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Encyclopedia > Blackletter
Page from a fourteenth century Psalter (Vulgate Ps 93:16-21), with blackletter "sine pedibus" text
German Blackletter typefaces
German Blackletter typefaces

Blackletter, also known as Gothic script or Gothic minuscule, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to 1500. It continued to be used for the German language until the twentieth century. Fraktur is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of faces is known as Fraktur. A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1000, 81 KB) Description: blackletter typefaces by Rudolf Koch Source: selfmade image Date: 23. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1000, 81 KB) Description: blackletter typefaces by Rudolf Koch Source: selfmade image Date: 23. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ...


Blackletter is not to be confused with Old English, despite the popular, and untrue, tradition that Blackletter was used to write that language. Old English pre-dates Blackletter by many centuries. Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

Contents

Origins

Carolingian minuscule was the direct and linear ancestor of blackletter. Blackletter developed from Carolingian as an increasingly literate twelfth century Europe required new books in many different subjects. New universities were founded, each producing books for business, law, grammar, history, and other pursuits, not solely religious works for which earlier scripts typically had been used. Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... History studies time in human terms. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ...

Folio 56r of the Aberdeen Bestiary, an early example of blackletter from the twelfth century
Folio 56r of the Aberdeen Bestiary, an early example of blackletter from the twelfth century

These books needed to be produced quickly to keep up with demand. Carolingian, though legible, was time-consuming and labour-intensive to produce. It was large and wide and took up a lot of space on a manuscript in a time when writing materials were very costly. As early as the eleventh century, different forms of Carolingian were already being used, and by the mid-twelfth century, a clearly distinguishable form, able to be written more quickly to meet the demand for new books, was being used in north-eastern France and the Low Countries. Download high resolution version (463x711, 173 KB)Image of page from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ... Download high resolution version (463x711, 173 KB)Image of page from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ... Categories: Art stubs | Literature stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ...

The name Gothic script

The term Gothic was first used to describe this script in fifteenth century Italy, in the midst of the Renaissance, because Renaissance Humanists believed it was a barbaric script. Gothic was a synonym for barbaric. Flavio Biondo, in Italia Illustrata (1531) thought it was invented by the Lombards after their invasion of Italy in the sixth century. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Flavio Biondo (Latin Flavius Blondus) (1392 – June 4, 1463) was an Italian Renaissance humanist historian. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded...


Not only were blackletter forms called Gothic script, but any other seemingly barbarian script, such as Visigothic, Beneventan, and Merovingian, were also labeled "Gothic", in contrast to Carolingian minuscule, a highly legible script which the Humanists called littera antiqua, "the ancient letter", wrongly believing that it was the script used by the Romans. It was invented in the reign of Charlemagne, although only used significantly after that era. Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Visigothic script was a type of medieval script, so called because it originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. ... Rule of St. ... Merovingian script was a medieval script so called because it was developed in France during the Merovingian dynasty. ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


The blackletter must not be confused either with the genuinely Gothic alphabet or with the sans-serif typefaces that are also sometimes called Gothic.   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ...


Forms of blackletter

Textualis

Textualis lettering
Textualis lettering

Textualis, also known as textura or Gothic bookhand, was the most calligraphic form of blackletter, and today is the form most associated with "Gothic". Johannes Gutenberg carved a textualis typeface—including a large number of ligatures and common abbreviations—when he printed his 42-line Bible. Image File history File links Old_English_typeface. ... Image File history File links Old_English_typeface. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... The Gutenberg bible owned by the US Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ...


According to Dutch scholar Gerard Lieftinck, the pinnacle of use for blackletter was the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. For Lieftinck, the highest form of textualis was littera textualis formata, used for de luxe manuscripts. The usual form, simply littera textualis, was used for literary works and university texts. Lieftinck's third form, littera textualis currens, was the cursive form of blackletter, extremely difficult to read and used for textual glosses, and less important books. (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... A gloss is a note made in the margins or between the lines of a book, in which the meaning of the text in its original language is explained in another language. ...


