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Encyclopedia > Blast furnace
Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. The actual furnace itself is inside the centre girderwork.
Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. The actual furnace itself is inside the centre girderwork.

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce metals, generally iron. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1018x1181, 201 KB) [edit] Sumario Antiguo Alto horno de Sestao, hoy conservado como monumento. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1018x1181, 201 KB) [edit] Sumario Antiguo Alto horno de Sestao, hoy conservado como monumento. ... Sestao is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... Smelting rhymes with melting Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ...


In a blast furnace, fuel and ore are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the bottom of the chamber, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material moves downward. The end products are usually molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom, and flue gases exiting from the top of the furnace. For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ...


Blast furnaces are to be contrasted with air furnaces (such as reverberatory furnaces), which were naturally aspirated, usually by the convection of hot gases in a chimney flue. According to this broad definition, bloomeries for iron, blowing houses for tin and smelt mills for lead would be classified as blast furnaces. However, the term has usually been limited to those used for smelting iron ore to produce pig iron, an intermediate material used in the production of commercial iron and steel. A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with the combustion gases. ... A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... The remains of a blowing house near Black Tor on Dartmoor. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the metal. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Certain modern furnaces used for non-ferrous smelting processes are known as blast furnaces, and are particularly in the production of lead and copper. However this article (except its final section) will concentrate on furnaces for the production of pig iron. Ferrous in chemistry is a term used for the iron with an oxidation number +2. ... This article is about the metal. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ...

Contents

History

Blast furnaces existed in China from about the 5th century BC, and in the West from the High Middle Ages. They spread from the region around Namur in Belgium in the late 15th century, being introduced to England in 1491. The fuel used in these was invariably charcoal. The successful substitution of coke for charcoal is widely attributed to Abraham Darby in 1709. The efficiency of the process was further enhanced by the practice of preheating the blast, patented by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Namur (Dutch: Namen) is a province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Abraham Darby (c. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Portrait of James Beaumont Neilson James Beaumont Neilson (June 22, 1792 - January 18, 1865) is a Scottish inventor whose hot-blast process greatly increased the efficiency of smelting iron. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The blast furnace is to be distinguished from the bloomery in that the object of the blast furnace is to produce molten metal that can be tapped from the furnace, whereas the intention in the bloomery is to avoid it melting so that carbon does not become dissolved in the iron. Bloomeries were also artificially blown using bellows, but the term 'blast furnace' is normally reserved for furnaces where iron (or other metal) are refined from ore. A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ...


The Ancient World

An illustration of furnace bellows operated by waterwheels, from the Nong Shu, by Wang Zhen, 1313 AD, during the Yuan Dynasty of China.

The oldest existent blast furnaces were built during the Han Dynasty of China in the 1st century BC. However, cast iron farm tools and weapons were widespread in China by the 5th century BC,[1] while 3rd century BC iron smelters employed an average workforce of over two hundred men.[1] These early furnaces had clay walls and used phosphorus-containing minerals as a flux.[2] Also, the effectiveness of the Chinese blast furnace was enhanced during this period by the engineer Du Shi (circa 31 AD), who applied the power of waterwheels (hydraulics) to piston-bellows in forging cast iron.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 607 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) This medieval printed illustration depicts waterwheels powering the bellows of a blast furnace in creating cast iron. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 607 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) This medieval printed illustration depicts waterwheels powering the bellows of a blast furnace in creating cast iron. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Wáng ZhÄ“n (王禎) (fl. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... In metallurgy, flux is a substance which removes passivating oxides from the surface of a metal or alloy. ... Du Shi (Wade-Giles: Tu Shih, active 1st century AD) was a governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... Events Aelius Sejanus named co-Consul to the Emperor Tiberius Naevius Sutorius Macro becomes the leader of the Praetorian Guard after Sejanus is executed. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ...


