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Encyclopedia > Blaxploitation
Shaft (1971)

Blaxploitation is a film genre that emerged in the United States in the early 1970s when many exploitation films were made that targeted the urban black audience; the word itself is a portmanteau of the words “black” and “exploitation.” Blaxploitation films starred primarily black actors, and were the first to feature soundtracks of funk and soul music. Variety magazine credited Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song with the invention of the blaxploitation genre,[1] although others concede that because the film was conceived and produced independently and directed by a black filmmaker, the Hollywood-financed film Shaft is closer to being blaxploitation, and thus, is more likely to have begun the genre.[2] Image File history File links This image is of a DVD cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the DVD or the studio which produced the movie in question. ... Image File history File links This image is of a DVD cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the DVD or the studio which produced the movie in question. ... Shaft is a 1971 Academy Award winning film directed by Gordon Parks. ... In film theory, genre refers to the primary method of film categorization. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel Soul Music. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... Sweet Sweetbacks Baadasssss Song was a 1971 independent film written, produced, scored, directed by, and starring Melvin Van Peebles. ... Shaft is a 1971 Academy Award winning film directed by Gordon Parks. ...

Contents

Common qualities

When set in the North or West Coast of the U.S., they tended to take place in the ghetto and dealt with pimps, drug dealers, and hit men. In all these films, it was common to see drugs, the Afro hairstyle, “pimpmobiles," and negative white characters, often corrupt police officers and government officials, along with drug dealing organized crime members who were easily fooled. These characters were often referred to by various ethnic slurs, most often "honky". When set in the South, the movies most often took place on a plantation and dealt with slavery and miscegenation. [3] [4] Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... As defined by the Census Bureau, the western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington lincoln, and Wyoming. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US Drug Enforcement Administration In jurisdictions where legislation restricts or prohibits the sale of certain popular drugs, it is common for an illegal drugs trade to develop. ... A hitman (alternately, hit man) is a hired assassin, often by organized crime. ... Woman with an afro at the Tribeca Film Festival For the Italian painter known as Afro, see Afro Basaldella. ... Superfly poster showing pimpmobile A pimpmobile is a large luxury automobile that has been heavily customized in a garish, extravagant style to advertise its owners wealth and importance. ... For other uses, see Honky (disambiguation). ... Historic Southern United States. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ... Slave redirects here. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ...


Following the lead of Sweet Sweetback, many of these films featured funk soundtracks with heavy bass, funky beats and wah-wah guitars. This style of music actually evolved into a bona-fide musical genre, also called blaxploitation. Prominent examples of this style include Curtis Mayfield's Superfly and Isaac Hayes's Shaft.[5] Sweet Sweetbacks Baadasssss Song was a 1971 independent film written, produced, scored, directed by, and starring Melvin Van Peebles. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... Curtis Mayfield (June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, funk and R&B singer, songwriter and guitarist best known for his anthemic music with The Impressions and composing the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Superfly. ... Superfly is a 1972 (see 1972 in film) blaxploitation film known primarily for its soundtrack by soul singer Curtis Mayfield (see Superfly (soundtrack)). The movie starred Ron ONeal as Youngblood Priest, a cocaine dealer who is trying to quit the business. ... For the American arctic explorer, see Isaac Israel Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes (born August 20, 1942, in Covington, Tennessee) is an American soul and funk singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, arranger, and actor best known as the voice of Chef on the Emmy-winning animated sitcom South Park. ... Shaft is a 1971 Academy Award winning film directed by Gordon Parks. ...


Stereotypes

At the same time, the films also stereotyped blacks, the audience they aimed to appeal to, as pimps and drug dealers. This dovetailed with common white stereotypes about black people, and as a result many called for the end of the blaxploitation genre. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Urban League joined together to form the Coalition Against Blaxploitation. Backed by many black film professionals, this group received much media exposure and hastened the death of the genre by the late 1970s. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League is a non-profit, nonpartisan, civil rights and community-based movement that advocates on behalf of Black Americans and against racial discrimination. ...


Some film scholars[weasel words] defend the cinematic genre as instrumental in bringing greater screen presence to blacks.[citation needed] Furthermore, blaxploitation films laid the foundation for future filmmakers to address racial controversies regarding inner city poverty. In the early 1990s, a new wave of acclaimed black filmmakers focused on black urban life in their films (particularly Spike Lee’s Do the Right Thing and John Singleton’s Boyz N the Hood, among others). In film theory, genre refers to the primary method of film categorization. ... The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ... This article is about the 1989 film. ... John Daniel Singleton (born January 6, 1968 in Los Angeles, California) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Boyz-n-the-Hood is a song by the late rapper Eazy-E as a part of N.W.A. Ice Cube originally intended the song to be for himself, but after he joined N.W.A., he wrote it for Eazy. ...


