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Encyclopedia > Black people
Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. Clockwise from upper left: South Africa, Sudan, Kenya, Congo-Brazzaville.

Black is a racial, political, sociological or cultural classification of people. Some definitions of the term include only people of relatively recent African descent (see African diaspora), while others extend the term to any of the populations characterized by dark skin color, a definition that also includes certain populations in Oceania and Southeast Asia.[1][2] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A poster of African Reparation, Reconciliation and Restoration Conference The dispersion of Africans during and after the trans-Atlantic slave trade and others enroute to India as slaves and source of labor. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Contents

The human race

Main articles: Human and Race and genetics

In the early twentieth century many scientists held the view that biologically distinct races existed. The races corresponded to the major continental regions of Africa, Europe, Asia and the Americas. These races were distinguished from each other based on a few visible traits such as skin color and hair texture. Black people were largely defined by their dark skin and sometimes frizzy hair. The belief at that time was that not only did the races differ in appearance but in behavior, intellect and origins. Some scientists such as Carleton S. Coon believed the different races to have evolved separately over millions of years and that racial differences were thus extremely significant. This article is about modern humans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Human genetic variation. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Carleton Stevens Coon, (23 June 1904 – 3 June 1981) was an American physical anthropologist best remembered for his books on race. ...


Today most scholars have abandoned these views and see race as a social construct with no biological basis. Breakthroughs in genetics and the mapping of the human genome in the late twentieth century have helped dispel many of the earlier myths about race. At least 99.9% of any one person's DNA is exactly the same as any other person's, regardless of ethnicity.[3] Of the 0.1% variation, there is an 8% variation between ethnic groups within a race, such as between the French and the Dutch. On average, only 7% of all human genetic variation lies between major human races such as those of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. 85% of all genetic variation lies within any local group. The proportion of genetic variation within continental groups (~93%) is therefore far greater than that between the various continental groups (~7%).[4] Or to put it another way, "any two individuals within a particular population are about as different genetically as any two people selected from any two populations in the world"[5] A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


Because of these facts, there is general agreement among biologists that human racial differences are too small to qualify races as separate sub-species. However there is still much controversy regarding the significance of these small differences. For example, some scholars argue that even though there is more variation within populations than between them, the small between-population variation may have implications in medical science.[6][7] In taxonomy, a subspecies is the taxon immediately subordinate to a species. ...


Single origin hypothesis

See also: Recent single origin hypothesis
A Maasai man in Kenya
A Maasai man in Kenya

Based from genetic evidence, contempoary world population is assumed to be descended from a relatively small population of Homo sapiens living in Africa some 70,000 years ago — in population bottleneck scenarios, this group may have been as small as 2,000 individuals.[8][9] The differences in physical appearance between the various peoples of the world is as a result of adaptations to the different environments encountered by various populations subsequent to this split. Map of early human migrations according to mitochondrial population genetics In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 44 KB) Kenyan man. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 44 KB) Kenyan man. ... Languages Maa (É”l Maa) Religions Monotheism Christianity The Maasai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ...


The African population exhibits a great degree of physical variation. Even though most sub-Saharan Africans share a skin color that is dark relative to many other peoples of the world, they do differ significantly in physical appearance. Examples include the Dinka, some of the tallest people in the world and the Mbuti, the shortest people in the world. Others such as the Khoisan people have an epicanthal fold similar to the peoples of Central Asia. A recent study found that Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest skin color diversity within population.[10] This article is about the ethnic group for the language see Dinka language The Dinka are a group of tribes of south Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, Jonglei and parts of southern Kordufan and Upper Nile regions. ... The Mbuti people, or Bambuti as they are collectively called, are one of several indigenous hunter-gatherer groups in the Congo region of Africa. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... A young woman with an epicanthal fold on both eyes Eye with epicanthal fold An epicanthal fold, epicanthic fold, or epicanthus is a skin fold of the upper eyelid (from the nose to the inner side of the eyebrow) covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the human eye. ...


Dark skin

Further information: Human skin color
A Black mother and her albino son from Tanzania
A Black mother and her albino son from Tanzania

The evolution of dark skin is tied with the question of loss of body hair. By 1.2 million years ago, all people having descendants today had exactly the receptor protein of today's Africans; their skin was dark, and the intense sun killed off the progeny with any lighter skin that resulted from mutational variation in the receptor protein.[11] This is significantly earlier than the speciation of Homo sapiens from Homo erectus some 250,000 years ago. Human skin color can range from very dark to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) or archanthropus is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ...


Dark skin helps protect against skin cancer that develops as a result of ultraviolet light radiation, causing mutations in the skin. Furthermore, dark skin prevents an essential B vitamin, folate, from being destroyed. Therefore, in the absence of modern medicine and diet, a person with dark skin in the tropics would live longer, be more healthy and more likely to reproduce than a person with light skin. White Australians have some of the highest rates of skin cancer as evidence of this expectation.[12] Conversely, as dark skin prevents sunlight from penetrating the skin it hinders the production of vitamin D3. Hence when humans migrated to less sun-intensive regions in the north, low vitamin D3 levels became a problem and lighter skin colors started appearing. The people of Europe, who have low levels of melanin, naturally have an almost colorless skin pigmentation, especially when untanned. This low level of pigmentation allows the blood vessels to become visible and gives the characteristic pale pink color of white people. The difference in skin color between black and whites is however a minor genetic difference accounting for just one letter in 3.1 billion letters of DNA.[13] Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ...


Some scholars argue that based on cave paintings, Europeans may have been dark-skinned as late as 13,000 years ago. The painters depicted themselves as having darker complexions than the animals they hunted[14]. This hypothesis finds support from genetics with the discovery of the SLC24A5 gene in 2005. The mutation resulting in light skin is currently estimated to have originated among Europeans some 6,000 to 12,000 years ago.[15] SLC24A5 (solute carrier family 24, member 5) is a gene that is thought to be one of many genes that control skin pigmentation in humans, and therefore implicated in defining race. ...


In Sub-Saharan Africa

Further information: Demographics of Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa is colored green, while North Africa is gray.
Sub-Saharan Africa is colored green, while North Africa is gray.

Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe African countries located south of the Sahara. It is used as a cultural and ecological distinction from North Africa. Because the indigenous people of this region are primarily dark skinned it is sometimes used as a politically correct term or euphemism for "Black Africa".[16] Some criticize the use of the term in defining the part of Africa inhabited by blacks because the Sahara cuts across countries such as Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, and Sudan, leaving some parts of them in North Africa and some in Sub-Saharan Africa. For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Sub-Saharan-Africa. ... Image File history File links Sub-Saharan-Africa. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ...


Owen 'Alik Shahadah argues that the term sub-Saharan Africa has racist overtones: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Sub-Saharan Africa is a racist byword for "primitive", a place which has escaped advancement. Hence, we see statements like “no written languages exist in Sub-Saharan Africa.” “Ancient Egypt was not a Sub-Saharan African civilization.” Sub-Sahara serves as an exclusion, which moves, jumps and slides around to suit negative generalization of Africa.[17]

However, some black Africans prefer to be culturally distinguished from those who live in the north of the continent.[18]


South Africa

Extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley and Pretoria.
Extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley and Pretoria.

In South Africa during the apartheid era, the population was classified into four groups: Black, White, Asian (mostly Indian), and Coloured. The Coloured group included people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay ancestry, especially in the Western Cape). The Coloureds occupied an intermediary position between blacks and whites in South Africa. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x630, 597 KB) This is a photo of an extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley, and Pretoria (South Africa). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x630, 597 KB) This is a photo of an extended Coloured family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley, and Pretoria (South Africa). ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... Kimberley is the name of: Kimberley, South Africa Kimberley, Nottinghamshire, England Kimberley, Norfolk, England Kimberley, British Columbia, Canada Kimberley region of Western Australia Kimberley is also the name of: John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley (1826–1902), British colonial secretary and foreign minister Earl of Kimberley, Wodehouses heirs, continue... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... The Cape Malay community is an ethnic group or community in South Africa, taking its name from what is now known as the Western Cape of South Africa and the people originally from the Malay archipelago who started this community in South Africa. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ...


The apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria in the Population Registration Act to determine who belonged in which group. Minor officials administered tests to enforce the classifications. When it was unclear from a person's physical appearance whether a person was to be considered Colored or Black, the "pencil test" was employed. This involved inserting a pencil in a person's hair to determine if the hair was kinky enough for the pencil to get stuck.[19] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that all inhabitants of South Africa be classified in accordance with their racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid [1] [2] [3]. Social rights, political rights, educational opportunities, and economic status were largely determined by which group an individual belonged to. ...


During the apartheid era the coloureds were oppressed and discriminated against. However, they did have limited rights and overall had slightly better socioeconomic conditions than blacks. In the post-apartheid era the government's policies of affirmative action have favored Blacks over Coloureds. Some Black South Africans openly state that Coloureds did not suffer as much as they did during apartheid. The popular saying by Coloured South Africans to illustrate this dilemma is: Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ...

Not white enough under apartheid and not black enough under the ANC (African National Congress) For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...

Other than by appearance, Coloureds can be distinguished from Blacks by language. Most speak Afrikaans or English as a first language, as opposed to Bantu languages such as Zulu or Xhosa. They also tend to have more European-sounding names than Bantu names.[20] Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ...


In the Middle East

See also: Afro-Arab

Black African and Near Eastern peoples have interacted since prehistoric times.[21][22] Some historians estimate that as many as 14 million Black slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900 CE.[23] Majed Abdullah Afro-Arab refers to a people identified as having mixed African and Arab origins, and whose native language is Arabic. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ...


The Afro-Asiatic languages, which include Semitic languages such as Arabic and Hebrew, are believed by some scholars to have originated in Ethiopia. This is because the region has very diverse language groups in close geographic proximity, often considered a telltale sign for a linguistic geographic origin. The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ...

A boy slave in the slave trade market of Zanzibar punished by chaining to a 32 pound log. c.1890. From the Moresby Treaty of 1822, slave trade through Zanzibar became exclusive to Arab and Islamic traders as the sale of slaves to European powers had become illegal.[24][25]

In more recent times, about 1000 CE, interactions between blacks and Arabs resulted in the incorporation of several Arabic words into Swahili, which became a useful lingua franca for merchants. Some of this because of the slave trade; the history of Islam and slavery shows that the major juristic schools traditionally accepted the institution of slavery.[26] As a result, Arab influence spread along the east coast of Africa and to some extent into the interior (see East Africa). Timbuktu was a trading outpost that linked west Africa with Berber, Arab, and Jewish traders throughout the Arab World. As a result of these interactions many Arab people in the Middle East have black ancestry and many Blacks on the east coast of Africa and along the Sahara have Arab ancestry.[27] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first muezzin. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Slave redirects here. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... “Arab States” redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


According to Dr. Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Afro-multiracials in the Arab world self-identify in ways that resemble Latin America. He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry.[28] Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Moore also claims that a film about Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had to be canceled when Sadat discovered that an African-American had been cast to play him. In fact, the 1983 television movie Sadat, starring Louis Gossett, Jr., was not canceled. The Egyptian government refused to let the drama air in Egypt, partially on the grounds of the casting of Gossett.[citation needed] The objections, however, did not come from Sadat, who had been assassinated two years earlier. // Monarchs Wālīs (Governors) of Egypt, 1805-1867 Muḩammad ‘Alī 1805-1848 Ibrāhīm 1848 Muḩammad ‘Alī (restored) 1848-1849 ‘Abbās I 1849-1854 Sa‘īd 1854-1863 Ismā‘īl 1863-1867 Khedives of Egypt, 1867-1914 Ismā‘īl 1867-1879 Tawfīq 1879-1892... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Louis Gossett Jr. ... Politics of Egypt takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, whereby the President of Egypt is de facto both head of state and head of government, and of a party system dominated by the National Democratic Party. ...


