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Encyclopedia > Black pepper
Black pepper
Pepper plant with immature peppercorns
Pepper plant with immature peppercorns
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Piperales
Family: Piperaceae
Genus: Piper
Species: P. nigrum
Binomial name
Piper nigrum
L.[1]

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The same fruit is also used to produce white pepper, red/pink pepper, and green pepper.[2] Black pepper is native to South India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is a small drupe five millimetres in diameter, dark red when fully mature, containing a single seed. Image File history File links Koeh-107. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Aristolochiaceae Hydnoraceae Lactoridaceae Piperaceae Saururaceae The Piperales are an order of flowering plants. ... genera see text Piperaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Species See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... genera see text Piperaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Seasoning is the process of adding flavours, or enhancing natural flavour of any type of food. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants, having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavour and its use as a medicine. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. Ground black peppercorn, usually referred to simply as "pepper", may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world, often alongside table salt. Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Categories: Stub ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ...


The word "pepper" is derived from the Sanskrit pippali, the word for long pepper[3] via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper, as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. The Latin word is also the source of German pfeffer, French poivre, Dutch peper, and other similar forms. In the 16th century, pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s; in the early 20th century, this was shortened to pep.[4] The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Old English redirects here. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ...

Contents

Varieties

Black and white peppercorns
Black and white peppercorns

Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant. The berries are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the fruit, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The berries are dried in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the fruit around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer, the result of a fungal reaction. Once dried, the fruits are called black peppercorns. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Browning is the process of becoming brown, especially refering to food. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ...


White pepper consists of the seed only, with the fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by allowing fully ripe berries to soak in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the fruit softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Alternative processes are used for removing the outer fruit from the seed, including removal of the outer layer from black pepper produced from unripe berries. For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ...


In the U.S., white pepper is often used in dishes like light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes, where ground black pepper would visibly stand out. There is disagreement regarding which is generally spicier. They do have differing flavours due to the presence of certain compounds in the outer fruit layer of the berry that are not found in the seed. For other uses, see Sauce (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food. ...

Black, green, pink, and white peppercorns
Black, green, pink, and white peppercorns
An example of ground black pepper
An example of ground black pepper

Green pepper, like black, is made from the unripe berries. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a manner that retains the green colour, such as treatment with sulphur dioxide or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns, also green, are unripe berries preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper berries, largely unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines, particularly Thai cuisine.[5] Their flavor has been described as piquant and fresh, with a bright aroma.[6] They decay quickly if not dried or preserved. Image File history File links Peppercorn-varieties. ... Image File history File links Peppercorn-varieties. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... In a typical phase diagram, the boundary between gas and liquid runs from the triple point to the critical point. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ... Thai seafood curry Thai cuisine is known for its blend of fundamental flavors in each dish -- hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty and bitter. ...


A rarely seen product called pink pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper berries preserved in brine and vinegar. Even more rarely seen, ripe red peppercorns can also be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper.[7] Pink pepper from Piper nigrum is distinct from the more-common dried "pink peppercorns", which are the fruits of a plant from a different family, the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, and its relative the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius. In years past there was debate as to the health safety of pink peppercorns, which is mostly no longer an issue.[8] Sichuan peppercorn is another "pepper" that is botanically unrelated to black pepper. Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ...


Peppercorns are often categorised under a label describing their region or port of origin. Two well-known types come from India's Malabar Coast: Malabar pepper and Tellicherry pepper. Tellicherry is a higher-grade pepper, made from the largest, ripest 10% of berries from Malabar plants grown on Mount Tellicherry.[9] Sarawak pepper is produced in the Malaysian portion of Borneo, and Lampong pepper on Indonesia's island of Sumatra. White Muntok pepper is another Indonesian product, from Bangka Island.[10] [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Thalassery, also known as Tellicherry, is a small town on the Malabar coast of Kerala, South India. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Bangka Island is an island lying east of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


The pepper plant

Piper nigrum from an 1832 print
Piper nigrum from an 1832 print

The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing to four metres in height on supporting trees, poles, or trellises. It is a spreading vine, rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground. The leaves are alternate, entire, five to ten centimetres long and three to six centimetres broad. The flowers are small, produced on pendulous spikes four to eight centimetres long at the leaf nodes, the spikes lengthening to seven to 15 centimeters as the fruit matures. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...