Famous blaxploitation films

  • Abby (1974) was a blaxploitation version of The Exorcist and starred then rising star Carol Speed as a virtuous young woman possessed by a demon; Ms. Speed also sings the title song. William H. Marshall (of Blacula fame) conducts the exorcism of Abby on the floor of a discotheque.
  • Black Belt Jones (1974)—Better known for his role as “Mister Williams” from the Bruce Lee film Enter the Dragon; Jim Kelly was given a leading role in this martial arts film. In it he plays Black Belt Jones, a federal agent/martial arts expert who takes on the mob as he avenges the murder of a karate school owner.
  • Black Caesar (1973) Fred Williamson plays Tommy Gibbs, a street smart hoodlum who worked his way up from the bottom of the barrel to the crime boss of Harlem.
  • Blacksnake (1972) A unique Russ Meyer period piece about colonial slavery, a cruel white plantation mistress named Lady Susan and her domination of both the black and white men on Saint Cristobal (Barbados).
  • Coffy (1973) Pam Grier is Coffy, a nurse turned bad ass who takes revenge on all those who hooked her 11-year-old sister on heroin.
  • Darktown Strutters (1975) is a farce directed by Roger Corman's brother, Gene. A Colonel Sanders-type figure with a chain of urban fried chicken restaurants is attempting to wipe out the black race by making them impotent through his drugged fried chicken.
  • Dolemite is a 1975 blaxploitation feature film, and is also the name of its principal character, played by Rudy Ray Moore, who co-wrote the film. Moore had developed the alter-ego as a stand-up comedian and released several comedy albums using this persona. The film was directed by D'Urville Martin, who appears as the villain Willie Green. The film has attained something of a cult status, earning it a following and making it more well known than many of its counterparts. A sequel, The Human Tornado, was released in 1976. (Moore also appeared as Dolomite in ICP's Big Money Hustlas.)
  • Ebony, Ivory & Jade (1976) by Cirio Santiago (also known as She-Devils in Chains, American Beauty Hostages, Foxfire, Foxforce). Three female athletes are kidnapped during an international track meet in Hong Kong and fight their way to freedom.
  • Hammer (1972). Starring Fred Williamson as B.J. Hammer. He plays a boxer who gets mixed up with a crooked manager who wants him to throw a fight for the Mafia.
  • Hit Man (1971) This is the story of a hit man or contract killer, played by former NFL player Bernie Casey, hailing from Oakland who comes to Los Angeles after his brother is murdered. He later finds out that his niece gets "forced" into pornography and later murdered. He then sets out to murder everyone directly involved, from a porno actress (Pam Grier) to a theater owner (Ed Cambridge) to a man he looked up to as a child (Rudy Challenger) to a mobster (Don Diamond). Said to be a remake of Get Carter.
  • The Mack (1973) The Mack is a 1973 blaxploitation film starring Max Julien and Richard Pryor. This movie was produced during the era of such blaxploitation movies as Dolemite, however it is not considered by its makers a true blaxploitation picture. It is a social commentary, according to Mackin' Ain't Easy, a documentary about the making of The Mack, which can be found on the DVD edition of the film.
    The movie deals with the life of John Mickens (AKA Goldie), a former drug dealer recently released from prison who becomes a big-time pimp. Standing in his way is another pimp named Pretty Tony, two corrupt white cops, a local crime lord, and even his own brother (the black nationalist), who try to force him out of the business.
    The movie is set in Oakland, California and was the biggest grossing blaxploitation film of its time. Its soundtrack songs were recorded by Motown artist Willie Hutch.
  • Mandingo (1975). Based on a series of novels, this blaxploitation film was set in the American South during the U.S. Civil War and focused on the sexual relations between slaveowners’ wives and slaves. It was followed by a sequel, Drum, which became a favorite among black audiences for a scene in which a slave literally tears the testicles off of a white slave driver.
  • Passion Plantation (1976)
  • Sheba, Baby (1975) The action movie Sheba, Baby, starring Pam Grier as Sheba Shayne, was released in 1975. In the film, Sheba returns to her hometown of Louisville, Kentucky to confront thugs who are trying to intimidate her father into dissolving or handing over his family business. Austin Stoker plays Sheba's love interest, Brick Williams.
    Sheba, Baby was Pam Grier's last movie on her contract with AIP.
  • Sparkle (1976) Directed by Sam O’Steen and written by Howard Rosenman and Joel Schumacher. It is the story of three sisters from Harlem who embark on a singing career. The movie shows the pitfalls and the background dealings in the music business. The story is a dynamic piece on family connections with it showing the love of the three sisters and the devotion they have to each other. It also showcases a wonderful performance by Lonette McKee as “Sister” whose rise to fame leads her to a life of drug use and abuse. This movie also stars Irene Cara and Philip Michael Thomas as “Sparkle” and “Stix,” a young couple in love and straining to deal with all that success has to offer, the highs and the lows. The musical score for this production was done by Curtis Mayfield and the album for the movie was recorded by Aretha Franklin.
  • Superfly (1972) Directed by Gordon Parks, Jr., this film had a soundtrack by Curtis Mayfield and is considered to be a classic of the genre. Curiously enough while the movie celebrates drugs and the people dealing them Mayfield’s soundtrack is the exact opposite; a harsh commentary to the way drugs ruins the lives of especially the black man.
  • Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (1971), written and directed by Melvin Van Peebles. This tale of a black male prostitute turned vigilante is considered by many to be the first true blaxploitation film, and the film that thrust afrocentric films into the spotlight.[citation needed] (Van Peebles himself does not consider his film to be a part of the genre.)[citation needed]
  • Three the Hard Way (1974), three black men must stop a white supremacist group from imposing genocide against Negroes in three American cities.
  • Trick Baby (1973), based on the book of the same name by ex-pimp Iceberg Slim
  • Trouble Man (1972)Trouble Man is a 1972 blaxploitation film produced and released by 20th Century Fox. The film stars Robert Hooks as "Mr. T.", a hard-edged private detective who tends to take justice into his own hands. Although the film itself was unsuccessful, it is still of note today for its successful soundtrack, written, produced and performed by Motown artist Marvin Gaye.
    Like Isaac Hayes and Curtis Mayfield before him, Gaye became the next in a line of soul music stars who recorded soundtracks for films aimed at black audiences. While the Trouble Man film was a flop, the Trouble Man soundtrack and single became successes for Gaye.
  • Truck Turner (1974)Truck Turner is a 1974 blaxploitation film, starring Isaac Hayes and Yaphet Kotto, and directed by Johnathan Kaplan. The screenplay was written by Michael Allin, Jerry Wilkes and Oscar Williams.
    Truck Turner (portrayed by Isaac Hayes) is a former professional football player who becomes a bounty hunter (along with his partner Jerry) in search of a pimp in Los Angeles, California. After a tragic accident (where Truck uses deadly force where the alleged pimp is killed and his friend is stabbed by a prostitute), Turner becomes a marked man by the a hired assassin.
  • Watermelon Man (1970). Written by a white man (Herman Raucher) but directed by (Melvin Van Peebles), this film about a white man who is turned into a black man is considered a forebearer of the 1970s blaxploitation boom.
  • Willie Dynamite (1974)Willie Dynamite is a 1974 (see 1974 in film) blaxploitation film which features Roscoe Orman (Gordon from Sesame Street fame) as a pimp who lives the "life". This film, unlike Superfly, is more dramatic to which someone intervenes.
    As usual with blaxploitation films, the lead character is seen driving a customized Cadillac Eldorado coupe - the one featured in the film was previously used in the Magnum Force (the Superfly Eldorado seen in Magnum Force was painted pink but repainted for use in the film - the only difference is the D & G headlight covers which were not seen in the Dirty Harry film). In one scene in the film, the pimpmobile meets its demise when several ghetto thugs vandalize the car to which the hubcaps, grille cap, headlight covers, and lake pipes were ripped.
  • The James Bond franchise once took on some elements of blaxploitation during the heyday of the genre, in the movie Live and Let Die (1973). (The plot involved many black and blaxploitation themes, including drugs and voodoo.)

