors, such as Factor VIII for patients with hemophilia. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. ...


First aid

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' First Aid has more about this subject:
External Bleeding

All people who have been injured should receive a thorough assessment. It should be divided into a primary and secondary survey and performed in a stepwise fashion, following the "ABCs". Notification of EMS or other rescue agencies should be performed in a timely manner and as the situation requires. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid ABC (and extensions of this acronym) is a mnemonic for memorizing essential steps in dealing with an unconscious or unresponsive patient. ... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ...


The primary survey examines and verifies that the patient's Airway is intact, that s/he is Breathing and that Circulation is working. A similar scheme and mnemonic is used as in CPR. However, during the pulse check of C, attempts should also be made to control bleeding and to assess perfusion, usually by checking capillary refill. Additionally a persons mental status should be assessed (Disability) or either an AVPU scale or via a formal Glasgow Coma Scale. In all but the most minor cases, the patient should be Exposed by removal of clothing and a secondary survey performed, examining the patient from head to toe for other injuries. The survey should not delay treatment and transport, especially if a non-correctable problem is identified. CPR redirects here. ... Capillary refill refers to the rate at which blood is filled into empty small blood vessels. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ...


Minor bleeding

Minor bleeding is bleeding that falls under a Class I hemorrhage and the bleeding is easily stopped with pressure.


The largest danger in a minor wound is infection. Bleeding can be stopped with direct pressure and elevation, and the wound should be washed well with soap and water. A dressing, typically made of gauze, should be applied. Peroxide or iodine solutions (such as Betadine) can injure the cells that promote healing and may actually impair proper wound healing and delay closure.[5] An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Look up dressing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Betadine is a povidone-iodine solution, used as a broad spectrum topical microbicide. ...


Emergency Bleeding Control

Severe bleeding poses a very real risk of death to the casualty if not treated quickly. Therefore, preventing major bleeding should take priority over other conditions, save failure of the heart or lungs. Most protocols advise the use of direct pressure, rest and elevation of the wound above the heart to control bleeding. Minor traumatic bleeding from the head Emergency bleeding control is the steps or actions taken to control bleeding from a patient who has suffered a traumatic injury or who has a medical condition which has led to bleeding. ...


The use of a tourniquet is not advised in most cases, as it can lead to unnecessary necrosis or even loss of a limb. Tourniquets should rarely be used as it is usually possible to stop bleeding by the application of manual pressure.[citation needed] A tourniquet can be defined as a constricting or compressing device used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Bleeding from body cavities

The only minor situation is a spontaneous nosebleed, or a nosebleed caused by a slight trauma (such as a child putting his finger in his nose). For the plant referred to as nosebleed plant, see Yarrow. ...


Simultaneous externalised bleeding from the ear may indicate brain trauma if there has been a serious head injury. Loss of consciousness, amnesia, or fall from a height increases the likelihood that there has been a severe injury. This type of injury can also be found in motor vehicle accidents associated with death or severe injury to other passengers.


Hemoptysis, or coughing up blood, may be a sign that the person is at risk for serious bleeding. This is especially the case for patients with cancer. Hematemesis is vomiting up blood from the stomach. Often, the source of bleeding is difficult to distinguish and usually requires detailed assessment by an emergency physician. Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood. ...


Internal bleeding

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' First Aid has more about this subject:
Main article: Internal bleeding

Internal bleeding occurs entirely within the confines of the body and can be caused by a medical condition (such as aortic aneurysm) or by trauma. Symptoms of internal bleeding include pale, clammy skin, an increased heart rate and a stupor or confused state. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ...


The most recognisable form of internal bleeding is the contusion or bruise. A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ...


Risk of blood contamination

Because skin is watertight, there is no immediate risk of infection to the aide from contact with blood, provided the exposed area has not been previously wounded or diseased. Before any further activity (especially eating, drinking, touching the eyes, the mouth or the nose), the skin should be thoroughly cleaned in order to avoid cross contamination.


To avoid any risk, the hands can be prevented from contact with a glove (mostly latex or nitrile rubber), or an improvised method such as a plastic bag or a cloth. This is taught as important part of protecting the rescuer in most first aid protocols. This article is about the typesetting system. ... Nitrile rubber is a synthetic rubber co-polymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. ...


Following contact with blood, some rescuers may choose to go to the emergency department, where post-exposure prophylaxis can be started to prevent blood-borne infection. The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a disease (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the disease from breaking out. ...


As a medical treatment

Before the advent of modern medicine the technique of bloodletting, or phlebotomy, was used for a number of conditions: causing bleeding intentionally to remove a controlled amount of excess or "bad" blood. Phlebotomy is still used as an extremely effective treatment for Haemochromatosis. Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper dietary iron metabolism (making it an iron overload disorder), which causes the accumulation of iron in a number of body tissues. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Bleeding Health Article. Healthline. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  2. ^ Dictionary Definitions of Exsanguination. Reference.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  3. ^ Blood Donation Information. UK National Blood Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  4. ^ Manning, JE "Fluid and Blood Resuscitation" in Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. JE Tintinalli Ed. McGraw-Hill: New York 2004. p227
  5. ^ Waston, JR et al. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2005 Sep;18(7):373-8. PMID: 16160464

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Upper gastrointestinal bleed or upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a bleed from a lesion proximal to the ligament of Treitz, which connects the fourth portion of the duodenum to the splenic flexure of the large intestine. ... One of the main problems involving the female reproductive organs is vaginal bleeding. ... ... Hemorrhagic stroke, or cerebral hemorrhage is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... Arteriovenous malformation or AVM is a congenital disorder of the veins and arteries that make up the vascular system . ... This article needs cleanup. ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... Obstetrical hemorrhage refers to heavy bleeding during pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. ... In medicine, hematuria (or haematuria) is the presence of blood in the urine. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood. ... Hematochezia is the passage of bloody stools from the rectum. ... Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total blood loss. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vaginal bleeding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (599 words)
Vaginal bleeding refers to bleeding in females that are either a physiologic response during the non-conceptional menstrual cycle or caused by hormonal or oganic problems of the reproductive system.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common cause of menorrhagia and irregular bleeding.
Bleeding in early pregnancy may be a sign of a threatened or incomplete miscarriage.
Bleeding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1577 words)
This type of bleeding is characterized by spurts with each beat of the heart, is bright red in color (although blood darkens when it meets the air) and is usually severe and hard to control.
Venous bleeding is characterized by a steady flow and the blood is dark, almost maroon in shade.
The bleeding may be isolated to part of one hemisphere (lobar intracerebral hemorrhage) or it may occur in other brain structures, such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons, or cerebellum (deep intracerebral hemorrhage).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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