Pepper before ripening
Pepper before ripening

Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding, moist, well-drained and rich in organic matter. The plants are propagated by cuttings about 40 to 50 centimetres long, tied up to neighbouring trees or climbing frames at distances of about two metres apart; trees with rough bark are favoured over those with smooth bark, as the pepper plants climb rough bark more readily. Competing plants are cleared away, leaving only sufficient trees to provide shade and permit free ventilation. The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure, and the shoots are trimmed twice a year. On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years. The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year, and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The cuttings are usually cultivars, selected both for yield and quality of fruit. A single stem will bear 20 to 30 fruiting spikes. The harvest begins as soon as one or two berries at the base of the spikes begin to turn red, and before the fruit is mature, but when full grown and still hard; if allowed to ripen, the berries lose pungency, and ultimately fall off and are lost. The spikes are collected and spread out to dry in the sun, then the peppercorns are stripped off the spikes. Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...

History

Peppercorn close-up
Peppercorn close-up

Pepper has been used as a spice in India since prehistoric times. J. Innes Miller notes that while pepper was grown in southern Thailand and in Malaysia, its most important source was India, particularly the Malabar Coast, in what is now the state of Kerala.[11] Peppercorns were a much prized trade good, often referred to as "black gold" and used as a form of commodity money. The term "peppercorn rent" still exists today. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixelsFull resolution (1836 × 1298 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixelsFull resolution (1836 × 1298 pixel, file size: 1. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity out of which it is made. ... A peppercorn rent in England can refer to a nominal rental sum for property, land or buildings. ...


The ancient history of black pepper is often interlinked with (and confused with) that of long pepper, the dried fruit of closely related Piper longum. The Romans knew of both and often referred to either as just "piper". In fact, it was not until the discovery of the New World and of chile peppers that the popularity of long pepper entirely declined. Chile peppers, some of which when dried are similar in shape and taste to long pepper, were easier to grow in a variety of locations more convenient to Europe. Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a dehydrator. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ...


Until well after the Middle Ages, virtually all of the black pepper found in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa travelled there from India's Malabar region. By the 16th century, pepper was also being grown in Java, Sunda, Sumatra, Madagascar, Malaysia, and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, but these areas traded mainly with China, or used the pepper locally.[12] Ports in the Malabar area also served as a stop-off point for much of the trade in other spices from farther east in the Indian Ocean. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in west part of the Indonesian Archipelago. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ...


Black pepper, along with other spices from India and lands farther east, changed the course of world history. It was in some part the preciousness of these spices that led to the European efforts to find a sea route to India and consequently to the European colonial occupation of that country, as well as the European discovery and colonization of the Americas.


Ancient times

Black peppercorns were found lodged in the nostrils of Ramesses II, placed there as part of the mummification rituals shortly after his death in 1213 BCE. Little else is known about the use of pepper in ancient Egypt, nor how it reached the Nile from India. Usermaatre-setepenre TheJustice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [1] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [1] Userrenput-aanehktu[2] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ...


Pepper (both long and black) was known in Greece at least as early as the 4th century BCE, though it was probably an uncommon and expensive item that only the very rich could afford. Trade routes of the time were by land, or in ships which hugged the coastlines of the Arabian Sea. Long pepper, growing in the north-western part of India, was more accessible than the black pepper from further south; this trade advantage, plus long pepper's greater spiciness, probably made black pepper less popular at the time. The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...

A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India
A possible trade route from Italy to south-west India

By the time of the early Roman Empire, especially after Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE, open-ocean crossing of the Arabian Sea directly to southern India's Malabar Coast was near routine. Details of this trading across the Indian Ocean have been passed down in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. According to the Roman geographer Strabo, the early Empire sent a fleet of around 120 ships on an annual one-year trip to India and back. The fleet timed its travel across the Arabian Sea to take advantage of the predictable monsoon winds. Returning from India, the ships travelled up the Red Sea, from where the cargo was carried overland or via the Nile Canal to the Nile River, barged to Alexandria, and shipped from there to Italy and Rome. The rough geographical outlines of this same trade route would dominate the pepper trade into Europe for a millennium and a half to come. Image File history File links Italy_to_India_Route. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Nile Canal was a canal of antiquity connecting the Red Sea with the Nile River (and thus, the Medditerranean). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


With ships sailing directly to the Malabar coast, black pepper was now travelling a shorter trade route than long pepper, and the prices reflected it. Pliny the Elder's Natural History tells us the prices in Rome around 77 CE: "Long pepper ... is fifteen denarii per pound, while that of white pepper is seven, and of black, four." Pliny also complains "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces," and further moralises on pepper: Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... BCE redirects here. ... First row : c. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ...