While it was long thought that the Chinese developed the blast furnace and cast iron as their first method of iron production, Donald Wagner (the author of the above referenced study) has published a more recent paper[4] that supersedes some of the statements in the earlier work; the newer paper still places the date of the first cast iron artifacts at the 4th and 5th century BC, but also provides evidence of earlier bloomery furnace use, which migrated in from the west during the beginning of the Chinese Bronze Age of the late Longshan culture (2000 BC). He suggests that early blast furnace and cast iron production evolved from furnaces used to melt bronze. Certainly, though, iron was essential to military success by the time the State of Qin had unified China (221 BC). By the 11th century, the Song Dynasty Chinese iron industry made a remarkable switch of resources from charcoal to bituminous coal in casting iron and steel, sparing thousands of acres of prime timberland from felling.[5] A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... This article is about a community of trees. ...

The left picture illustrates the puddling process to make wrought iron from pig iron, with the right illustration displaying men working a blast furnace, of smelting iron ore producing pig iron, from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia, 1637.

In Europe, the iron was made in bloomeries by the Greeks, Celts, Romans, and Carthaginians in the ancient period; several examples have been found in France; and materials found in Tunisia suggest their use there as well as in Antioch during the Hellenistic Period. Though little is known of its use during the Dark Ages, the process probably continued in use. The improved bloomery named Catalan forge was invented in Catalonia, Spain during the 8th century. Instead of using natural draught, it relied on bellows for pumping the air in. This enabled it to produce better quality iron and enlarge the capacity. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 625 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Chinese iron workers smelting iron ore to make pig iron and wrought iron. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 625 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Chinese iron workers smelting iron ore to make pig iron and wrought iron. ... Schematic drawing of a puddling furnace Puddling was an Industrial Revolution means of making iron and steel. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... This article is about the European people. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Open hearth furnaces are the furnaces where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of Pig iron to produce Steel. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ...


Medieval Europe

The oldest known blast furnaces in the West were built in Dürstel in Switzerland, the Märkische Sauerland in Germany, and Sweden at Lapphyttan where the complex was active between 1150 and 1350.[6] At Noraskog in the Swedish county of Järnboås there have also been found traces of blast furnaces dated even earlier, possibly to around 1100.[7] These early blast furnaces, like the Chinese examples, were very inefficient compared to those used today. The iron from the Lapphyttan complex was used to produce balls of wrought iron known as osmonds, and these were traded internationally - a possible reference occurs in a treaty with Novgorod from 1203 and several certain references in accounts of English customs from the 1250s and 1320s. Other furnaces of the 13th to 15th centuries have been identified in Westphalia.[8] The Sauerland is a rural hilly area spreading across most of the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, heavily forested and sparsely inhabited. ... Lapphyttan in Sweden may be regarded as the type site for the Medieval Blast Furnace. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Osmond iron (also spelt osmund and also called osborn) was wrought iron made by a particular process. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ...


Knowledge of certain technological advances was transmitted as a result of the General Chapter of the Cistercian monks, including the blast furnace, as the Cistercians are known to have been skilled metallurgists.[9] According to Jean Gimpel, their high level of industrial technology facilitated the diffusion of new techniques: "Every monastery had a model factory, often as large as the church and only several feet away, and waterpower drove the machinery of the various industries located on its floor." Iron ore deposits were often donated to the monks along with forges to extract the iron, and within time surpluses were being offered for sale. The Cistercians became the leading iron producers in Champagne, France, from the mid-13th century to the 17th century,[10] also using the phosphate-rich slag from their furnaces as an agricultural fertilizer.[11] Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Archaeologists are still discovering the extent of Cistercian technology.[12] At Laskill, an outstation of Rievaulx Abbey and the only medieval blast furnace so far identified in Britain, the slag produced was low in iron content.[13] Slag from other furnaces of the time contained a substantial concentration of iron, whereas Laskill is believed to have produced cast iron quite efficiently.[13][14][15] Its date is not yet clear, but it probably did not survive Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries in the late 1530s, as an agreement (immediately after that) concerning the 'smythes' with the Earl of Rutland in 1541 refers to blooms.[16] Nevertheless, the means by which the blast furnace spread in medieval Europe has not finally been determined. The ruins of the nearby abbey church. ... The ruins of the abbey church Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in the small village of Rievaulx (pronounced Ree-voh), near Helmsley in North Yorkshire. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Decades: 1480s 1490s 1500s 1510s 1520s - 1530s - 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s Years: 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 Events and Trends Spanish conquest of Peru Beginning of colonization of Brazil Categories: 1530s ... The Duke of Rutland is a title in the peerage of England. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ...