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... This is a list of films belonging to the Blaxploitation genre. ... Many people have the name Abby. ... The Exorcist is an Academy Award-winning 1973 American horror and thriller film, adapted from the 1971 novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty, dealing with the demonic possession of a young girl, and her mother’s desperate attempts to win back her daughter through an exorcism conducted... William Horace Marshall (19 August 1924 – 11 June 2003) was an American actor, director and opera singer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Discothèque redirects here. ... Black Belt Jones is a 1974 action film. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Jim Kelly (born May 5, 1946 in Paris, Kentucky) is an American actor and martial artist who achieved fame in the 1970s. ... Black Caesar is a 1973 blaxploitation film, starring Fred Williamson and Gloria Hendry. ... Fred The Hammer Williamson (born March 5, [[1938] is an American actor and former professional football player, a star defensive back in the AFL during the 1960s. ... Black Mama, White Mama is a 1972 blaxploitation film, starring Pam Grier and Margaret Markov, and directed by Eddie Romero. ... The Defiant Ones is a 1958 film which tells about two escaped prisoners who are shackled together, one white and one black, who must co-operate in order to survive. ... Pamela Suzette Grier (born May 26, 1949) is an iconic American actress. ... Margaret Markov (born 1951 in Yugoslavia) is a film and televison actress. ... Sir Sidney Poitier KBE, (IPA pronunciation: ) (born February 20, 1927), is an Academy Award-winning Bahamian American actor, film director, and activist. ... For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... Black Shampoo is a 1976 drama film directed by Greydon Clark and starring John Daniels. ... Henry Warren Beatty (born March 30, 1937), better known as Warren Beatty, is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... Shampoo is a 1975 motion picture directed by Hal Ashby, and starring Warren Beatty, Julie Christie, Goldie Hawn, and Lee Grant. ... Blackenstein, also known as Black Frankenstein, is a 1973 blaxploitation horror film. ... Boris Karloff as Frankensteins Monster in Frankenstein (1931). ... Blacksnake is a 1972 film directed by Russ Meyer. ... For the baseball player, see Russ Meyer (baseball player). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the novel. ... William Horace Marshall (19 August 1924 – 11 June 2003) was an American actor, director and opera singer. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Boss Nigger is a 1975 blaxploitation film directed by Jack Arnold. ... DUrville Martin (February 11, 1939-May 28, 1984) was an African-American actor and director from New York, New York known for playing Willie Green in the Rudy Ray Moore 1975 blaxploitation classic Dolemite in which he also directed the film. ... Fred The Hammer Williamson (born March 5, [[1938] is an American actor and former professional football player, a star defensive back in the AFL during the 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The action-adventure movie Cleopatra Jones, starring Tamara Dobson as Cleopatra, was released in 1973. ... The action-adventure Blaxploitation movie Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold starring Tamara Dobson as Cleopatra, was released in 1975. ... Coffy , Jack Hills 1973 movie about an African American woman vigilante, catapulted Pam Grier to stardom as one of blaxploitations biggest icons. ... Black Belt Jones is a 1974 action film. ... Foxy Brown movie poster Foxy Brown is a blaxploitation film from 1974, written and directed by Jack Hill. ... Get Christie Love! is a 1974 made-for-television film, starring Teresa Graves as an undercover female police detective who is determined to overthrow a drug ring. ... Coffy , Jack Hills 1973 movie about an African American woman vigilante, catapulted Pam Grier to stardom as one of blaxploitations biggest icons. ... Pamela Suzette Grier (born May 26, 1949) is an iconic American actress. ... Cotton Comes to Harlem is a 1970 blaxploitation film starring Godfrey Cambridge, Raymond St. ... Ossie Davis in The Green Pastures, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1951 Ossie Davis (December 18, 1917 – February 4, 2005) was an African American film actor, director and social activist. ... Raymond St. ... Godfrey MacArthur Cambridge (February 26, 1933 - November 29, 1976) was an American comedian and actor, who was especially popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a regular guest on The Merv Griffin Show and other talk shows. ... Alex Karras as Mongo in Blazing Saddles Blazing Saddles (1974) is a comedy directed by Mel Brooks and starring Cleavon Little and Gene Wilder, and released by Warner Brothers. ... Cleavon Little (June 1, 1939 - October 22, 1992) was an American actor, best known for his lead role in the 1974 Mel Brooks comedy Blazing Saddles and as the irreverent Dr. Jerry Noland in the early seventies series Temperatures Rising. He was born in Chickasha, Oklahoma, grew up in California... Roger Corman Roger William Corman (born April 5, 1926), sometimes nicknamed King of the Bs for his output of B-movies (though he himself rejects this appelation as inaccurate), is a prolific American producer and director of low-budget exploitation movies. ... Harland David Sanders, better known as Colonel Sanders (September 9, 1890 – December 16, 1980) was the founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). ... Dr. Black, Mr. ... Bernard Terry Casey (born June 8, 1939) was an American Football player during the 1960s who later became an actor. ... For the mineral, see Dolomite. ... Rudy Ray Moore (born March 17, 1937 in Fort Smith, Arkansas) is an African-American comedian, singer, film actor, and film producer. ... DUrville Martin (February 11, 1939-May 28, 1984) was an African-American actor and director from New York, New York known for playing Willie Green in the Rudy Ray Moore 1975 blaxploitation classic Dolemite in which he also directed the film. ... The Human Tornado was the sequal to Dolomite. ... Ebony, Ivory & Jade is a 1976 film by director Cirio Santiago, made in Manila, Phillipines. ... Cirio H. Santiago is a prolific Filipino film producer, director, writer and cinematographer. ... Foxy Brown movie poster Foxy Brown is a blaxploitation film from 1974, written and directed by Jack Hill. ... Pamela Suzette Grier (born May 26, 1949) is an iconic American actress. ... Get Christie Love! is a 1974 made-for-television film, starring Teresa Graves as an undercover female police detective who is determined to overthrow a drug ring. ... Hammer is a 1972 blaxploitation film directed by Bruce Clark. ... Fred The Hammer Williamson (born March 5, [[1938] is an American actor and former professional football player, a star defensive back in the AFL during the 1960s. ... A hitman (alternately, hit man) is a hired assassin, often by organized crime. ... For the 2000 remake with Sylvester Stallone see Get Carter (2000 film) Get Carter is a 1971 British crime film, directed by Mike Hodges and starring Michael Caine as Jack Carter, a gangster who sets out to avenge the death of his brother. ... The Mack is a 1970s blaxploitation movie starring Max Julien and Richard Pryor. ... Mandingo is a 1975 film, based on the book Mandingo by Kyle Onstott, about an African slave in the 1840s United States who is trained as a prize fighter by his owner. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Drum is the 1976 sequel to the movie Mandingo, and released by United Artists. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Shaft is a 1971 Academy Award winning film directed by Gordon Parks. ... Gordon Parks at Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963. ... Richard Roundtree Richard Roundtree (born July 9, 1942 in New Rochelle, New York) is an African American actor and hero famous for portraying John Shaft in the film Shaft (1971) and in its two sequels: Shafts Big Score in 1972, and Shaft in Africa in 1973. ... 007 redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dirty Harry (disambiguation). ... For the American arctic explorer, see Isaac Israel Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes (born August 20, 1942, in Covington, Tennessee) is an American soul and funk singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, arranger, and actor best known as the voice of Chef on the Emmy-winning animated sitcom South Park. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Shafts Big Score, released in 1972, is the second film in the trilogy in which actor Richard Roundtree starred as the private-eye, John Shaft. ... Shaft in Africa, released in 1973, is the third film in the trilogy of films that starred actor Richard Roundtree as John Shaft. ... Shaft is a 2000 movie that was directed by John Singleton. ... The action movie Sheba, Baby, starring Pam Grier as Sheba Shayne, was released in 1975. ... Space Is the Place is an 82-minute film made in 1974. ... Sparkle is a 1976 blaxploitation film directed by Sam OSteen and released by Warner Bros. ... Post of film Superfly is a 1972 (see 1972 in film) blaxploitation film known primarily for its soundtrack by soul singer Curtis Mayfield (see Superfly (soundtrack)). In fact, Superfly is the only movie ever to have been outgrossed by its soundtrack. ... Gordon Parks, Jr. ... Curtis Mayfield (June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, funk and R&B singer, songwriter and guitarist best known for his anthemic music with The Impressions and composing the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Superfly. ... Sweet Sweetbacks Baadasssss Song was a 1971 independent film written, produced, scored, directed by, and starring Melvin Van Peebles. ... Melvin Van Peebles, circa 2001, as seen in the documentary The Real Deal (What it Was. ... Three the Hard Way was a 1974 action film starring Fred Williamson, Jim Brown, and Jim Kelly, written by Eric Berkovici and Jerrold L. Ludwig and directed by Gordon Parks, Jr. ... Iceberg Slim (August 4, 1918 – April 28, 1992), also known as Robert Beck and born as Robert Lee Maupin, was an African American writer who started out as a pimp and whose writings were particularly successful among black audiences; his descriptions of the pimp lifestyle had considerable influence on African... Trouble Man could refer to either a song Trouble Man, or a 1972 movie Trouble Man This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Truck Turner is a 1974 blaxploitation film, starring Isaac Hayes and Yaphet Kotto, and directed by Johnathan Kaplan. ... DVD cover Watermelon Man is a 1970 comedy-drama film directed by Melvin Van Peebles and based on the book The Night the Sun Came out on Happy Hollow Lane by Herman Raucher. ... Herman Raucher Herman Raucher (born April 13, 1928 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American author who has written several novels and screenplays, among them the popular Summer of 42 and The Great Santini. ... Melvin Van Peebles, circa 2001, as seen in the documentary The Real Deal (What it Was. ... Willie Dynamite is a blaxploitation film which features Roscoe Orman (of Sesame Street fame) as a pimp who lives the life. This film, unlike Superfly, is more dramatic to which someone intervenes. ... 007 redirects here. ... Live and Let Die is the 8th film in the British James Bond series and the first to star Roger Moore as MI6 agent James Bond. ...