Textualis was most widely used in France, the Low Countries, England, and Germany. Some characteristics of the script are: For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Page of a rare blackletter bible, 1497, printed in Strassburg by J. R. Grueninger, the coloured chapter initials were handwritten after printing
  • tall, narrow letters, as compared to their Carolingian counterparts.
  • letters formed by sharp, straight, angular lines, unlike the typically round Carolingian; as a result, there is a high degree of "breaking", i.e. lines that do not necessarily connect with each other, especially in curved letters.
  • ascenders (in letters such as b, d, h) are vertical and often end in sharp finials
  • when a letter with a bow (in b, d, p, q) is followed by another letter with a bow (such as "be" or "po"), the bows overlap and the letters are joined by a straight line (this is known as "biting").
  • a related characteristic is the half r, the shape of r when attached to other letters with bows; only the bow and tail were written, connected to the bow of the previous letter. In other scripts, this only occurred in a ligature with the letter o.
  • similarly related is the form of the letter d when followed by a letter with a bow; its ascender is then curved to the left, like the uncial d. Otherwise the ascender is vertical.
  • the letters g, j, p, q, y, and the hook of h have descenders, but no other letters are written below the line.
  • the letter a has a straight back stroke, and the top loop eventually became closed, somewhat resembling the number 8. The letter s often has a diagonal line connecting its two bows, also somewhat resembling an 8, but the long s is frequently used in the middle of words.
  • minims, especially in the later period of the script, do not connect with each other. This makes it very difficult to distinguish i, u, m, and n. A fourteenth century example of the difficulty minims produced is, mimi numinum niuium minimi munium nimium uini muniminum imminui uiui minimum uolunt ("the smallest mimes of the gods of snow do not wish at all in their life that the great duty of the defences of the wine be diminished"). In blackletter this would look like a series of single strokes. Dotted i and the letter j developed because of this. Minims may also have finials of their own.
  • the script has many more scribal abbreviations than Carolingian, adding to the speed in which it could be written.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x819, 152 KB) Photograph of a page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strassburg by J.R.Grueninger. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x819, 152 KB) Photograph of a page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strassburg by J.R.Grueninger. ... The ascenders are the parts of the characters that lie above the midline, highlighted in red. ... Finial at Aachen town hall Illustration by Viollet-le-Duc, 1856 The finial is an architectural device, typically carved in stone and employed to decoratively emphasise the apex of a gable, or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. ... Between the middle ages and today, many ways of writing alphabetical characters were lost. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... The Book of Kells, c. ... An italicized long s used in the word Congress in the United States Bill of Rights. ... Minim, a term for short, vertical strokes used in handwriting, comes from a group of scribes employed by the newly conquering Normans of the mid 11th century. ... Scribal abbreviations were used by medieval scribes writing in Latin. ...

Cursiva

Cursiva refers to a very large variety of forms of blackletter; as with modern cursive writing, there is no real standard form. It developed in the fourteenth century as a simplified form of textualis, with influence from the form of textualis as used for writing charters. Cursiva developed partly because of the introduction of paper, which was smoother than parchment. It was therefore, easier to write quickly on paper in a cursive script. Cursive is a style of handwriting in which all the letters in a word are connected, making a word one single (complicated) stroke. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ...


In cursiva, descenders are more frequent, especially in the letters f and s, and ascenders are curved and looped rather than vertical (seen especially in the letter d). The letters a, g, and s (at the end of a word) are very similar to their Carolingian forms. However, not all of these features are found in every example of cursiva, which makes it difficult to determine whether or not a script may be called cursiva at all.


Lieftinck also divided cursiva into three styles: littera cursiva formata was the most legible and calligraphic style. Littera cursiva textualis (or libraria) was the usual form, used for writing standard books, and it generally was written with a larger pen, leading to larger letters. Littera cursiva currens was used for textbooks and other unimportant books and it had very little standardization in forms.


Hybrida

Hybrida is also called bastarda (especially in France), and as its name suggests, refers to a hybrid form of the script. It is a mixture of textualis and cursiva, developed in the early fifteenth century. From textualis, it borrowed vertical ascenders, while from cursiva, it borrowed long f and ſ, single-looped a, and g with an open descender (similar to Carolingian forms).


National forms

France

Textualis

French textualis was tall and narrow compared to other national forms, and was most fully developed in the late thirteenth century in Paris. In the thirteenth century there also was an extremely small version of textualis used to write miniature Bibles, known as "pearl script." Another form of French textualis in this century was the script developed at the University of Paris, littera parisiensis, which also is small in size and designed to be written quickly, not calligraphically. Blackletter in a Latin Bible of 1407 AD, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


Cursiva

French cursiva was used from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century, when it became highly looped, messy, and slanted. Bastarda, the "hybrid" mixture of cursiva and textualis, developed in the fifteenth century and was used for vernacular texts as well as Latin. A more angular form of bastarda was used in Burgundy, the lettre de forme or lettre bourgouignonne, for books of hours such as the Très Riches Heures of John, Duke of Berry. Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... A illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January A book of hours from the late 1470s. ... An illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (or simply the Très Riches Heures) is probably the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century, le roi des... John of Valois, the Magnificent, (November 30, 1340 – March 15, 1416) was Duke of Berry and Auvergne and Count of Poitiers and Montpensier. ...