Sadat's mother was a a black Sudanese woman and his father was an Egyptian. He shied away from mentioning her in his autobiography, possibly due to the way she was treated by his conservative Muslim father who took on other wives after marrying her. Sadat may have been ashamed at the way his mother was treated when he was growing up, and consequently he may have been sensitive about his complexion. In response to an advertisement for an acting position he remarked, "I am not white but I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish".[29]


Fathia Nkrumah was another Egyptian intimately tied with black Africa. She was the late wife of Ghanaian revolutionary Kwame Nkrumah, whose marriage was seen as helping plant the seeds of cooperation between Egypt and other African countries as they struggled for independence from European colonization, which in turn helped advance the formation of the African Union.[30] Fathia Nkrumah (1932-2007), born Fathia Rizk, was the wife of Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of Ghana. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29...


In general, Arab and Middle Eastern people had a more positive view of black women than black men, even if the women were of slave origin. More black women were enslaved than men, and, because the Qur'an was interpreted to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage[31][32], many mixed race children resulted. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab captor's child, she became “umm walad” or “mother of a child”, a status that granted her privileged rights. The child would have prospered from the wealth of the father and been given rights of inheritance.[33] Because of patrilineality, the children were born free and sometimes even became successors to their ruling fathers, as was the case with Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, (whose mother was a Fulani concubine), who ruled Morocco from 1578-1608. Such tolerance, however, was not extended to wholly black persons, even when technically "free," and the notion that to be black meant to be a slave became a common belief.[34] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ma malakat aymanukum. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... Patrilineality (a. ... Ahmad I al-Mansur (also Ahmed el-Mansour and El-Mansour Eddahbi (the guilded)) (Arabic: أحمد المنصور السعدي) was Sultan of Saadi dynasty from 1578 to his death in 1603, the sixth and most famous of all rulers of the Saadis. ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ...


In the Americas

Approximately 12 million Africans were shipped to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from 1492 to 1888. Today their descendants number approximately 150 million.[35] Many have a multiracial background of African, Amerindian, European and Asian ancestry. The various regions developed complex social conventions with which their multi-ethnic populations were classified. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


United States

Main article: African American
See also: African Immigration to the United States

In the first 200 years that blacks had been in the United States, they commonly referred to themselves as Africans. In Africa, people primarily identified themselves by tribe or ethnic group (closely allied to language) and not by skin color. Individuals would be Asante, Yoruba, Kikongo or Wolof. But when Africans were brought to the Americas they were forced to give up their tribal affiliations for fear of uprisings. The result was the Africans had to intermingle with other Africans from different tribal groups. This is significant as Africans came from a vast geographic region, the West African coastline stretching from Senegal to Angola and in some cases from the south east coast such as Mozambique. A new identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various tribal groups and of European cultural heritage, resulting in fusions such as the Black church and Black English. This new identity was now based on skin color and African ancestry rather than any one tribal group.[17] Image File history File links Malcolmxmartinlutherking. ... Image File history File links Malcolmxmartinlutherking. ... “MLK” redirects here. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Africans immigrants (U.S.), in the scope of this article, are recent immigrants to the United States from the continent of Africa and their descendants. ... The Ashanti (cf Asante) are a major ethnic group from Africa. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. ... Kongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Kongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ... Wolof may refer to: the ethnic group of the Wolof people; the Wolof language; things originating from the culture or tradition of the Wolof people. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The term black church refers to Christian churches that minister to the African American community. ... African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), also called Ebonics, Black English, or Black English Vernacular (BEV) is a dialect of American English. ...


In March of 1807, Britain, which largely controlled the Atlantic, declared the trans-atlantic slave trade illegal, as did the United States. (The latter prohibition took effect January 1, 1808, the earliest date on which Congress had the power to do so under Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.) A replica of the slave ship the Zong, moored by Tower Bridge to mark 200 years since the Slave Trade Act 1807 (April 2007) HMS Northumberland moored by HMS Belfast during the same commemoration, marking modern anti-slaving operations The Slave Trade Act (citation ) was an Act of Parliament of... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


By that time, the majority of blacks were U.S.-born, so use of the term "African" became problematic. Though initially a source of pride, many blacks feared its continued use would be a hindrance to their fight for full citizenship in the US. They also felt that it would give ammunition to those who were advocating repatriating blacks back to Africa. In 1835 Black leaders called upon Black Americans to remove the title of "African" from their institutions and replace it with "Negro" or "Colored American". A few institutions however elected to keep their historical names such as African Methodist Episcopal Church. "Negro" and "colored" remained the popular terms until the late 1960s.[36] The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ...


The term black was used throughout but not frequently as it carried a certain stigma. In his 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech,[37] Martin Luther King, Jr. uses the terms Negro 15 times and black 4 times. Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white (e.g., black men and white men).[38] With the successes of the civil rights movement a new term was needed to break from the past and help shed the reminders of legalized discrimination. In place of Negro, black was promoted as standing for racial pride, militancy and power. Some of the turning points included the use of the term "Black Power" by Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael) and the release of James Brown's song "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud". Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “MLK” redirects here. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Stokely Standiford Churchill Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. ... Say It Loud - Im Black and Im Proud is a 1968 recording by James Brown. ...


In 1988 Jesse Jackson urged Americans to use the term African American because the term has a historical cultural base. Since then African American and black have essentially a coequal status. There is still much controversy over which term is more appropriate. Some strongly reject the term African American in preference for black citing that they have little connection with Africa. Others believe the term black is inaccurate because African Americans have a variety of skin tones.[39] Surveys show that when interacting with each other African Americans prefer the term black, as it is associated with intimacy and familiarity. The term "African American" is preferred for public and formal use.[40] The appropriateness of this term is further confused, however, by increases in black immigrants from Africa the Caribbean and Latin America. The more recent immigrants, may sometimes view themselves, and be viewed, as culturally distinct from native descendants of African slaves.[41] Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Africans immigrants (U.S.), in the scope of this article, are recent immigrants to the United States from the continent of Africa and their descendants. ...


The U.S. census race definitions says a black is a person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African Am., or Negro," or who provide written entries such as African American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian. However, the Census Bureau notes that these classifications are socio-political constructs and should not be interpreted as scientific or anthropological.[42] It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


A considerable portion of the U.S. population identified as Black actually have some Native American or European American ancestry. For instance, genetic studies of African American people show an ancestry that is on average 17-18% European.[43] The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ...