Later media references

Later movies such as Austin Powers in Goldmember (2002) and Undercover Brother (2002), as well as Quentin Tarantino’s Jackie Brown (1997) and Kill Bill, Vol. 1 (2003), feature pop culture nods to the blaxploitation genre. The parody Undercover Brother, for instance, starred Eddie Griffin as an Afro-topped agent for a clandestine organization satirically known as the “B.R.O.T.H.E.R.H.O.O.D.” Likewise, Austin Powers in Goldmember co-stars Beyoncé Knowles as the Tamara Dobson/Pam Grier-inspired heroine, Foxxy Cleopatra. Furthermore, the acclaimed film auteur and noted fan of exploitation films, Quentin Tarantino, has made countless references to the blaxploitation genre in his films, in addition to Jackie Brown. In a famous scene in Reservoir Dogs, for instance, the main characters engage in a brief discussion regarding Get Christie Love!, a mid-1970s blaxploitation television series. Similarly, in the catalytic scene of True Romance, the characters are seen viewing the movie The Mack. Austin Powers in Goldmember, released in 2002, is the third film of the Austin Powers series starring Mike Myers in the title role. ... Undercover Brother is a 2002 comedy starring Eddie Griffin and directed by Malcolm D. Lee (cousin of Spike Lee). ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and Oscar winning screenwriter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kill Bill is the fourth film by writer-director Quentin Tarantino. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Eddie Griffin (July 15, 1968) is an American comedian and television/film actor. ... Beyoncé Giselle Knowles (IPA pronunciation: [1]) (born September 4, 1981) is an American R&B singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, actress, dancer, and fashion designer. ... Tamara Dobson (1947- ) is an African-American actress. ... Pamela Suzette Grier (born May 26, 1949) is an iconic American actress. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Austin Powers in Goldmember is a 2002 comedy film. ... Grindhouse redirects here. ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and Oscar winning screenwriter. ... For the video game based on the film, see Reservoir Dogs (video game). ... Get Christie Love! is a 1974 made-for-television film, starring Teresa Graves as an undercover female police detective who is determined to overthrow a drug ring. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... True Romance is an American motion picture released in 1993, directed by Tony Scott and written by Quentin Tarantino and Roger Avary. ... The Mack is a 1970s blaxploitation movie starring Max Julien and Richard Pryor. ...


John Singleton’s remake of Shaft (2000) is a modern-day interpretation of a classic blaxploitation film. The 1997 film Hoodlum starring Laurence Fishburne was an attempt at gangster blaxploitation, portraying a fictional account of black mobster Ellsworth “Bumpy” Johnson. In 2004, Mario Van Peebles, Melvin’s son, released Baadasssss!, a movie based on the making of his father’s movie in which Mario played his father. John Daniel Singleton (born January 6, 1968 in Los Angeles, California) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Shaft is a 2000 movie that was directed by John Singleton. ... Look up hoodlum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Laurence John Fishburne III[1] (born July 30, 1961) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of screen and stage, as well as playwright, director, and producer. ... Ellsworth Raymond Bumpy Johnson (1906-1968) was an African-American gangster from Harlem in the early 20th Century. ... Mario Van Peebles (b. ... BAADASSSSS!, also known as How to Get the Mans Foot Outta Your Ass, is a 2004 biopic directed by Mario Van Peebles. ...