It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so much into fashion, seeing that in other substances which we use, it is sometimes their sweetness, and sometimes their appearance that has attracted our notice; whereas, pepper has nothing in it that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry, its only desirable quality being a certain pungency; and yet it is for this that we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make trial of it as an article of food? and who, I wonder, was the man that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? (N.H. 12.14)[13]

Black pepper was a well-known and widespread, if expensive, seasoning in the Roman Empire. Apicius' De re coquinaria, a 3rd-century cookbook probably based at least partly on one from the 1st century CE, includes pepper in a majority of its recipes. Edward Gibbon wrote, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, that pepper was "a favourite ingredient of the most expensive Roman cookery". For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Apicius was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius (or Gabius) Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; a third lived in the late 4th or early 5th century. ... De re coquinaria is the oldest known cookbook, dating from the 3rd century A.D., still in existence. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... This article is about the book. ...


Postclassical Europe

Pepper was so valuable that it was often used as collateral or even currency. The taste for pepper (or the appreciation of its monetary value) was passed on to those who would see Rome fall. It is said that Alaric the Visigoth and Attila the Hun each demanded from Rome a ransom of more than a ton of pepper when they besieged the city in 5th century. After the fall of Rome, others took over the middle legs of the spice trade, first the Persians and then the Arabs; Innes Miller cites the account of Cosmas Indicopleustes, who travelled east to India, as proof that "pepper was still being exported from India in the sixth century".[14] By the end of the Dark Ages, the central portions of the spice trade were firmly under Islamic control. Once into the Mediterranean, the trade was largely monopolised by Italian powers, especially Venice and Genoa. The rise of these city-states was funded in large part by the spice trade. Collateral within a financial context is used to indicate assets that secure a debt obligation. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Attila redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ...


A riddle authored by Saint Aldhelm, a 7th-century Bishop of Sherborne, sheds some light on black pepper's role in England at that time: A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ... Saint Aldhelm (c. ... Arms of the Bishop of Salisbury The Bishop of Salisbury is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

I am black on the outside, clad in a wrinkled cover,
Yet within I bear a burning marrow.
I season delicacies, the banquets of kings, and the luxuries of the table,
Both the sauces and the tenderized meats of the kitchen.
But you will find in me no quality of any worth,
Unless your bowels have been rattled by my gleaming marrow.[15]

It is commonly believed that during the Middle Ages, pepper was used to conceal the taste of partially rotten meat. There is no evidence to support this claim, and historians view it as highly unlikely: in the Middle Ages, pepper was a luxury item, affordable only to the wealthy, who certainly had unspoiled meat available as well.[16] Similarly, the belief that pepper was widely used as a preservative is questionable: it is true that piperine, the compound that gives pepper its spiciness, has some antimicrobial properties, but at the concentrations present when pepper is used as a spice, the effect is small.[17] Salt is a much more effective preservative, and salt-cured meats were common fare, especially in winter. However, pepper and other spices probably did play a role in improving the taste of long-preserved meats. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Salt-cured meat or salted meat, for example ham, bacon or kippered herring, is meat or fish preserved or cured by salt or brine. ...

A depiction of Calicut, India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade
A depiction of Calicut, India published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade

Its exorbitant price during the Middle Ages — and the monopoly on the trade held by Italy — was one of the inducements which led the Portuguese to seek a sea route to India. In 1498, Vasco da Gama became the first European to reach India by sea; asked by Arabs in Calicut (who spoke Spanish and Italian) why they had come, his representative replied, "we seek Christians and spices." Though this first trip to India by way of the southern tip of Africa was only a modest success, the Portuguese quickly returned in greater numbers and used their superior naval firepower to eventually gain complete control of trade on the Arabian sea. It was given additional legitimacy (at least from a European perspective) by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which granted Portugal exclusive rights to the half of the world where black pepper originated. Image File history File links Calicut_1572. ... Image File history File links Calicut_1572. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ...