One drop rule

Historically the United States used a colloquial term, the one drop rule, to designate a black as any person with any known African ancestry.[44] The one drop rule was virtually unique to the United States and was applied almost exclusively to blacks. Outside of the US, definitions of who is black vary from country to country but generally, multiracial people are not required by society to identify themselves as black (cf. mulatto and related terms). The most significant consequence of the one drop rule was that many African Americans who had significant European ancestry, whose appearance was very European, would identify themselves as black. A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... The one-drop theory (or one-drop rule) is the colloquial term for the standard, found throughout the USA, that holds that a person with even one drop of non-white ancestry should be classified as colored, especially for the purposes of laws forbidding inter-racial marriage. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ...


The one drop rule may have originated as a means of increasing the number of black slaves[45] and been maintained as an attempt to keep the white race pure,[46] but one of its unintended consequences was uniting the African American community and preserving an African identity.[44] Some of the most prominent civil rights activists were multiracial but yet stood up for equality for all. It is said that W.E.B. Du Bois could have easily passed for white yet he became the preeminent scholar in Afro-American studies.[47] He chose to spend his final years in Africa and immigrated to Ghana where he died aged 95. Booker T. Washington and Frederick Douglass both had white fathers,[48] and Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan both had at least one white grandparent. That said, colorism, or intraracial discrimination based on skin tone, does affect the black community. It is a sensitive issue or a taboo subject. Open discussions are often labeled as "airing dirty laundry".[49] [50] This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933), is the head of the Nation of Islam. ... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ...


Many people in the United States are rejecting the one drop rule and are questioning whether a person with one black parent should be considered black or biracial. Although politician Barack Obama self-identifies as black, 55 percent of whites and 61 percent of Hispanics classified him as biracial instead of black after being told that his mother is white. Blacks were less likely to acknowledge a multiracial category, with 66% labeling Obama as black.[51] Forty-two percent of African-Americans described Tiger Woods as black, as did 7% of white Americans.[52] Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... Personal Information Birth December 30, 1975 ) Cypress, California Height 6 ft 1 in (1. ...


Blackness

The concept of blackness in the United States has been described as the degree to which one associates themselves with mainstream African American culture and values. This concept is not so much about skin color or tone but more about culture and behavior. Spike Lee may be considered authentically Black by some for his contribution to Black consciousness through film. Muhammad Ali may also be considered authentically black as a global symbol of the Black identity. The degree to which an individual is sympathetic to or a part of the culture of African-Americans. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ...

Blackness can be contrasted with acting white in which black individuals are said to behave more like mainstream white Americans than fellow blacks. This includes choice in fashion, the way one speaks or listening to stereotypically white music.[53] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (444 × 600 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black people University of Chicago Barack... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (444 × 600 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black people University of Chicago Barack... “Barack” redirects here. ... Oreo cookies. ...


The notion of blackness can also be extended to non-blacks. Toni Morrison once described Bill Clinton as the first black president.[54] This because of his warm relations with African Americans, his poor upbringing and also because he is a jazz musician. Christopher Hitchens was offended by the notion of Clinton as the first black president noting "we can still define blackness by the following symptoms: alcoholic mothers, under-the-bridge habbits...the tendency to sexual predation and shameless perjury about the same"[55] Some black activists were also offended, claiming Clinton used his knowledge of black culture to exploit blacks like no other president ever has[56] for political gain, while not serving black interests. They note his lack of action during the Rwanda genocide[57], his welfare reform which lead to the worst child poverty since the 1960s[58] along with the fact that number of blacks in jail increased during his administration.[59] Paula Abdul, of Syrian descent, is sometimes mistaken for being black in part because of her association with black music and dance. For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Paula Julie Abdul (born June 19, 1962) is an American multi-platinum selling Grammy Award-winning singer, dancer, television personality, jewelry designer, and Emmy Award-winning choreographer. ...


The question of blackness arose in the early stages of Barack Obama's campaign for the 2008 presidential campaign. Some have questioned whether Obama, who is commonly described as the first black candidate with a serious chance of winning the presidency, is black enough since his mother is white American. His father is from Kenya and he was raised in Hawaii and Indonesia. Polls at the start of the campaign showed Hillary Clinton to be more popular amongst black voters than Obama, which can be ascribed to the influence of Bill Clinton's "Blackness". On the other hand much of Obama's support is derived from white liberals.[60] [61][62] More recently however, the black vote has been moving towards Obama[63] “Barack” redirects here. ... A map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated to each state. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably with Caucasian American[3] and within the United States simply white[4]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ...


Race in Brazil

Main article: Race in Brazil
Capoeira, an Afro-Brazilian martial art.
Capoeira, an Afro-Brazilian martial art.

Unlike in the United States race in Brazil is based on skin color and physical appearance rather than ancestry. A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from. Between a pure black and a very light mulatto over a dozen racial categories would be recognized in conformity with the combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color. These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest. That is, race referred to appearance, not heredity.[64] Brazil is a racially diverse and multiracial country. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Capoeira ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Capoeira ... Capoeira (IPA: ) is a Brazilian fight-dance, game, and martial art created by enslaved Africans during the 17th Century [1] Participants form a roda (circle) and take turns playing instruments, singing, and sparring in pairs in the centre of the circle. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


There is some disagreement among scholars over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil. It is generally believed that upward mobility and education results in reclassification of individuals into lighter skinned categories. The popular claim is that in Brazil poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree arguing that whitening of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race, but a typically black person will consistently be identified as black regardless of wealth or social status.[65][65][66]


Statistics

See also: Race and genetics#Admixture in Latin America
Demographics of Brazil
Year White Brown Black
1835 24.4% 18.2% 51.4%
2000 53.7% 38.5% 6.2%

From the year 1500 to 1850 an estimated 3.5 million Africans were forcibly shipped to Brazil.[65] An estimated 80 million Brazilians, almost half the population, are at least in part descendants of these Africans. Brazil has the largest population of Afro-descendants outside of Africa. In contrast to the US there were no segregation or anti-miscegenation laws in Brazil. As a result miscegenation has affected a large majority of the Brazilian population. Even much of the white population has either African or Amerindian blood. According to the last census 54% identified themselves as white, 6.2% identified themselves as black and 39.5% identified themselves as Pardo (brown)- a broad multiracial category.[67] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Human genetic variation. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts. ... For other uses, see Pardo (disambiguation). ...