England

Textualis

Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England
Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England

English blackletter developed from the form of Caroline minuscule used there after the Norman Conquest, sometimes called "Romanesque minuscule." Textualis forms developed after 1190 and were used most often until approximately 1300, afterward being used mainly for de luxe manuscripts. English forms of blackletter have been studied extensively and may be divided into many categories. Textualis formata ("Old English" or "Black Letter"), textualis prescissa (or textualis sine pedibus, as it generally lacks feet on its minims) , textualis quadrata (or psalterialis) and semi-quadrata, and textualis rotunda are various forms of high-grade formata styles of blackletter. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1011, 310 KB) MARLENE JEANNINE Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1011, 310 KB) MARLENE JEANNINE Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Interior of the Abbey, showing the unusual watching-loft projecting above the nave. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...


The University of Oxford borrowed the littera parisiensis in the thirteenth century and early fourteenth century, and the littera oxoniensis form is almost indistinguishable from its Parisian counterpart; however, there are a few differences, such as the round final "s" forms, resembling the number 8, rather than the long "s" used in the final position in the Paris script. The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ...


Cursiva

English cursiva began to be used in the thirteenth century, and soon replaced littera oxoniensis as the standard university script. The earliest cursive blackletter form is Anglicana, a very round and looped script, which also had a squarer and angular counterpart, Anglicana formata. The formata form was used until the fifteenth century and also was used to write vernacular texts. An Anglicana bastarda form developed from a mixture of Anglicana and textualis, but by the sixteenth century the principal cursive blackletter used in England was the Secretary script, which originated in Italy and came to England by way of France. Secretary script has a somewhat haphazard appearance, and its forms of the letters a, g, r, and s are unique, unlike any forms in any other English script.


Italy

Rotunda

Italian blackletter also is known as rotunda, as it was less angular than in northern centres. The most usual form of Italian rotunda was littera bononiensis, used at the University of Bologna in the thirteenth century. Biting is a common feature in rotunda, but breaking is not. The Rotunda is a specific medieval blackletter script. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ...


Italian Rotunda also is characterized by unique abbreviations, such as q with a line beneath the bow signifying "qui", and unusual spellings, such as, x for s ("milex" rather than "miles", and "knight").


Cursiva

Italian cursive developed in the thirteenth century from scripts used by notaries. The more calligraphic form is known as minuscola cancelleresca italiana (or simply cancelleresca, chancery script), which developed into a bookhand, a script used for writing books rather than charters, in the fourteenth century. Cancelleresca influenced the development of bastarda in France and Secretary script in England. Bastarda type in Frys Pantographia Bastarda (or bastard) was a Gothic script used in France and Germany during the 14th and 15th centuries. ...


Germany

Schwabacher lettering

Despite the frequent association of blackletter with German, the script was actually very slow to develop in German-speaking areas. It developed first in those areas closest to France and then spread to the east and south in the thirteenth century. However, the German-speaking areas are where blackletter remained in use the longest. Fraktur Typeface sample: Alte Schwabacher (created by myself, no copyright problems) Well, the problem is that the typeface wasnt created by you, just the image. ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ...


Schwabacher typefaces dominated in Germany from about 1480 to 1530, and the style continued in use occasionally until the twentieth century. Most importantly, all of the works of Martin Luther, leading to the Protestant Reformation, as well as the Apocalypse of Albrecht Dürer (1498) used this typeface. Johannes Bämler, a printer from Augsburg, probably first used it as early as 1472. The origins of the name remain unclear; some assume that a typeface-carver from the village of Schwabach—one who worked externally and who thus became known as the Schwabacher—designed the typeface. The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ...


Textualis

German Textualis is usually very heavy and angular, and there are few features that are common to all occurrences of the script. One common feature is the use of the letter "w" for Latin "vu" or "uu". Textualis was used in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, afterward becoming more elaborate and decorated and used for liturgical works only. Download high resolution version (1000x1000, 37 KB) Overview on several blackletter typefaces. ...