The Portuguese proved unable to maintain their stranglehold on the spice trade for long. The old Arab and Venetian trade networks successfully smuggled enormous quantities of spices through the patchy Portuguese blockade, and pepper once again flowed through Alexandria and Italy, as well as around Africa. In the 17th century, the Portuguese lost almost all of their valuable Indian Ocean possessions to the Dutch and the English. The pepper ports of Malabar fell to the Dutch in the period 1661–1663. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Pepper harvested for the European trader, from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo)
Pepper harvested for the European trader, from a manuscript Livre des merveilles de Marco Polo (The book of the wonders of Marco Polo)

As pepper supplies into Europe increased, the price of pepper declined (though the total value of the import trade generally did not). Pepper, which in the early Middle Ages had been an item exclusively for the rich, started to become more of an everyday seasoning among those of more average means. Today, pepper accounts for one-fifth of the world's spice trade.[18] Image File history File links Le_livre_des_merveilles_de_Marco_Polo-pepper. ... Image File history File links Le_livre_des_merveilles_de_Marco_Polo-pepper. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


China

It is possible that black pepper was known in China in the 2nd century BCE, if poetic reports regarding an explorer named Tang Meng (唐蒙) are correct. Sent by Emperor Wu to what is now south-west China, Tang Meng is said to have come across something called jujiang or "sauce-betel". He was told it came from the markets of Shu, an area in what is now the Sichuan province. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves, but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper, either long or black.[19] Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... Shu (蜀) was an ancient state in Sichuan, China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Binomial name Piper betle L. The Betel (Piper betle) is a spice whose leaves have medicinal properties. ...


In the 3rd century CE, black pepper made its first definite appearance in Chinese texts, as hujiao or "foreign pepper". It does not appear to have been widely known at the time, failing to appear in a 4th-century work describing a wide variety of spices from beyond China's southern border, including long pepper.[20] By the 12th century, however, black pepper had become a popular ingredient in the cuisine of the wealthy and powerful, sometimes taking the place of China's native Sichuan pepper (the tongue-numbing dried fruit of an unrelated plant). Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ...


Marco Polo testifies to pepper's popularity in 13th-century China when he relates what he is told of its consumption in the city of Kinsay (Zhejiang): "... Messer Marco heard it stated by one of the Great Kaan's officers of customs that the quantity of pepper introduced daily for consumption into the city of Kinsay amounted to 43 loads, each load being equal to 223 lbs."[21] Marco Polo is not considered a very reliable source regarding China, and this second-hand data may be even more suspect, but if this estimated 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) a day for one city is anywhere near the truth, China's pepper imports may have dwarfed Europe's. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Pepper as a medicine

'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself, as well as she could for sneezing. — Alice in Wonderland (1865). Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. Note the cook's pepper mill.
'There's certainly too much pepper in that soup!' Alice said to herself, as well as she could for sneezing.Alice in Wonderland (1865). Chapter VI: Pig and Pepper. Note the cook's pepper mill.

Like all eastern spices, pepper was historically both a seasoning and a medicine. Long pepper, being stronger, was often the preferred medication, but both were used. Image File history File links Alice_pig_and_pepper. ... Image File history File links Alice_pig_and_pepper. ... Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ...


Black peppercorns figure in remedies in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine in India. The 5th century Syriac Book of Medicines prescribes pepper (or perhaps long pepper) for such illnesses as constipation, diarrhea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay, and toothaches.[22] Various sources from the 5th century onward also recommend pepper to treat eye problems, often by applying salves or poultices made with pepper directly to the eye. There is no current medical evidence that any of these treatments has any benefit; pepper applied directly to the eye would be quite uncomfortable and possibly damaging.[23] Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... A Siddha in Sanskrit means One who is accomplished and refers to perfected masters who have transcended the Ahamkara (Ego or I-maker), have subdued their minds to be subservient to their Awareness, and have transformed their bodies composed of dense Rajo-tama Gunas into pure Satvic light. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Otalgia is ear pain or an earache. ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Look up hernia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indigestion is a condition that is frequently caused by eating too fast, especially by eating high-fat foods quickly. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... A toothache, also known as odontalgia or, less frequently, as odontalgy, is an aching pain in or around a tooth. ...