Early modern blast furnaces: origin and spread

The direct ancestor of those used in France and England was in the Namur region in what is now Belgium. From there, they spread first to the Pays de Bray on the eastern boundary of Normandy and from there to the Weald of Sussex, where the first furnace (called Queenstock) in Buxted was built in about 1491, followed by one at Newbridge in Ashdown Forest in 1496. They remained few in number until about 1530 but many were built in the following decades in the Weald, where the iron industry perhaps reached its peak about 1590. Most of the pig iron from these furnaces was taken to finery forges for the production of bar iron.[17] Namur (Dutch: Namen) is a province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... // Etymology Etymologically, the name of Bray comes from a Gaulish word for mud. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... A weald once meant a dense forest, especially the famous great wood once stretching far beyond the ancient counties of Sussex and Kent, England, where this country of smaller woods is still called the Weald. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... Buxted is a small village in the Wealden District of East Sussex. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Newbridge is the name of at least two places: Newbridge, County Kildare, Ireland - sometimes known by its Irish name, Droichead Nua Newbridge, Wales (traditionally in Monmouthshire), United Kingdom Newbridge, Wolverhampton, a suburb of Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might... A gate into Ashdown Forest at sunset Ashdown - a dark and mysterious forest Ashdown Forest in the county of East Sussex, in South East England is a large open area of heathland together with pine, birch and oak woodland in the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. ... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... A weald once meant a dense forest, especially the famous great wood once stretching far beyond the ancient counties of Sussex and Kent, England, where this country of smaller woods is still called the Weald. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Iron tapped from the blast furnace is pig iron, and contains significant amounts of carbon and silicon. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ...


The first British furnaces outside the Weald were not built until the 1550s, but many were built in the remainder of that century and the following ones. The output of the industry probably peaked about 1620, and was followed by a slow decline until the early 18th century. This was apparently because it was more economic to import iron from Sweden and elsewhere than to make it in some more remote British locations. Charcoal that was economically available to the industry was probably being consumed as fast as the wood to make it grew.[18] Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ...

Representation of blast furnaces and other ironmaking processes from the 19th century
Representation of blast furnaces and other ironmaking processes from the 19th century

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2524x1914, 2116 KB) Summary From The Popular Encyclopedia vol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2524x1914, 2116 KB) Summary From The Popular Encyclopedia vol. ...

Coke blast furnaces

In 1709, at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire, England, Abraham Darby began to fuel a blast furnace with coke instead of charcoal. Coke iron was initially only used for foundry work, making pots and other cast iron goods. Foundry work was a minor branch of the industry, but his son built a new furnace at Horsehay (nearby), and began to supply the owners of finery forges with coke pig iron for the production of bar iron. Coke pig iron was by this time cheaper to produce than charcoal pig iron. The use of a coal-derived fuel in the iron industry was a key factor in the British Industrial Revolution.[19] Darby's 'old blast furnace' has been archaeologically excavated and can be seen in situ at Coalbrookdale as part of the Ironbridge Gorge Museums. // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Abraham Darby (c. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Iron tapped from the blast furnace is pig iron, and contains significant amounts of carbon and silicon. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... The Ironbridge Gorge looking east towards the Iron Bridge that gave the gorge its name Map sources for Ironbridge Gorge at grid reference SJ672033 The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge formed by the river Severn in Shropshire, England. ...