Furthermore, blaxploitation films have made a profound impact on contemporary hip hop culture. Several prominent hip hop artists (including Snoop Dogg, Big Daddy Kane, Ice T, Slick Rick, and Too $hort) have taken the no-nonsense pimp persona popularized first by ex-pimp Iceberg Slim's 1967 book Pimp and then by films such as Superfly, The Mack, and Willie Dynamite, as inspiration for their own works. In fact, many hip-hop artists have paid tribute to pimping within their lyrics (most notably 50 Cent’s hit single “P.I.M.P.”) and have openly embraced the pimp image in their music videos, by including entourages of scantily-clad women, flashy jewelry (known as “bling-bling”), and luxury Cadillacs (referred to as “pimpmobiles”). Perhaps the most famous scene of The Mack, featuring the “Annual Players’ Ball,” has become an often-referenced pop culture icon, most recently by Chapelle’s Show, where it was parodied as the “Player-Haters’ Ball.” Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Antonio Hardy (born September 10, 1968), better known by his stage name Big Daddy Kane, is a record producer/rapper from the Bed-Stuy section of Brooklyn, New York. ... Tracy Marrow (born February 16, 1958), better known as Ice T or Ice-T, is an American rapper, singer and actor. ... Richard Walters (born January 14, 1965), better known by stage names Slick Rick, MC Ricky D and Rick the Ruler, is a rapper. ... Todd Anthony Shaw (born April 28, 1966 in Los Angeles, California), better known by his stage name Too $hort, is an American rapper who started his career at the age of seventeen in Oakland, California. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Iceberg Slim (August 4, 1918 – April 28, 1992), also known as Robert Beck and born as Robert Lee Maupin, was an African American writer who started out as a pimp and whose writings were particularly successful among black audiences; his descriptions of the pimp lifestyle had considerable influence on African... Superfly is a 1972 (see 1972 in film) blaxploitation film known primarily for its soundtrack by soul singer Curtis Mayfield (see Superfly (soundtrack)). The movie starred Ron ONeal as Youngblood Priest, a cocaine dealer who is trying to quit the business. ... The Mack is a 1970s blaxploitation movie starring Max Julien and Richard Pryor. ... Willie Dynamite is a blaxploitation film which features Roscoe Orman (of Sesame Street fame) as a pimp who lives the life. This film, unlike Superfly, is more dramatic to which someone intervenes. ... 50 cents may refer to 50 subunits of currencies where the subunit is called a cent. ... P.I.M.P. is the third single from 50 Cents debut album, Get Rich or Die Tryin. Released in 2003, it reached #3 in the USA becoming 50 Cents fourth Top 10 single; it also peaked at #5 in the UK. The song was written by 50... A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film or video meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. ... A bling bling-heavy album cover from The B.G. For the Marvel Comics character, see Bling (comics). ... The Eldorado model was part of the Cadillac line from 1953 to 2002. ... Superfly poster showing pimpmobile A pimpmobile is a large luxury automobile that has been heavily customized in a garish, extravagant style to advertise its owners wealth and importance. ... The Mack is a 1970s blaxploitation movie starring Max Julien and Richard Pryor. ... Players Ball is a song by the hip hop group Outkast, discussing the nature of living in the south and growing up in a hip hop culture. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Chappelles Show is an American comedy television series starring comedian Dave Chappelle. ...


Parodies and spoofs

The notoriety of the genre has led to a number of parodies, some of them humorous, others satirical. The earliest attempts to mock the genre, Ralph Bakshi’s Coonskin and Rudy Ray Moore’s Dolemite, were both made during the heyday of the genre, in 1975. The satirical film Coonskin was intended to deconstruct racial stereotypes ranging from early minstrel show stereotypes to more recent stereotypes found in blaxploitation films of the era. However, the work encountered a strong amount of controversy before its release when it was protested by the Congress of Racial Equality, and its distribution was handed to a smaller distributor who advertised Coonskin as an exploitation film. However, it developed a cult followinng with black viewers.[2] Dolemite was less serious in tone and produced as a spoof. Dolemite centered around a sexually active black pimp played by Moore, who based the film on his stand-up comedy act. The film was followed by a sequel, The Human Tornado. In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... Coonskin is a 1975 film written and directed by Ralph Bakshi, about an African American rabbit, fox, and bear who rise to the top of the organized crime racket in Harlem, encountering corrupt law enforcement, con artists and the Mafia. ... Rudy Ray Moore (born March 17, 1937 in Fort Smith, Arkansas) is an African-American comedian, singer, film actor, and film producer. ... For the mineral, see Dolomite. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... B. J. Novak in a stand-up comedy routine at Olde English sketch comedy in June 2007. ... The Human Tornado was the sequal to Dolomite. ...


Later spoofs parodying the blaxploitation genre include I’m Gonna Git You Sucka, Pootie Tang, Undercover Brother and The Hebrew Hammer, which featured a Jewish protagonist, and was jokingly referred to by its director as a “Jewsploitation” film. Im Gonna Git You Sucka is a 1988 comedy feature film written, directed by and starring Keenen Ivory Wayans. ... Pootie Tang is a 2001 cult comedy film, directed by Louis C.K.. The film was adapted from a comedy sketch which first appeared on The Chris Rock Show. ... Undercover Brother is a 2002 comedy starring Eddie Griffin and directed by Malcolm D. Lee (cousin of Spike Lee). ... DVD cover The Hebrew Hammer is a film that was released in 2003. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


Robert Townsend’s comedy Hollywood Shuffle features a young black actor who is tempted to take part in a white-produced blaxploitation film. Robert Townsend (born February 6, 1957 in Chicago, Illinois) is an African American film director, writer, and actor. ... Hollywood Shuffle (1987) is a film depicting the stereotyping of African Americans in film and television. ...


The anime series Cowboy Bebop features several episodes with blaxploitation themes, particularly Mushroom Samba which extensively parodies blaxploitation movies. “Animé” redirects here. ... Original run April 3, 1998 – April 23, 1999 Episodes 26 Movie: Knockin on Heavens Door (天国の扉) Director Shinichiro Watanabe Writer Keiko Nobumoto Studio Sunrise BONES Bandai Visual[2] Released September 1, 2001 Runtime 115 min. ...