Pepper has long been believed to cause sneezing; this is still believed true today. Some sources say that piperine, a substance present in black pepper, irritates the nostrils, causing the sneezing;[24] some say that it is just the effect of the fine dust in ground pepper, and some say that pepper is not in fact a very effective sneeze-producer at all. Few if any controlled studies have been carried out to answer the question. For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub ...


Pepper is eliminated from the diet of patients having abdominal surgery and ulcers because of its irritating effect upon the intestines, being replaced by what is referred to as a bland diet.


Pepper contains small amounts of safrole, a mildly carcinogenic compound. Safrole Safrole (chemical formula: C10H10O2, IUPAC name: 5-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole), also called shikimol, is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Flavour

A handheld pepper mill
A handheld pepper mill
Black peppercorns.

Pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound, which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Refined piperine, milligram-for-milligram, is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin in chile peppers. The outer fruit layer, left on black pepper, also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene, sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene, and linalool, which give citrusy, woody, and floral notes. These scents are mostly missing in white pepper, which is stripped of the fruit layer. White pepper can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation stage.[25] Image File history File links Pfeffermühle. ... Image File history File links Pfeffermühle. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 369 pixelsFull resolution (1447 × 667 pixel, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Created by: User:Fcb981 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 369 pixelsFull resolution (1447 × 667 pixel, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Created by: User:Fcb981 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Categories: Stub ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic terpene known as a monoterpene. ... Sabinene is a natural bicyclic diterpene with the molecular formula C10H16. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Caryophyllene, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, especially clove oil and the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum. ... Linalool (IPA: ) is a naturally-occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). ...


Pepper loses flavour and aroma through evaporation, so airtight storage helps preserve pepper's original spiciness longer. Pepper can also lose flavour when exposed to light, which can transform piperine into nearly tasteless isochavicine.[26] Once ground, pepper's aromatics can evaporate quickly; most culinary sources recommend grinding whole peppercorns immediately before use for this reason. Handheld pepper mills (or "pepper grinders"), which mechanically grind or crush whole peppercorns, are used for this, sometimes instead of pepper shakers, dispensers of pre-ground pepper. Spice mills such as pepper mills were found in European kitchens as early as the 14th century, but the mortar and pestle used earlier for crushing pepper remained a popular method for centuries after as well.[27] A mortar and pestle is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix substances. ...

World trade

Peppercorns are, by monetary value, the most widely traded spice in the world, accounting for 20 percent of all spice imports in 2002. The price of pepper can be volatile, and this figure fluctuates a great deal year to year; for example, pepper made up 39 percent of all spice imports in 1998.[28] By weight, slightly more chilli peppers are traded worldwide than peppercorns. The International Pepper Exchange is located in Kochi, India. International Pepper Exchange is located at Kochi, India. ... Cochin redirects here. ...


Vietnam has recently become the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper (85,000 long tons in 2003). Other major producers include Indonesia (67,000 tons), India (65,000 tons), Brazil (35,000 tons), Malaysia (22,000 tons), Sri Lanka (12,750 tons), Thailand, and China. Vietnam dominates the export market, using almost none of its production domestically. In 2003, Vietnam exported 82,000 tons of pepper, Indonesia 57,000 tons, Brazil 37,940 tons, Malaysia 18,500 tons, and India 17,200 tons.[29] A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ...