A further important development was the change to hot blast, patented by James Beaumont Neilson at Wilsontown Ironworks in Scotland in 1828. This further reduced production costs. Within a few decades, the practice was to have a 'stove' as large as the furnace next to it into which the waste gas (containing CO) from the furnace was directed and burnt. The resultant heat was used to preheat the air blown into the furnace.[20] Hot Blast refers to the air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process being preheated. ... Portrait of James Beaumont Neilson James Beaumont Neilson (June 22, 1792 - January 18, 1865) is a Scottish inventor whose hot-blast process greatly increased the efficiency of smelting iron. ... The ruins of the Wilsontown Ironworks are located near the village of Forth in Scotland, approximately 23 miles to the south east of Glasgow. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


A further significant development was the application of raw anthracite coal to the blast furnace, first tried successfully by George Crane at Yniscedwyn ironworks in south Wales in 1837.[21] This was taken up in America at Catasauqua, Pennsylvania (q.v.) in 1839. Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... This article is about the country. ... Catasauqua is a borough in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, settled in 1805 and chartered as a borough in 1853. ...


Modern furnaces

The blast furnace remains an important part of modern iron production. Modern furnaces are highly efficient, including Cowper stoves to pre-heat the blast air and employ recovery systems to extract the heat from the hot gases exiting the furnace. Competition in industry drives higher production rates. The largest blast furnaces have a volume of 5500 m³ (190,000 cu ft), which could hold the water from 2 standard swimming pools and can produce around 80,000 tonnes of iron per week. This is a great increase from the typical 18th century furnaces, which averaged about 400 tons per year. Variations of the blast furnace, such as the Swedish electric blast furnace, have been developed in countries which have no native coal resources. Hot Blast refers to the air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process being preheated. ...


Modern process

Blast furnace diagram1. Hot blast from Cowper stoves 2. Melting zone (bosh)3. Reduction zone of ferrous oxide (barrel) 4. Reduction zone of ferric oxide (stack) 5. Pre-heating zone (throat)6. Feed of ore, limestone, and coke 7. Exhaust gases 8. Column of ore, coke and limestone 9. Removal of slag 10. Tapping of molten pig iron 11. Collection of waste gases
Blast furnace diagram
1. Hot blast from Cowper stoves
2. Melting zone (bosh)
3. Reduction zone of ferrous oxide (barrel)
4. Reduction zone of ferric oxide (stack)
5. Pre-heating zone (throat)
6. Feed of ore, limestone, and coke
7. Exhaust gases
8. Column of ore, coke and limestone
9. Removal of slag
10. Tapping of molten pig iron
11. Collection of waste gases

Modern furnaces are equipped with an array of supporting facilities to increase efficiency, such as ore storage yards where barges are unloaded. The raw materials are transferred to the stockhouse complex by ore bridges, or rail hoppers and "ore transfer cars". Rail-mounted scale cars or computer controlled weight hoppers weigh out the various raw materials to yield the desired hot metal and slag chemistry. A "skip car" powered by winches brings these to the top of the furnace.[22] Image File history File links VysokaPec. ... Image File history File links VysokaPec. ... Hot Blast refers to the air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process being preheated. ... Iron(II) oxide, also called ferrous oxide, is a black-colored powder with the chemical formula FeO. It consists of the element iron in the oxidation state of 2 bonded to oxygen. ... Iron(III) oxide - also known as ferric oxide, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, rouge,or rust - is one of several oxide compounds of iron, and is most notable for its ferromagnetic properties. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Look up hopper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A railcar (not to be confused with a railway car) is a self-propelled railway vehicle designed to transport passengers. ... The word skip has several meanings: Look up skip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Modern self-tailing winch on a sailing boat. ...