A philosophy of whitening emerged in Brazil in the 19th century. Until recently the government did not keep data on race. However statisticians estimate that in 1835 half the population was black, one fifth was Pardo (brown) and one fourth white. By 2000 the black population had fallen to only 6.2% and the Pardo had increased to 40% and white to 55%. Essentially most of the black population was absorbed into the multiracial category by miscegenation.[64]. A recent study found that at least 29% of the middle class white Brazilian population had some recent African ancestry.[68]


Race relations

Because of the ideology of miscegenation, Brazil has avoided the polarization of Society into black and white. The bitter and sometimes violent racial tensions that divide the US are notably absent in Brazil. However the philosophy of the racial democracy in Brazil has drawn criticism from some quarters. Brazil has one of the largest gaps in income distribution in the world. The richest 10% of the population earn 28 times the average income of the bottom 40%. The richest 10 percent is almost exclusively white. One-third of the population lives under the poverty line of which blacks and other non-whites account for 70 percent of the poor.[69]


In the US blacks earn 75% of what whites earn, in Brazil non-whites earn less than 50% of what whites earn. Some have posited that Brazil does in fact practice the one drop rule when social economic factors are considered. This because the gap income between blacks and other non-whites is relatively small compared with the large gap between whites and non-whites. Other factors such as illiteracy and education level show the same patterns.[70] Unlike in the US where African Americans were united in the civil rights struggle, in Brazil the philosophy of whitening has helped divide blacks from other non-whites and prevented a more active civil rights movement.


Though Afro-Brazilians make up half the population there are very few black politicians. The city of Salvador, Bahia for instance is 80% Afro-Brazilian but has never had a black mayor. Critics indicate that in US cities like Detroit and New Orleans that have a black majority, have never had white mayors since first electing black mayors in the 1970s.[71] Nickname: Motto: Sic illa ad arcam reversa est, portuguese E Assim a Pomba Voltou à Arca Location of Salvador Coordinates: , Region State Founded 29 March 1549 Government  - Mayor João Henrique Area  - City 313 km²  (120. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Non-white people also have limited media visibility. The Latin American media, in particular the Brazilian media, has been accused of hiding its black and indigenous population. For example the telenovelas or soaps are said to be a hotbed of white, largely blonde and blue/green-eyed actors who resemble Scandinavians or other northern Europeans more than they resemble the typical whites of Brazil, who are mostly of Southern European descent. [72][73] [74] Telenovela is the Spanish and Portuguese word for prime time serial or soap opera. ... The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Southern Europe is a region of Europe. ...


These patterns of discrimination against non-whites have led some to advocate for the use of the Portuguese term 'negro' to encompass non-whites so as to renew a black consciousness and identity, in effect an African descent rule.[75]


In Asia and Australasia

Pacific Islander boy[76]

There are several groups of dark-skinned people who live in various parts of Asia, Australia and the South Pacific. They include the Indigenous Australians, the Melanesians (now divided into Austronesians and Papuans, and including the great genetic diversity of New Guinea), the Andamanese people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, the Semang people of the Malay peninsula, the Aeta people of Luzon, and various indigenous peoples sometimes collectively known as Negritos (a term some consider pejorative). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The South Pacific is an area in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Languages Several hundred indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... Comparative map showing the distributions of the various Andamanese peoples in the Andaman Islands- early 1800s versus present-day (2004). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The Aeta are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the Philippines. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... The Negritos include the Atis, and at least 5 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...


By their external physical appearance (phenotype) such people resemble Africans with dark skin and sometimes tightly coiled hair. Genetically they are distant from Africans and are more closely related to the surrounding Asian populations in the same way that Africans are more closely linked genetically to Europeans despite differences in skin colour.[77] Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


The Dutch colonial officials considered the Taiwanese aborigines to be "Indians" or "blacks", based on their prior colonial experience in what is now Indonesia. Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán Yǔ) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ...


The Black War refers to a period of conflict between the British colonists and Tasmanian Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in the early years of the 1800s. Poster issued in Van Diemens Land during the Black War depicting Lieutenant-Governor Daveys policy of friendship and equal justice for settlers and Aborigines. ... The Tasmanian Aboriginals are the indigenous people of the island state of Tasmania, Australia. ... 1663 map of Van Diemens Land, showing the parts discovered by Tasman, including Storm Bay, Maria Island and Schouten Island. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114...


The Australian Aboriginal Flag was designed by Harold Thomas, an artist and an Aboriginal, in 1971. The flag was designed to be an eye-catching rallying symbol for the Aboriginal people and a symbol of their race and identity. The black represents the Aboriginal people, the red the earth and their spiritual relationship to the land, and the yellow the sun, the giver of life. Categories: Stub | Flags of Australia ... Harold Joseph Thomas was an Indigenous Australian descended from the Luritja clan of Central Australia artist and land righs activist, he is best know for designing the Australian Aboriginal Flag. ...


In Europe

Main article: Afro-European

For many centuries throughout the Age of Discovery and the colonial empires, black people came from the colonies to the "mother country", either voluntarily (sometimes for education) or under duress (sometimes as slaves). Even prior to that, the Arab slave trade brought large numbers of Africans to the furthest reaches of Europe; for example, Peter the Great took as a protégé Abram Petrovich Gannibal, whose descendants number poet Alexandr Pushkin and Hugh Grosvenor, heir apparent to Britain's wealthiest aristocrat[78]. Most of the black people living in Europe, however, have their origins in relatively recent waves of immigration. Since the decolonisation of the mid-twentieth century, substantial black populations have moved to certain countries in Europe; other European countries have very few black people. An Afro-European, Afropean or Black European refers to people of African ancestry, racial, cultural and social heritage born in or citizens of any European country. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, (1696 – 14 May[1]1781) was an African slave who was brought to Russia by Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer and governor of Reval. ... Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S... Hugh Richard Louis Grosvenor, Earl Grosvenor (born 29 January 1991) is the third of four children and the only son of the 6th Duke of Westminster and the Duchess of Westminster (formerly Natalia Phillips). ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Major-General Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster, KG, OBE, TD, DL (born 22 December 1951 in Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland), is the son of Robert George Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster, and his wife Hon. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The low birth rate prevalent in many European countries has been an important factor in encouraging many immigrants from outside the continent to help support the economies of aging populations[79]. Consequently, the black population of European countries is expected to increase[citation needed]. However, at present, black people have limited visibility in mainstream European society, except in a handful of roles such as sporting activities.


