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Encyclopedia > Black tie

Black tie is a dress code for formal evening events. Its primary component is the dinner jacket as it is known in the United Kingdom, the northeastern United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and the Republic of Ireland. The jacket and matching trousers are typically called a tuxedo in the United States and Canada, and a smoking on the European continent and Japan. It is also humorously called a penguin suit since it matches the general color scheme of the bird type's plumage. Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ... Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and U.S. President Ronald Reagan wearing black tie with wives in Quebec, Canada, March 18, 1985. ... Modern Genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For extinct genera, see Systematics Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Black tie is today worn at a wide variety of functions, and the corresponding female attire can range from a short cocktail dress to a long gown, depending on fashion, local custom and the hour at which the function takes place. A cocktail dress or cocktail gown is a shorter-length ladys gown worn at cocktail parties and other semi-formal and formal occasions. ... Wedding - Bridesmaid in long gown A gown or evening gown is a womans evening wear, corresponding to mens formal wear for white tie and black tie events. ...

Contents

History

Beau Brummell is often credited with the invention of the formal dress code during the early nineteenth century and for appearing at formal functions dressed in black and white when more colourful attire was more the order of the day. As a member of courtly circles until his estrangement from the Prince of Wales, his influence on others led to the style of dress becoming the norm. Brummell, engraved from a miniature portrait. ...


Until the 1880s the only accepted form of evening dress was what is now known as white tie, worn with a tailcoat with peaked lapels and silk facings. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Queen Elizabeth II with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ...


The black silk bow tie and the short mess jacket are of military origin -- black silk bow ties were and still are worn by British naval and military officers in ball dress and mess dress when their civilian counterparts are in white tie. Three Canadian officers in shawl or rolled collar jacket and waistcoat style mess dress or mess kit. ...


Henry Poole & Co. of Savile Row has record books that state that they made a "short smoking jacket" for the Prince of Wales in 1865. This appears to have been worn by the Prince with a black bow tie, and the fashion was copied by various gentlemen in his circle. When it first appeared, the dinner jacket was referred to more commonly as a 'dress lounge', because it was an evening dress form of the lounge suit. It was strictly reserved for small less formal private gatherings in the evening, especially in the country, but white tie was still the preferred dress for large societal gatherings such as balls and state occasion. Savile Row Savile Row Savile Row is a road in the City of Westminster in central London that runs parallel to Regent Street between Conduit Street at the northern end and Vigo Street at the southern. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Suits from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog A suit, also known as a business suit or lounge suit or three-piece suit, comprises a collection of matching clothing consisting of: a coat (commonly known as a jacket) a waistcoat (optional) (USA vest) — without this it is know as a... Queen Elizabeth II with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ...


The story of the dinner jacket coming to be called a tuxedo in North American English is erroneously attributed to an occasion in 1886 when a scarlet smoking jacket with satin faced lapels was worn by Pierre Lorillard at a white tie event held at Tuxedo Park, a country club in New York. In fact it was James Brown Potter who was the first American to wear a dinner jacket, a form of dress he adopted on the suggestion of Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) when he invited Potter to dinner in the country with him while he was on a visit to England. On Potter's return to New York, the dinner jacket was widely copied and worn at informal dinners at the Tuxedo Club. Eventually someone from the Tuxedo Club dared to also wear his dinner jacket to formal events and as a result it came to be called the 'tuxedo'. This name is now avoided by certain fashionable sets in the United States, in favor of the usual English terms "dinner jacket" and "black tie". 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... A smoking jacket is an item of clothing, now relatively rare, specifically designed for the purposes of smoking tobacco, usually in the form of pipes and cigars. ... Pierre Lorillard IV (October 13, 1833 – July 7, 1901) was an American tobacco manufacturer and thoroughbred race horse owner. ... Tuxedo Park is a village located in Orange County, New York. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


The waist sash, called a cummerbund, was borrowed after World War I from military dress in British India. Black waistcoats are often worn instead of cummerbunds. There is also an older tradition carried over from white tie, which has largely died out, of wearing a white waistcoat with a dinner jacket. This is an option seen only on the most dress tradition conscious dandy today. A cummerbund is a broad waist sash, usually pleated, which is often worn with black tie. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... This article is about the persons. ...


Elements

Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and President Reagan wearing dinner jackets with wives in Quebec, Canada, March 18, 1985.
Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and President Reagan wearing dinner jackets with wives in Quebec, Canada, March 18, 1985.

Black tie leaves much to the wearer's discretion compared to the far more codified white tie (e.g. single- versus double-breasted coat). Photo courtesy Ronald Reagan Library File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo courtesy Ronald Reagan Library File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Queen Elizabeth II with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ...