The ironmaking blast furnace itself is built in the form of a tall chimney-like structure lined with refractory brick. Coke, limestone flux, and iron ore (iron oxide) are charged into the top of the furnace in a precise filling order which helps control gas flow and the chemical reactions inside the furnace. Four "uptakes" allow the hot, dirty gas to exit the furnace dome, while "bleeder valves" protect the top of the furnace from sudden gas pressure surges. The coarse particles in the gas settle in the "dustcatcher" and are dumped into a railroad car or truck for disposal, while the gas itself flows through a Venturi scrubber and a gas cooler to reduce the temperature of the cleaned gas.[22] Look up Chimney in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term refractory can refer to multiple things: A refractory clergyman is one who refused to swear an oath to the French Revolution-era French state under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... In metallurgy, flux is a substance which removes passivating oxides from the surface of a metal or alloy. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber A venturi scrubber is designed to effectively use the energy from the exhaust stream to atomize the scrubbing liquid. ...


The hot blast temperature can be from 900°C to 1300 °C (1600°F to 2300°F) depending on the stove design and condition.[22] The hot blast is directed into the furnace through water-cooled copper nozzles called "tuyeres" near the base. The temperatures they deal with may be 2000 °C to 2300 °C (3600°F to 4200°F).[22] Oil, tar, natural gas, powdered coal and oxygen can also be injected into the furnace at tuyere level to combine with the coke to release additional energy which is necessary to increase productivity.[22] Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


The "casthouse" at the bottom half of the furnace contains the bustle pipe, tuyeres and the equipment for casting the liquid iron and slag. Once a "taphole" is drilled through the refactory clay plug, liquid iron, and slag flow down a trough through a "skimmer" opening, separating the iron and slag. Modern, larger blast furnaces may have as many as four tapholes and two casthouses.[22]


Chemistry

Blast furnaces of Třinec Iron and Steel Works
Blast furnaces of Třinec Iron and Steel Works

The main chemical reaction producing the molten iron is: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Blast furnaces of Třinec Iron and Steel Works Used with permission of Třinec Iron and Steel Works (Třinecké železárny), confirmed by the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Blast furnaces of Třinec Iron and Steel Works Used with permission of Třinec Iron and Steel Works (Třinecké železárny), confirmed by the... Aerial view of Třinec Iron and Steel Works Blast furnaces of Třinec Iron and Steel Works Třinec Iron and Steel Works (TŽ) (Czech: , Polish: ) is a producer of long rolled steel products in Třinec, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. ...


Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2[23] For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Preheated blast air blown into the furnace reacts with the carbon in the form of coke to produce carbon monoxide and heat. The carbon monoxide then reacts with the iron oxide to produce molten iron and carbon dioxide. Hot carbon dioxide, unreacted carbon monoxide, and nitrogen from the air pass up through the furnace as fresh feed material travels down into the reaction zone. As the material travels downward, the counter-current gases both preheat the feed charge, decompose the limestone to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide, and begin to reduce the iron oxides in the solid state. The main reaction controlling the gas atmosphere in the furnace is called the Boudouard reaction: Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Boudouard reaction is the redox reaction of chemical equilibrium mixture of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in a given temperature. ...


C + O2 → CO2[23]
CO2 + C → 2CO[23]


The decomposition of limestone in the middle zones of the furnace proceeds according to the following reaction:


CaCO3 → CaO + CO2[22]


The calcium oxide formed by decomposition reacts with various acidic impurities in the iron (notably silica), to form the slag which is essentially calcium silicate, CaSiO3.[23] The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Calcium silicate, otherwise known as slag, has a low bulk density and high physical water absorption. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


The "pig" iron produced by the blast furnace has a relatively high carbon content of around 4-5%, making it very brittle, and of little commercial use. Some pig iron is used to make cast iron. The majority of pig iron produced by blast furnaces undergoes further processing to reduce the carbon content and produce various grades of steel used for tools and construction materials. A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Although the efficiency of blast furnaces is constantly evolving, the chemical process inside the blast furnace remains the same. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute; "Blast furnaces will survive into the next millennium because the larger, efficient furnaces can produce hot metal at costs competitive with other iron making technologies."[22] One of the biggest drawbacks of the blast furnaces is the inevitable carbon dioxide production as iron is reduced from iron oxides by carbon and there is no economical substitute - steelmaking is one of the unavoidable industrial contributors of the CO2 emissions in the world (see Greenhouse gases). The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is an association of North American steel producers formed in 1855. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ...