Britain

See also: British African-Caribbean community and Black British Download high resolution version (680x888, 162 KB) This is a magazine cover. ... Download high resolution version (680x888, 162 KB) This is a magazine cover. ... Naomi Campbell (born May 22, 1970) is an English supermodel, actress, singer, and author of Jamaican/Chinese descent. ... The Leicester Caribbean Carnival The British African-Caribbean (Afro-Caribbean) community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background, and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ...


Britain encouraged workers from the Caribbean after World War II; the first symbolic movement was those who came on the ship the Empire Windrush. The Afro-Caribbean population of England is substantial, and in the past ten years or so has been matched by direct migration from Africa, particularly Nigeria. The preferred official umbrella term is "black and minority ethnic" (BME), but sometimes the term "black" is used on its own, to express opposition to racism, as in the Southall Black Sisters, which started with a mainly British Asian constituency. Black Britons tend to live in the cities, whereas the white population is moving more to suburbs and the countryside. “West Indian” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Empire Windrush The Empire Windrush was a ship that is an important part of the history of multiracialism in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Southall Black Sisters is a non-profit organisation based in Southall, West London, UK. The organisation was established in Apirl 1979 during the Southall race riots, which occurred on the 23rd April 1979. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ...


Eastern Europe

As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered them the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.[80][81] This extended beyond the Soviet Union to many countries of the Eastern bloc. Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


Russia

An example of the somewhat arbitrary nature of cultural classification of people as "black" exists in Russia. Certain groups of people who are ethnically different, and generally darker, than ethnic Russians are pejoratively referred to as "blacks" (chernye), and face specific sorts of social exclusion (see Racism in Russia). Gypsies, Georgians, and Tatars fall into this category.[82] Those referred to as "black" are from the former Soviet republics, predominantly peoples of the Caucasus, e.g. Chechens.[83] (Although "Caucasian" is used in American English to mean "white people", in Russian -- and most other varieties of English -- it only refers to the Caucasus, not European people in general.) Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. ... // Racism towards peoples of the Caucasus In common usage in former Soviet countries, the term Caucasian is a collective term which refers to anyone descended from the native ethnicities of the Caucasuses. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... “Whites” redirects here. ... This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... European people: populations: Demography of Europe genetics: Genetic history of Europe ethnicities: European ethnic groups European Americans Category:European diaspora Categories: | | ...


Debates on historical populations

Race of ancient Egyptians

Main article: Race and ancient Egypt (controversies)
See also: Egyptians
1820 drawing of a fresco of the tomb of Seti I, depicting (from left): Libyan, Nubian, Asiatic, Egyptian.
1820 drawing of a fresco of the tomb of Seti I, depicting (from left): Libyan, Nubian, Asiatic, Egyptian. [84]

A controversy over the skin color and ethnic origins of the ancient Egyptians was sparked as part of the Afrocentric debate.[85] Afrocentrist scholars such as Cheikh Anta Diop contend that ancient Egypt was primarily a "black civilization". One source cited in support of their argument is Herodotus, who wrote around 450 B.C. that "Colchians, Ethiopians and Egyptians have thick lips, broad nose, woolly hair and they are burnt of skin."[86] However, Classical scholar Frank Snowden, Jr. cautions against the reliance on accounts by ancient writers to describe the physical characteristics of other ancient peoples, as they held different connotations from those of modern-day terminology in the West. He also points out that other ancient writers clearly distinguished between Egyptians and Ethiopians.[87] Race and ancient Egypt is a topic that has been mired in controversy in the Western world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Egyptian_races. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Egyptian_races. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... An 1812 map of Africa Afrocentrism is an approach to the study of world history which stresses the distinctive identity and contributions of African cultures. ... An 1812 map of Africa Afrocentrism is an approach to the study of world history which stresses the distinctive identity and contributions of African cultures. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Frank M. Snowden, Jr. ...


Keita and Boyce confront this issue in a 1996 article entitled, "The Geographical Origins and Population Relationships of Early Ancient Egyptians". As anthropologists, they point out the danger in relying on ancient interpretation to reveal for us the biological make up of a population. In any case they contend, the relevant data indicates greater similarity between Egyptians and Ethiopians than the former group with the ancient Greeks.[88]


Ancient Egyptians are often portrayed in modern media as Caucasians, and many blacks, Afrocentrists in particular, have been critical of this.[89] According to Egyptologists, ancient Egypt was a multicultural society of Middle Eastern, Northeast African, and Saharan influences.[90][91] Anthropological and archaeological evidence shows that an Africoid element was evident in ancient Egypt,[92] which was predominant in Abydos in the First dynasty of Egypt.[93][94] The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty. ...


Biblical perspective

Further information: Hamitic

According to some historians, the tale in Genesis 9 in which Noah cursed the descendants of his son Ham with servitude was a seminal moment in defining black people, as the story was passed on through generations of Jewish, Christian and Islamic scholars.[95] According to columnist Felicia R. Lee, "Ham came to be widely portrayed as black; blackness, servitude and the idea of racial hierarchy became inextricably linked." Some people believe that the tradition of dividing humankind into three major races is partly rooted in tales of Noah's three sons repopulating the Earth after the Deluge and giving rise to three separate races.[96] Hamitic is an obsolete ethno-linguistic classification of some ethnic groups within the Afroasiatic (previously termed Semito-Hamitic) language family. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini, depicting Ham (center) laughing at his father, while Shem and Japheth cover him. ... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew נֹחַ Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ), son of Lamech and the grandson of Methuselah, built an ark to save his family and a selection of the worlds animals from the Deluge. ...