Johann Gutenberg used a textualis typeface for his famous Gutenberg Bible, possibly the first book ever to be printed with movable type, in 1455. Schwabacher, a blackletter with more rounded letters, soon became the usual printed typeface, but it was replaced by Fraktur in the early seventeenth century. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... “Font” redirects here. ... A copy of the Gutenberg Bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible or the Mazarin Bible) is a printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in... ... no changes . ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... “Font” redirects here. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Fraktur lettering

Fraktur came into use when Emperor Maximilian I (1493–1519) established a series of books and had a new typeface created specifically for this purpose. In the nineteenth century, the use of antiqua alongside Fraktur increased, leading to the Antiqua-Fraktur dispute, which lasted until the Nazis abandoned Fraktur in 1942. Since it was so common, all kinds of blackletter tend to be called fraktur in German. Font sample created by djmutex. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... The Antiqua-Fraktur dispute was a typographical dispute in 19th and 20th century Germany. ... Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This distinctive typeface was a great aid to the Allies in World War II, being particularly easy for forgers to duplicate by hand.[citation needed] This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Cursiva

German cursiva is generally similar to the cursive scripts in other areas, but forms of "a", "s" and other letters are more varied; here too, the letter "w" is often used. A hybrida form, which was basically cursiva with fewer looped letters and with similar square proportions as textualis, was used in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In the eighteenth century, the pointed quill was adopted for blackletter handwriting. In the early twentieth century, the Sütterlin script was introduced in the schools. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Sütterlin example in German The Sütterlinschrift, or Sütterlin for short, is a form of the old German blackletter handwriting (Spitzschrift) that was designed by and named after Ludwig Sütterlin, a German graphical designer and teacher who was commissioned to do so by the Prussian ministry for...


Unicode

Blackletter letters are separately encoded by Unicode in the Mathematical alphanumeric symbols range at U+1D504-1D537 and U+1D56C-1D59F (bold), except for individual letters already encoded in the Letterlike Symbols range (plus long s at U+017F). The reason that Unicode considers these separate characters rather than font variants is the distinctive use of blackletter fonts in mathematics. The character names use "Fraktur" for the alphanumeric symbols but "black-letter" in the "letterlike symbols" range. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Mathematical alphanumeric symbols are modifications of Latin and Greek letters and decimal digits that enable mathematicians to denote different notions with different letter styles (one example is blackboard bold, or double-struck (in Unicode terminology)). Unicode now includes many such symbols (in the range U+1D400 . ... Letterlike Symbols are special characters like a regular alphabet or symbol characters but they have specific style and appearance which is known and commonly used in many different tradition and places. ... An italicized long s used in the word Congress in the United States Bill of Rights. ...

𝔄 𝔅 ℭ 𝔇 𝔈 𝔉 𝔊 ℌ ℑ 𝔍 𝔎 𝔏 𝔐 𝔑 𝔒 𝔓 𝔔 ℜ 𝔖 𝔗 𝔘 𝔙 𝔚 𝔛 𝔜 ℨ 𝔞 𝔟 𝔠 𝔡 𝔢 𝔣 𝔤 𝔥 𝔦 𝔧 𝔨 𝔩 𝔪 𝔫 𝔬 𝔭 𝔮 𝔯 𝔰 𝔱 𝔲 𝔳 𝔴 𝔵 𝔶 𝔷
𝕬 𝕭 𝕮 𝕯 𝕰 𝕱 𝕲 𝕳 𝕴 𝕵 𝕶 𝕷 𝕸 𝕹 𝕺 𝕻 𝕼 𝕽 𝕾 𝕿 𝖀 𝖁 𝖂 𝖃 𝖄 𝖅 𝖆 𝖇 𝖈 𝖉 𝖊 𝖋 𝖌 𝖍 𝖎 𝖏 𝖐 𝖑 𝖒 𝖓 𝖔 𝖕 𝖖 𝖗 𝖘 𝖙 𝖚 𝖛 𝖜 𝖝 𝖞 𝖟

Fonts supporting the range include Code2001. In digital typography, James Kasss Code2000 OpenType font is designed to support as much of the Unicode standard, version 4. ...


See also

Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ...

Sources

  • Bernhard Bischoff, Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

External links

  • Typowiki Article: Blackletter
  • Learn Blackletter Online
  • ABBYY FineReader XIX Blackletter OCR recognition software
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Blackletter

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Fraktur (210 words)
Of the five basic styles of flletter Fraktur seems to be the one that has sparked the most contemporary interest.
The finely detailed flourishes reflect the advances in technology and separates this style from the earlier flletters.
By the early 14th century tools for engraving, casting and writing were able to hold fine hairlines and the designers of this letter form took advantage of this.
Blackletter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2108 words)
Blackletter (also known as Gothic script, not to be confused with the Gothic alphabet) was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to 1500.
According to Dutch scholar Gerard Lieftinck, the height of flletter was the 14th and 15th centuries.
French flletter was the earliest form of flletter to develop, in the 11th and 12th centuries.
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