The elements of a black-tie ensemble are:

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jacket. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... A dress shirt, often informally called a button-down shirt, is a mens shirt with a collar and a full-length opening down the front from the collar to the hem, fastened closed with buttons and a placket (American English usage). ... One option to tie a bowtie The bowtie is a fashion accessory, popularly worn with other formal attire, such as suits or dinner jackets. ... A cummerbund is a broad waist sash, usually pleated, which is often worn with black tie. ... A traditional waistcoat, to be worn with a two-piece suit or separate jacket and trousers A waistcoat (sometimes called a vest in Canada and the US) is a sleeveless upper-body garment worn over a dress shirt and necktie (if applicable) and below a coat as a part of... English language prevalence in the United States. ... Socks A sock is a knitted garment for enclosing the human foot and/or lower leg, which is designed to: ease chafing between the foot and footwear, keep the feet warm absorb moisture Sock is also the term given to the layer of leather or other material covering the insole... shoe for right foot A shoe is a piece of footwear for humans, less than a boot and more than a slipper. ...

Coat

The dinner jacket is usually made of black wool, without vents, with ribbed-silk or satin lapels. Traditionally, there are two styles of lapel: the peaked lapel, derived from the evening tailcoat; and the shawl lapel, reminiscent of a smoking jacket. Both can be found in single- or double-breasted form. (Note: Although immensely popular in the United States, notched lapels are a modern innovation, and are not universally considered correct.) As for the single-breasted jacket, it is considered incorrect to have more than one button in the United Kingdom.


Because black often shows a greenish tinge in artificial light, dinner jackets in midnight blue were introduced by the Duke of Windsor (then Prince of Wales). They are occasionally seen as an alternative to black. Midnight Blue is a dark shade of blue that was named for its darkness. ... The peerage title Duke of Windsor was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1937 for The Prince Edward, formerly King of the United Kingdom. ...


White dinner jackets are only worn in warm climates, and in the summer in some temperate countries. Not only are the British Isles not considered warm enough for white dinner jackets to be acceptable, but the United Kingdom frowns upon their use, even in warmer climates. In the United States and Canada white dinner jackets may be worn from mid-April through to Labor Day. Labour Day (or Labor Day) is an annual holiday that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ...


Waistcoat/cummerbund and trousers

It is common to wear either a black waistcoat (vest) or cummerbund (not both) with a single-breasted dinner jacket. Waistcoats should be low-cut, and are often made in the same material as the lapels of the jacket. It was once common to see them in the same material as the rest of the suit, however. Cummerbunds are worn with the pleats facing up.


White waistcoats, as worn with white tie, used to be said to be an alternative to the black waistcoat, but are almost never seen.


Trousers (pants) worn with a dinner jacket, being formal, should not have turn-ups (cuffs) or belt loops. It is usual to wear them with braces (suspenders). There is some debate to the appropriateness and formality of pleats versus none.


The silk braid or ribbon down the edge of the trouser legs is always confined to one stripe, two being reserved for white tie.


Shirt and tie

A white cotton or linen shirt is conventional, though shirts in off-white or in silk can sometimes be seen. The shirt fronts are usually cotton marcella (as in white tie) or pleated. A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place. ...


Prior to the Second World War, stiff shirts and separate wing collars were usual. Nowadays, semi-stiff and non-detachable wing collars have become popular, although they are frowned upon in the United Kingdom. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict...


The shirt is usually fastened with shirt studs in silver, platinum or gold, and the cuffs with matching cufflinks. In lieu of studs, it has become more common to wear a soft dress shirt with a concealed button placket ("French front"). Soft dress shirts have French cuffs, while stiff shirts (as are still worn with white tie) have single cuffs. General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 195. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Mens dress shirt with centre-front placket. ... This French cuff is fashioned with a silk knot. ...


Bow ties are usually made of silk barathea or satin. It is considered poor form to wear a pre-tied bow tie, particularly when the hook and buckle are in plain view. However, for most 'black tie' occasions, pre-tied ties are becoming increasingly common, with the former stigma attached to them decreasing.


Colored bow ties and their corresponding waistcoats or cummerbunds are widespread at parties, but are not appropriate for more formal occasions. Brightly colored shirts are of equally poor taste, and the wearing of a white tie with a dinner jacket is graver still. Colored or patterned velvet smoking jackets are sometimes worn after dinner for the port and cigars, but are not appropriate at formal occasions. A smoking jacket is an item of clothing, now relatively rare, specifically designed for the purposes of smoking tobacco, usually in the form of pipes and cigars. ...


Footwear

The most traditional formal shoes are patent-leather opera pumps (also known as court shoes) with a ribbed silk bow, as is worn with white tie. These are uncommon today. A popular alternative is the formal black leather lace-up Oxford shoe, often in patent leather, but without a toe cap or any decorative brogueing. Shoes with open lacing (Derbies in British English and bluchers in the United States) are considered too informal to wear with evening dress. An exceedingly rare alternative is the black button boot. An Oxford shoe is a style of leather shoe. ... Patent leather is leather that has been given a high gloss finish. ...


Hosiery should be black knee-high ribbed silk socks.


Accessories

A white handkerchief (cotton, linen or silk) may be worn in the breast pocket of the dinner jacket, or a boutonniere (a flower, usually white) in the buttonhole. In cold weather a dark blue or black overcoat, black gloves, and a white silk scarf may be worn for traveling.