The biblical passage, Book of Genesis 9:20-27, which deals with the sons of Noah, however, makes no reference to race. The reputed curse of Ham is not on Ham, but on Canaan, one of Ham's sons. This is not a racial but geographic referent. The Canaanites, typically associated with the region of the Levant (Palestine, Lebanon, etc) were later subjugated by the Hebrews when they left bondage in Egypt according to the Biblical narrative.[97][98] The alleged inferiority of Hamitic descendants also in not supported by the Biblical narrative, nor claims of three races in relation to Noah's sons. Shem for example seems a linguistic not racial referent. In short the Bible does not define blacks, nor assign them to racial hierarchies.[98] Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini, depicting Ham (center) laughing at his father, while Shem and Japheth cover him. ... This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Historians believe that by the 19th century, the belief that blacks were descended from Ham was used by southern United States whites to justify slavery.[99] According to Benjamin Braude, a professor of history at Boston College:

in 18th- and 19th century Euro-America, Genesis 9:18-27 became the curse of Ham, a foundation myth for collective degradation, conventionally trotted out as God's reason for condemning generations of dark-skinned peoples from Africa to slavery.[99]

Author David M. Goldenberg contends that the Bible is not a racist document. According to Goldenberg, such racist interpretations came from post-biblical writers of antiquity like Philo and Origen, who equated blackness with darkness of the soul.[100] 1. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ...


Gallery

The following individuals are black by virtually all definitions cited in this article.

The following individuals are considered black by some, multiracial by others:

The following individuals are black to those who define the term by appearance rather than African ancestry