The animated series Family Guy, in episode 1ACX12, If I’m Dyin’, I’m Lyin’, showed a cutaway based on blaxploitation movies in the form of a parody of Back to the Future (Black to the Future), starring the main character Peter’s distant cousin Rufus Griffin as “Marty McSuperFly” (reference to Back to the Future protagonist Marty McFly). Also mentioned were other fake blaxploitation movies: Caddyblack, Blackdraft, and Black Kramer vs. Kramer. An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... Family Guy is an Emmy award winning American animated television series about a nuclear family in the fictional town of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... “If I’m Dyin’, I’m Lyin’ â€ is an episode from the FOX animated television series Family Guy. ... Look up cutaway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the first film in the Back to the Future trilogy. ... Peter Löwenbräu Griffin is the protagonist in the American animated television series Family Guy. ... This article is about the first film in the Back to the Future trilogy. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Martin Seamus Marty McFly is a fictional character and the main protagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Michael J. Fox in the three films and voiced by David Kaufman in the animated series. ... Caddyshack is a 1980 U.S. comedy film directed by Harold Ramis and written by Brian Doyle-Murray, Ramis and Douglas Kenney. ... Backdraft is an American movie released in 1991, directed by Ron Howard and written by Gregory Widen. ... Kramer vs. ...


In The Simpsons episode “Simpson Tide” (3G04) a TV announcer says “Next, on Exploitation Theatre...Blacula, followed by Blackenstein, and The Blunchblack of Blotre Blame!” The first two are real films. Simpsons redirects here. ... Simpson Tide is the nineteenth episode of The Simpsons ninth season. ...


The Simpsons episode 1F18 is entitled Sweet Seymour Skinner’s Baadasssss Song. Simpsons redirects here. ... Sweet Seymour Skinners Baadasssss Song is the nineteenth episode of The Simpsons fifth season, first aired on April 28, 1994. ...


The Onion’s book Our Dumb Century has an article from the 1970s entitled “Congress Passes Anti-Blaxploitation Act: Pimps, Players Subject to Heavy Fines.” The Onion is a United States-based parody newspaper published weekly in print and daily online. ... Our Dumb Century is a satirical humor book written by the staff of The Onion and published by Three Rivers Press in 1999. ...


FOX’s network television comedy, “MADtv,” has frequently spoofed the Rudy Ray Moore-created franchise Dolemite, with a series of sketches performed by comic actor Aries Spears, in the role of “The Son of Dolemite.” Other sketches include the characters “Funkenstein", "Dr. Funkenstein” and more recently Condoleezza Rice as a blaxploitation superhero. A recurring theme in these sketches is the inexperience of the cast and crew in the Blaxploitation era, with emphasis on ridiculous scripting and shoddy acting, sets, costumes and editing. The sketches are testaments to the poor production quality of the films, with obvious boom mike appearances and intentionally poor cuts and continuity. There was even an episode where the Son of Dolemite met and faced off against Black Belt Jones. Fox Entertainment Group is an American entertainment industry company that owns film studios and terrestrial, cable, and direct broadcast satellite television properties. ... MADtv is an American sketch comedy television series based on the humor magazine, Mad. ... Rudy Ray Moore (born March 17, 1937 in Fort Smith, Arkansas) is an African-American comedian, singer, film actor, and film producer. ... For the mineral, see Dolomite. ... Aries Spears (born April 3, 1975) is an American actor and comedian. ... George Clinton George Clinton (born July 22, 1941) is an American musician, he is widely considered one of the forefathers of funk. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Black Belt Jones is a 1974 action film. ...


Saturday Night Live’s long-running character the Ladies Man parodied blaxploitation’s exaggerated sexuality. The Ladies’ Man, played by Tim Meadows, was an Afro-topped and sexually-crazed talk-show host who believed himself to be the living definition of what females search for in a man. This article is about the American television series. ... Movie poster for the Ladies Man The 2000 release is a film comedy that stars actor, comedian and former Saturday Night Live cast member Tim Meadows. ... Tim Meadows (born February 5, 1961) is an American actor and comedian. ... Woman with an afro at the Tribeca Film Festival For the Italian painter known as Afro, see Afro Basaldella. ...


In the movie Leprechaun in the Hood, a character played by Ice-T pulls a baseball bat from his afro; this scene is a satire of a similar scene in Foxy Brown, in which Pam Grier hides a revolver in her afro. The cover of Leprechaun: In the Hood Leprechaun: In the Hood is a film directed by Rob Spera released in 2000. ... Tracy Marrow (born February 16, 1958)[1], better known by stage name Ice-T, is an American rapper, rock musician, author, former United States Army soldier, and actor. ... Foxy Brown movie poster Foxy Brown is a blaxploitation film from 1974, written and directed by Jack Hill. ... Pamela Suzette Grier (born May 26, 1949) is an iconic American actress. ...


Adult Swim’s Aqua Teen Hunger Force series has a recurring character called “Boxy Brown” (A play on Foxy Brown, a lead character in another blaxploitation film). An imaginary friend of Meatwad, Boxy Brown is a cardboard box with a crudely drawn face with a goatee on it that dons an afro. Whenever Boxy speaks ’70s funk music, typical of blaxploitation films, is played in the background. The cardboard box also fronts a confrontational attitude and dialect similar to many heroes of this film genre. Sample Dialogue For the movie, see Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters. ... Foxy Brown movie poster Foxy Brown is a blaxploitation film from 1974, written and directed by Jack Hill. ... Meatwad is a fictional character in the animated series Aqua Teen Hunger Force. ... A form of ethnic dialect usually associated with African Americans. ...