There is no standard headgear for black tie, but if an overcoat is worn a hat such as a black homburg or trilby may be worn, and in summer a straw boater is considered acceptable. Top hats are only worn with white tie or morning dress. Homburg is a stiff felt hat with a crease along the length of the crown and no pinches, and has a brim with the edge sharply turned up all the way around. ... A trilby or trilby hat is a soft felt mens hat with a narrow brim and a deeply indented crown. ... Queen Elizabeth II with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ... Morning dress is a particular category of mens formal dress. ...


Wristwatches should be thin and elegant. As an alternative, a pocketwatch may be hung from the vest.


In the past few decades it has become acceptable to wear orders and decorations with a dinner jacket at formal state events. These awards may consist of miniature medals, neck badges, breast stars, and/or sashes. The governing regulations for wear of these awards vary from country to country. An Order is a decoration, awarded by a government to an individual, usually for distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. ... State decorations are orders, medals and other decorations granted by a state. ...


Corresponding forms of dress

Mess dress

In the armed forces, officers and non-commissioned officers normally wear mess uniforms which correspond to evening dress or black tie. These vary according to the regiment or corps, but usually involve a short Eton-style jacket that comes to the waist. Some forms include white shirts, black bow ties and low-cut waistcoats, while others have high collars that fasten around the neck and correspondingly high waistcoats. They are usually brightly coloured (in the British Army scarlet is the most common colour) and ornamented with gold lace and buttons, corresponding to the regiment or corps. The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... An officer is a member of a military or naval service who holds a position of responsibility. ... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or noncom, is a non-commissioned member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ... Three Canadian officers in shawl or rolled collar jacket and waistcoat style mess dress or mess kit. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie.
Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie.

In the Royal Navy there is a distinction between "mess dress", which is worn at white tie events, and "mess undress", which is worn at black tie events. Both are worn with a black bow tie, however mess dress is worn with a white waistcoat instead of the usual colour, and may be worn with a stiff shirt and wing collar. The stiff shirt and wing collar were abolished for mess undress in the 1960s, and were made optional for mess dress in the 1990s. Download high resolution version (200x675, 27 KB)Photo G Larson I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (200x675, 27 KB)Photo G Larson I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... It has been suggested that Irish kilt be merged into this article or section. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Scottish dress

Scottish dress is often worn at black and white tie events, especially at Scottish reels and cĂ©ilidhs. The black tie version is much more common, even at white tie events. A cèilidh (pronounced ) is the traditional Gaelic social dance in Ireland and Scotland. ...


The traditional black tie version of Highland dress consists of:

  • Black jacket - Prince Charlie, Montrose, Sheriffmuir and Argyll jackets are suitable
  • Black waistcoat
  • Kilt
  • White shirt
  • Black bow tie
  • Black Ghillie brogues
  • Kilt hose (solid color, diced or tartan)
  • Flashes
  • Sporran

(The white tie equivalent has the wearer with either a white bow tie or a lace jabot over a collarless shirt. Regulation Doublets, Argyll Jacket, Prince Charlie, Sheriffmuir and Montrose jackets are suitable, a Lovat or tweed jacket would not be considered formal enough.) It has been suggested that Irish kilt be merged into this article or section. ... Semi dress black leather sporran A Sporran is a pouch made of leather or fur that is worn on a chain around the waist on the front of a kilt. ... Jabot Cosmetics is a fictional cosmetics business on the CBS daytime soap opera The Young and the Restless. ...


Other colours for both the Prince Charlie jacket, and the hose are often seen.


The Lowland version of black tie is a variation on normal black tie, with trews worn with a normal dinner jacket or Prince Charlie jacket. Trews are also often worn during the summer and in a warm clime. Sir John Sinclair by Henry Raeburn, 1794-95. ...


Appropriate occasions

Black tie is worn at many private and public dinners, dances, and parties, making a comprehensive list difficult because its use varies widely from region to region. At the most formal end it has taken over from white tie at many occasions where the latter would formerly have been worn, e.g. by orchestra conductors. At the most formal events court dress is worn. Queen Elizabeth II with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ... A conductor conducting a band at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Court dress comprises two forms of dress: dress prescribed for Royal courts; and dress prescribed for courts of law. ...


Black tie is only worn in the evening, i.e. after 6 p.m. Its daytime equivalent, the stroller, can be worn for formal events during the daylight hours. A stroller is mens semi-formal daywear, consisting of a grey or black single breasted lounge suit jacket with peaked lapels and usually single button closure. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Black Tie Occasions (0 words)
Black tie is a dress code for formal evening events that are not formal enough to require white tie.
Black tie is today worn at a wide variety of functions, and the corresponding female attire can range from a short cocktail dress to a long gown, depending on fashion, local custom and the hour at which the function takes place.
There is no standard headgear for fl tie, but if an overcoat is worn a hat such as a fl homburg or trilby may be worn, and in summer a straw boater is considered acceptable.
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The Black Tie Dinner Board of Directors recently selected 18 organizations that serve the North Texas gay and lesbian community, in addition to the Human Rights Campaign Foundation, as the beneficiaries for its 2007 Black Tie Dinner on November 17, 2007.
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