Footnotes

  1. ^ Various isolated populations in Southeast Asia sometimes classified as black include the Austronesians and Papuans, the Andamanese islanders, the Semang people of the Malay peninsula, the Aeta people of Luzon, and some other small populations of indigenous peoples.
  2. ^ black. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved April 13, 2007, from Dictionary.com website
  3. ^ Ho, Mae-Wan (14 February 2001). "The Human Genome Map, the Death of Genetic Determinism and Beyond". ISIS Report. 
  4. ^ Pearce, Neil; et al (1 May 2004). "Genetics, race, ethnicity, and health". British Medical Journal 328: 1070-1072. 
  5. ^ Genetic Similarities Within and Between Human Populations (2007) by D. J. Witherspoon, S. Wooding, A. R. Rogers, E. E. Marchani, W. S. Watkins, M. A. Batzer, and L. B. Jorde*. Genetics 176(1): 351–359. doi:10.1534/genetics.106.067355. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  6. ^ Wade, Nicholas. "Race Is Seen as Real Guide to Track Roots of Disease", New York Times, July 30, 2002. 
  7. ^ Lewontin, R.C.. Confusions About Human Races.
  8. ^ Whitehouse, David. "When humans faced extinction", BBC, 9 June, 2003. 
  9. ^ Brush with extinction. ABC News Online.
  10. ^ Relethford, J.H. (October 2000). "Human Skin Color Diversity Is Highest in Sub-Saharan African Population". Human Biology 72: 773-80. 
  11. ^ Rogers, Alan R., David Iltis, and Stephen Wooding. 2004. "Genetic variation at the MC1R locus and the time since loss of human body hair." Current Anthropology 45 (1): 105-108.
  12. ^ Australia Struggles with Skin Cancer.
  13. ^ "Scientists find DNA change accounting for white skin". Washington Post.
  14. ^ Paleo-etiology of human skin tone
  15. ^ Gibbons A (2007). "American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting. European skin turned pale only recently, gene suggests". Science 316 (5823): 364. DOI:10.1126/science.316.5823.364a. PMID 17446367. 
  16. ^ Keita, Lansana (2004). "Race, Identity and Africanity: A Reply to Eboussi Boulaga". CODESRIA Bulletin, Nos 1 & 2: 16. 
  17. ^ a b Shahadah, Owen 'Alik. Linguistics for a new African reality.
  18. ^ Keith B., Richburg (Reprint edition (July 1, 1998)). Out of America: A Black Man Confronts Africa. Harvest/HBJ Book. ISBN 0156005832. 
  19. ^ Nullis, Clare. "Township tourism booming in South Africa", The Associated Press, 2007. 
  20. ^ du Preez, Max. "Coloureds - the most authentic SA citizens", The Star, April 13, 2006. 
  21. ^ Mauritania: Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance
  22. ^ Remembering East African slave raids
  23. ^ The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is -- and it's not over
  24. ^ http://zanzibar.net/zanzibar/history/slave trade
  25. ^ http://www.untoldlondon.org.uk/news/ART38118.html
  26. ^ Lewis 1994, Ch.1
  27. ^ Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations
  28. ^ Musselman, Anson. The Subtle Racism of Latin America. UCLA International Institute.
  29. ^ Anwar Sadat: Visionary Who Dared By Joseph Finklestone pages 5-7,31 ISBN 0714634875
  30. ^ African Union Summit
  31. ^ See Tahfeem ul Qur'an by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Vol. 2 pp. 112-113 footnote 44; Also see commentary on verses [Qur'an 23:1]: Vol. 3, notes 7-1, p. 241; 2000, Islamic Publications
  32. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir 4:24
  33. ^ "Slavery in Arabia". "Owen 'Alik Shahadah".
  34. ^ Hunwick, John. Arab Views of Black Africans and Slavery.
  35. ^ "Community Outreach" Seminar on Planning Process for SANTIAGO +5 , Global Afro-Latino and Caribbean Initiative, February 4, 2006
  36. ^ African American Journeys to Africa page63-64
  37. ^ Martin Luther King, Jr.. I Have a Dream [Google Video].
  38. ^ Tom W., Smith (Winter, 1992). "Changing Racial Labels: From "Colored" to "Negro" to "Black" to "African American"". The Public Opinion Quarterly 56: 496-514. 
  39. ^ McWhorter, John H.. "Why I'm Black, Not African American", Los Angeles Times, September 8, 2004. 
  40. ^ Miller, Pepper; Herb Kemp (2006). What's Black About? Insights to Increase Your Share of a Changing African-American Market. Paramount Market Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0972529098. 
  41. ^ "'African American' Becomes a Term for Debate", New York Times, August 29, 2004.
  42. ^ 2000 US Census basics
  43. ^ How White Are Blacks? How Black Are Whites? by Steve Sailer
  44. ^ a b James, F. Davis. Who is Black? One Nation's Definition. PBS.
  45. ^ Clarence Page, A Credit to His Races, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, May 1, 1997.
  46. ^ "Presenting the Triumph of the One-Drop Rule" by Frank Sweet
  47. ^ Nakao, Annie. "Play explores corrosive prejudice within black community", San Francisco Chronicle, January 28 2004. 
  48. ^ Mixed Historical Figures.
  49. ^ Crawford, Larry D.. Racism, Colorism and Power.
  50. ^ Jones, Trina (October 1972). "Shades of Brown: The Law of Skin Color". Duke Law Journal 49: 1487. 
  51. ^ "Obama and 'one drop of non-white blood'", BBS News, April 13 2007. 
  52. ^ White, John Kennet. Barack Obama and the Politics of Race.
  53. ^ Acting White. By Melissa Edler Kent State Magazine.
  54. ^ Blacks and Bill Clinton
  55. ^ No One Left to Lie to by Christopher Hitchens, 1999, pg 47
  56. ^ [1]
  57. ^ [2]
  58. ^ http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/jun1999/welf-j02.shtml
  59. ^ [3]
  60. ^ Black Like Me?
  61. ^ Is black America ready to embrace Obama?
  62. ^ Decoding the Debate Over the Blackness of Barack Obama New York Times
  63. ^ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/27/AR2007022701030.html
  64. ^ a b Skidmore, Thomas E. (April 1992). "Fact and Myth: Discovering a Racial Problem in Brazil". Working Paper 173. 
  65. ^ a b c Edward E., Telles (2004). Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil. Princeton University Press, 95-98. ISBN 0691118663. 
  66. ^ Telles, Edward E. (3 May 2002). "Racial Ambiguity Among the Brazilian Population". Ethnic and Racial Studies 25: 415-441. 
  67. ^ CIA World Factbook: Brazil.
  68. ^ Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians
  69. ^ Barrolle, Melvin Kadiri. African 'Americans' in Brazil. New America Media.
  70. ^ Roland, Edna Maria Santos. The Economics of Racism: People of African Descent in Brazil.
  71. ^ Charles Whitaker, "Blacks in Brazil: The Myth and the Reality," Ebony, February 1991
  72. ^ Soap operas on Latin TV are lily white
  73. ^ The Blond, Blue-Eyed Face of Spanish TV
  74. ^ Skin tone consciousness in Asian and Latin American populations
  75. ^ Brazil Separates Into a World of Black and White, Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2006
  76. ^ Naturally blonde blacks
  77. ^ Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; et al (21 January 2003). "Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population". Current Biology 13, Number 2: 86-93(8). 
  78. ^ [4]
  79. ^ Europe's aging population
  80. ^ MediaRights: Film: Black Russians
  81. ^ Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис. Info on "Black Russians" film project in English
  82. ^ The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economies After Socialism By Caroline Humphrey Cornell University 2002 p36-37
  83. ^ http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/63/333.html Lisa Taylor, Emergency—Explosion of State and Popular Racism follows Moscow Blasts, International Solidarity with Workers in Russia (ISWoR), 13 September 1999.
  84. ^ Biological and Ethnic Identity in New Kingdom Nubia
  85. ^ Building bridges to Afrocentrism
  86. ^ Huge Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery.
  87. ^ Snowden, Jr., Frank M. (1996). in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers (eds.): Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 113-14. “....the Afrocentrists are mistaken in assuming that the the terms Afri (Africans) and various color adjectives for dark pigmentation as used by Greeks and Romans are always the classical equivalents of Negores or blacks in modern usage.... That the pigmentation of the Egyptians was seen as lighter than that of Ethiopians is also attested by the adjective subfusucli ("somewhat dark") which Ammianus Marcellinus (22.16.23) chose to describe the Egyptians....” 
  88. ^ Keita, Boyce, Shomarka, A.J. (1996). in Theodore Celenko(ed): Egypt in Africa. Chapel Hill: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 25-27. “....The descriptions and terms of ancient Greek writers have sometimes been used to comment on Egyptian origins. This is problematic since the ancient writers were not doing population biology. However, we can examine one issue. The Greeks called all groups south of Egypt "Ethiopians." Were the Egyptians more related to any of these "Ethiopians" than to the Greeks? As noted, cranial and limb studies have indicated greater similarity to Somalis, Kushites and Nubians, all "Ethiopians" in ancient Greek terms.....” 
  89. ^ The Identity Of Ancient.
  90. ^ Building bridges to Afrocentrism
  91. ^ Were the Ancient Egyptians black or white
  92. ^ Basil Davidson. http://www.lincoln.edu/history/his307/davidson/1/dif3.wmv The Nile].
  93. ^ Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships, by S.O.Y. Keita, History in Africa, 20: 129-154 (1993)
  94. ^ Keita, S.O.Y. (March 1992). "Further studies of crania from ancient northern Africa: an analysis of crania from First Dynasty Egyptian tombs.". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 87 (3): 245–254. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. “The predominant craniometric pattern in the Abydos [First Dynasty] royal tombs is "southern" (tropical African variant)... However, lower Egyptian, Maghrebian, and European patterns are observed also, thus making for great diversity... The centroid values of the various upper Egyptian series viewed collectively are seen to vary over time. The general trend from Badari to Nakada times, and then from the Nakadan to the First Dynasty epochs demonstrate change toward the northern-Egyptian centroid value on Function I with similar values on Function 11. This might represent an average change from an Africoid (Keita, 1990) to a northern-Egyptian-Maghreb modal pattern.... This northern modal pattern, which can be called coastal northern African, is noted in general terms to be intermediate, by the centroid scores of Function I, to equatorial African and northern European phenotypes.” 
  95. ^ Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry, (Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 28-117
  96. ^ The Descendants of Noah.
  97. ^ Redford, Donald B. (1993). Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press, 23-87. ISBN 0691000867. 
  98. ^ a b Goldenberg, David M. (New Ed edition (July 18, 2005)). The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691123705. 
  99. ^ a b Felicia R. Lee, Noah's Curse Is Slavery's Rationale, Racematters.org, November 1, 2003
  100. ^ Goldenberg, D. M. (2005) The Curse of Ham: Race & Slavery in Early Judaism, Christian, Princeton University Press

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