Notes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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  1. ^ Piper nigrum information from NPGS/GRIN. www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  2. ^ Green capsicum or bell pepper may also be called "green pepper"; it is an unrelated plant.
  3. ^ Pippali is Sanskrit for long pepper, also known as long pepper. Black pepper is marica. Greek and Latin borrowed pippali to refer to either.
  4. ^ Douglas Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary entries for pepper and pep. Retrieved 13 November 2005.
  5. ^ See Thai Ingredients Glossary. Retrieved 6 November 2005.
  6. ^ Ochef, Using fresh green peppercorns. Retrieved 6 November 2005.
  7. ^ Katzer, Gernot (2006). Pepper. Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Retrieved 12 August 2006.
  8. ^ pink peppercorn Definition in the Food Dictionary at Epicurious.com
  9. ^ Peppercorns, from Penzey's Spices. Retrieved 17 October 2006.
  10. ^ Pepper varieties information from A Cook's Wares. Retrieved 6 November 2005.
  11. ^ J. Innes Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969), p. 80
  12. ^ Dalby p. 93.
  13. ^ From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. Text online.
  14. ^ Innes Miller, The Spice Trade, p. 83
  15. ^ Translation from Turner, p 94. The riddle's answer is of course pepper.
  16. ^ Dalby p. 156; also Turner pp. 108–109, though Turner does go on to discuss spices (not pepper specifically) being used to disguise the taste of partially spoiled wine or ale.
  17. ^ H. J. D. Dorman and S. G. Deans (2000). "Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils". Journal of Applied Microbiology 88 Issue 2: 308. . Full text at Blackwell website; purchase required. "Spices, which are used as integral ingredients in cuisine or added as flavouring agents to foods, are present in insufficient quantities for their antimicrobial properties to be significant."
  18. ^ Jaffee p. 10.
  19. ^ Dalby pp. 74–75. The argument that jujiang was long pepper goes back to the 4th century CE botanical writings of Ji Han; Hui-lin Li's 1979 translation of and commentary on Ji Han's work makes the case that it was piper nigrum.
  20. ^ Dalby p. 77.
  21. ^ Translation from The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition, Vol. 2, Dover. ISBN 0-486-27587-6. p. 204.
  22. ^ Turner p. 160.
  23. ^ Turner p. 171.
  24. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Science Reference Services "Everyday Mysteries", Why does pepper make you sneeze?. Retrieved November 12, 2005.
  25. ^ McGee p. 428.
  26. ^ ibid.
  27. ^ Montagne, Prosper (2001). Larousse Gastronomique. Hamlyn, 726. ISBN 0-600-60235-4.  "Mill".
  28. ^ Jaffee p. 12, table 2.
  29. ^ Data from Multi Commodity Exchange of India, Ltd. Retrieved 6 November 2005.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...

References

  • Dalby, Andrew (October 1, 2002). Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices, 89. Google Print. ISBN 0-520-23674-2 (accessed October 25, 2005). Also available in print from University of California Press.
  • Turner, Jack (2004). Spice: The History of a Temptation. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. 
  • McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner, 427–429. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.  "Black Pepper and Relatives".
  • Jaffee, Steven (2004). Delivering and Taking the Heat: Indian Spices and Evolving Process Standards (.pdf). An Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper from the World Bank.

is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

Further reading

  • Nutritional benefits of Black Pepper
  • Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
  • "Black Pepper" from Plant Cultures, a collaboration between NYKRIS and Kew Gardens
  • Black Pepper Chemical List (Dr. Duke's Databases)

For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Porophyllum ruderale Bolivian Coriander or Quillquiña (also spelled Quirquiña/Quilquiña) or Killi is an herb plant whose leaves can be used as a seasoning. ... Binomial name Borago officinalis L. Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as starflower, is an annual herb native to central and eastern Europe. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) is a plant belonging to the Apiaceae, or parsley, family. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Cress can refer to several edible members of the family Brassicaceae used as leaf vegetables including watercress land cress (also known as Belle Isle cress, Early yellowrocket, American cress, dryland cress, upland cress, cassabully, creasy salad, Early winter cress, American cress and American watercress). ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Lavandula officinalis Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... Binomial name Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a hot red chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name L. This article refers to the tree. ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Black pepper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3577 words)
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning.
Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe berries of the pepper plant.
Black pepper is grown in soil that is neither too dry nor susceptible to flooding, is moist, well-drained and rich in organic matter.
WHFoods: Black pepper (1353 words)
Black pepper, green pepper and white peppercorns are actually the same fruit (Piper nigrum); the difference in their color is a reflection of varying stages of development and processing methods.
Black pepper is the most pungent and flavorful of all types of peppers and it is available as whole or cracked peppercorns or ground into powder.
Black pepper is not a commonly allergenic food, is not known to contain measurable amounts of goitrogens, oxalates, or purines, and is also not included in the Environmental Working Group's 2003 report "Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce" as one of the 12 foods most frequently containing pesticide residues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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