Other Metals

Blast furnaces are used today to smelt lead from its oxide, after it has been desilvered.


See also

Iron is the second-most abundant metal in the Earths crust after aluminium. ... The ruins of the nearby abbey church. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company. P. 30.
  2. ^ Early iron in China, Korea, and Japan, Donald B. Wagner, March 1993
  3. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. P. 370.
  4. ^ The earliest use of iron in China, Donald B. Wagner, 1999
  5. ^ Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company. P 158.
  6. ^ Archaeological Investigations on the Beginning of Blast Furnace-Technology in Central Europe
  7. ^ A. Wetterholm, 'Blast furnace studies in Nora bergslag ' (Örebro universitet 1999, Järn och Samhälle) ISBN 91-7668-204-8
  8. ^ N. Bjökenstam, 'The Blast Furnace in Europe during the Middle Ages: part of a new system for producing wrought iron' in G. Magnusson, The Importance of Ironmaking: Technological Innovation and Social Change I (Jernkontoret, Stockholm 1995), 143-53 and other papers in the same volume.
  9. ^ Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization (2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7; p 34
  10. ^ Jean Gimpel, The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages (New York: Penguin, 1976; London: Pimlico, 1992), p 67.
  11. ^ Woods, p 35
  12. ^ Woods, p 36
  13. ^ a b Woods, p 37
  14. ^ R. W. Vernon, G. McDonnell and A. Schmidt, 'An integrated geophysical and analytical appraisal of early iron-working: three case studies' Historical Metallurgy 31(2) (1998), 72-5 79
  15. ^ David Derbyshire, 'Henry "Stamped Out Industrial Revolution"', The Daily Telegraph (21 June 2002); cited by Woods.
  16. ^ H. R. Schubert, History of the British iron and steel industry from c. 450 BC to AD 1775 (Routledge, London 1957), 395-7.
  17. ^ B. Awty & C. Whittick (with P. Combes), 'The Lordship of Canterbury, iron-founding at Buxted, and the continental antecedents of cannon-founding in the Weald' Sussex Archaeological Collections 140 (2004 for 2002), 71-81.
  18. ^ P. W. King, 'The production and consumption of iron in early modern England and Wales' Economic History Review LVIII(1), 1-33; G. Hammersley, 'The charcoal iron industry and its fuel 1540-1750' Economic History Review Ser. II, XXVI (1973), 593-613.
  19. ^ A. Raistrick, A Dynasty of Ironfounders (1953; York 1989); C. K. Hyde, Technological Change and the British iron industry (Princeton 1977); B. Trinder, The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire (Chichester 2000)
  20. ^ * A. Birch, Economic History of the British Iron and Steel Industry , 181-9
    • C. K. Hyde, Technological Change and the British iron industry (Princeton 1977)
  21. ^ C. K. Hyde, Technological Change and the British iron industry (Princeton 1977), 159.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h AISI
  23. ^ a b c d [1]

Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
AISI | How A Blast Furnace Works (0 words)
The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom.
Since the limestone is melted to become the slag which removes sulfur and other impurities, the blast furnace operator may blend the different stones to produce the desired slag chemistry and create optimum slag properties such as a low melting point and a high fluidity.
The materials are charged into the blast furnace through two stages of conical "bells" (5) which seal in the gases and distribute the raw materials evenly around the circumference of the furnace "throat".
HOW A BLAST FURNACE WORKS (2444 words)
The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom.
Since the limestone is melted to become the slag which removes sulfur and other impurities, the blast furnace operator may blend the different stones to produce the desired slag chemistry and create optimum slag properties such as a low melting point and a high fluidity.
The materials are charged into the blast furnace through two stages of conical "bells" (5) which seal in the gases and distribute the raw materials evenly around the circumference of the furnace "throat".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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