Some of the TVs found in the action video game Max Payne 2: The Fall of Max Payne feature a blaxploitation-themed parody of the original Max Payne game called Dick Justice, after its main character. In the original Max Payne, there is a dialogue between two mercenaries, one of whom admits that he has christened his gun “Dick Justice.” Dick behaves much like the original Max Payne (down to the “constipated” grimace and metaphorical speech) but wears an afro and mustache, and talks in Black English. Max Payne 2: The Fall of Max Payne is a third-person shooter developed by Remedy Entertainment for the PC, Xbox, and PlayStation 2 systems. ... Max Payne is a third-person shooter computer game developed by the Finnish company Remedy Entertainment, produced by 3D Realms and published by Gathering of Developers in July, 2001 for Windows. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Duck King, a fictional character created for the video game series fatal fury, is a prime example of foreign black stereotypes. Duck King ) is a character from both the Fatal Fury and King of Fighters series. ... Fatal Fury , Legend of the Hungry Wolf) is a fighting game series developed by SNK for the Neo-Geo system. ...


The animated series Drawn Together features a character named Foxxy Love who spoofs both 1970s Hanna-Barbera cartoons and blaxploitation characters. Her name is derived from those of the characters Foxy Brown and Christie Love. Drawn Together is an American animated television series on Comedy Central created by Dave Jeser and Matt Silverstein, and first aired on October 27, 2004. ... Foxxy Love is a fictional character in the animated series Drawn Together. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... Foxy Brown movie poster Foxy Brown is a blaxploitation film from 1974, written and directed by Jack Hill. ... Get Christie Love! is a 1974 made-for-television film, starring Teresa Graves as an undercover female police detective who is determined to overthrow a drug ring. ...


The Internet phenomenon “The Juggernaut Bitch!!!” features a Blaxploitation-styled over-dub on a series of X-Men cartoon clips featuring the Juggernaut. This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... The Juggernaut (Cain Marko) is a Marvel Comics character, created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby. ...


The sub-cult movie short Gayniggers from Outer Space, a blaxploitation-like science fiction oddity directed by Danish filmmaker DJ and singer Morten Lindberg. Gayniggers From Outer Space (1992) is a blaxploitation-like science fiction short film directed by Danish filmmaker, DJ and singer Morten Lindberg, also known as Master Fatman. ... Morten Lindberg also known as Master Fatman is a well known Danish media personality, comedian, disc jockey, film director and singer. ...


Jefferson Twilight, a character in The Venture Bros., is a parody of the comic-book character Blade (a black, half-vampire vampire-hunter), as well as a blaxploitation reference: he has an afro, sideburns, and a mustache; carries swords; dresses in stylish 1970s clothing; and says that he hunts “Blaculas.” He looks and sounds somewhat like Samuel L. Jackson.


The intro credits in Beavis and Butthead Do America has a Blaxploitation style, even having the theme sung by Isaac Hayes. Beavis And Butt-head Do America is a animated feature film that was released in 1996, produced by MTV and directed by Beavis and Butthead creator Mike Judge. ... For the American arctic explorer, see Isaac Israel Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes (born August 20, 1942, in Covington, Tennessee) is an American soul and funk singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, arranger, and actor best known as the voice of Chef on the Emmy-winning animated sitcom South Park. ...


See also

This is a list of films belonging to the Blaxploitation genre. ... Origins of motion picture arts and sciences Any overview of the history of cinema would be remiss to fail to at least mention a long history of literature, storytelling, narrative drama, art, mythology, puppetry, shadow play, cave paintings and perhaps even dreams. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... A list of women warriors in folklore, literature, and popular culture. ...

Further reading

  • What It Is...What It Was!; The Black Film Explosion of the ’70s in Words and Pictures by Andres Chavez, Denise Chavez, Gerald Martinez ISBN 0-7868-8377-4

References

  1. ^ Ebert, Roger (June 11, 2004). Review of Baadasssss!. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  2. ^ a b James, Darius (1995). That's Blaxploitation!: Roots of the Baadasssss 'Tude (Rated X by an All-Whyte Jury). ISBN 0312131925. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ Music Genre: Blaxploitation. All Music Guide. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Blaxploitation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2371 words)
Blaxploitation is a film genre that emerged in the United States in the early 1970s when many exploitation films were made that targeted the urban African American audience; the word itself is a combination of the words "fl" and "exploitation".
Blaxploitation films starred primarily fl actors, and were the first to feature soundtracks of funk and soul music.
Based on a series of novels, this blaxploitation film was set in the American South during the U.S. Civil War and focused on the sexual relations between slaveowners’ wives and slaves.
Charles Waring on Blaxploitation for Crime Time Magazine (3192 words)
The word blaxploitation is now regarded as a convenient term for labelling movies (and associated cultural paraphernalia) that were made in white Hollywood for consumption by America's fl population.
Blaxploitation culture has a special place in the wider public consciousness, particularly in the UK, where it possesses a certain cachet for some sections of society.
Well, to adequately understand the emergence of the blaxploitation phenomenon it is important to retrace the history of fl cinema, examining the role of fl people in the movies prior to the blaxploitation explosion of the 1970s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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