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Encyclopedia > Black nationalism
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Black nationalism is a political and social movement having its origins in the 1850's and becoming most popular with advent of Marcus Garvey in the 1921's mostly among African Americans in the United States. It is a variety of cultural and political nationalism. While the origins of the movement are most commonly associated with Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1920s, Garvey was preceded and influenced by Martin Delany, Henry Sylvestre-Williams, Dr. Robert Love and Edward Wilmot Blyden. The UNIA seeks to apply economic power as a means of infusing a sense of community and group feeling among "Africans, those at home and those abroad". Even though the future of Africa is seen as being central to their ambitions, some adherents to Black nationalism are intent on the eventual creation of a separate black nation by African Americans. Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the history of an ethnic group in the United States also known as Black Americans. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese[1], but soon dominated by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... See also: American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968) The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... A.U.M.P. Church AME Church National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Doctrine of Father Divine are the teachings of the late Father Divine (d. ... Ifá is a system of divination that originated in West Africa among the Yoruba people. ... Voodoo redirects here. ... This poster of a Samoan snake charmer inspired the common image of Mami Wata in Africa. ... An Orisha, also spelled Orisa and Orixa, is a spirit that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare (God) in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system. ... Palo, or Las Reglas de Congo are a group of closely related denominations or religions of largely Bantu origin developed by slaves from Central Africa in Cuba. ... Akan may be: Akan people, an ethnic group from western Africa Akan States, any of several states organized in the 16th or 17th century by the Akan people Akan languages, a stock of dialects spoken by the Akan people Akan District, Hokkaido Akan, Hokkaido, a town in Akan District, Hokkaido... Lukumí or Regla de Ocha, most widely known as Santeria, is a set of related religious systems that fuse Catholic beliefs with traditional Yorùbá beliefs. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The seal of the Church of God in Christ The Church of God in Christ, Incorporated is a Pentecostal body, the fourth largest Pentecostal Christian church in the United States. ... The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black supremacy is a racist[1] ideology which holds that black people are superior to other people and is most often thought of in connection with anti-white racism, anti-Semitism and bigotry towards non-black people. ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... African Americans have had a tremendous impact on left-wing politics in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... This article is about the American political organization. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the primary institutions of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for black students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... The National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... Sigma Pi Phi is the the oldest surviving black fraternity and generally considered to be the first black fraternity. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is literature written by, about, and sometimes specifically for African Americans. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole French (Kreyol Lwiziyen) is a French-based creole spoken in Louisiana. ... Lists of African Americans: // List of African-American writers List of African American authors List of African American nonfiction writers African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of African-American abolitionists List of African-American officeholders during Reconstruction List of... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Marcus Garvey in 1924 Marcus Mosiah Garvey National Hero of Jamaica (August 17, 1887– June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black nationalist, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is, according to its 1929 constitution, a social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the... Martin Delany Martin Robinson Delany (May 6, 1812 – January 24, 1885) was an African-American abolitionist, arguably the first proponent of American black nationalism and the first African American field officer in the United States Army. ... Henry Sylvestre-Williams was a prominent Trinidadian in the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832-1912) was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician in Liberia and Sierra Leone. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


As an alternative to being dominated by the American nation, Black nationalists maintain and promote their identity as a people of African ancestry. With slogans similar to "Up you mighty race...you can accomplish what you will!", "Black power" and "black is beautiful," they also inculcate a sense of pride among people of African ancestry. Black nationalism is a complete set of beliefs emphasizing cultural, political, and economic independence for African Americans. On the other hand, nationalist assumptions inform the daily actions and choices of many diaspora Africans. World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...

Contents

Background

Lewis Woodson

As Augustine and as Father of Black Nationalism Lewis Woodson Lewis Woodson (1806-78) was an educator, minister, writer, and abolitionist. ...


Historian Floyd Miller wrote that Woodson utilized the pen name Augustine, and suggested that Woodson was the Father of Black Nationalism.[1] During a four year period (1837-1841), as "Augustine," Woodson wrote a series of letters that were published in the Colored American newspaper. These letters advocated initiatives independent of the benevolence of whites to create institutions, including churches, newspapers, and schools. Woodson/Augustine advocated preparation for the time when the multitudes of American slaves would gain freedom, and require social, organizational, and financial assistance. Unlike most black abolitionists, who altered positions, Woodson never advocated emigration to Africa or a slave uprising.


Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey urged Africans "at home and abroad" to be proud of their race, practice a doctrine of "race first" and preached the importance of "African Redemption". To this end he founded the Negro World newspaper to disseminate the UNIA's program, the Black Star Line in 1919 to provide steamship transportation, and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence. Garvey attracted millions of supporters and claimed eleven million members for the UNIA. Garvey set the precedent for subsequent Black nationalist thought including that of Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, Nnamdi Azikiwe, the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X. Marcus Garvey in 1924 Marcus Mosiah Garvey National Hero of Jamaica (August 17, 1887– June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black nationalist, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Weekly newspaper published by Marcus Mosiah Garvey during the 1920s and 30s. ... The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, who organized the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association). ... Kwame Nkrumah with Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Jomo Kenyatta Jomo Kenyatta (October 20, 1893 ?– August 22, 1978) was a Kenyan politician, the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of an independent Kenya. ... President Nnamdi Azikiwe Dr. Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-1996), usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe, or, informally and popularly, as Zik, was the founder of modern Nigerian Nationalism and the first President of Nigeria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...


Malcolm X

During the decade between 1955 and 1965, while most black leaders worked in the civil rights movement to integrate blacks into mainstream American life, Malcolm X preached independence. He maintained that Western culture, and the Judeo-Christian religious traditions on which it is based, was inherently racist. Constantly ridiculing mainstream civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X declared that nonviolence was the "philosophy of the fool." In response to Reverend King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech, Malcolm X quipped, "While King was having a dream, the rest of us Negroes are having a nightmare." Malcolm X believed that Black people must develop their own society and ethical values, including the self-help, community-based enterprises that the Black Muslims supported. He also thought that African Americans should reject integration or cooperation with Whites. Malcolm was increasingly moving towards a political response to racism, he called for a "black revolution," which he declared would be "bloody" and would renounce any sort of "compromise" with Whites. After taking part in a Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), he recanted such extremist opinions in favor of mainstream Sunni Islam and socialism, and was soon after assassinated during a speech held at The Audubon Ballroom, NYC. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


Frantz Fanon

While in France Frantz Fanon wrote his first book, Black Skin, White Mask, an analysis of the impact of colonial subjugation on the black psyche. This book was a very personal account of Fanon’s experience being black: as a man, an intellectual, and a party to a French education. Although Fanon wrote the book while still in France, most of his other work was written while in North Africa (in particular Algeria). It was during this time that he produced his greatest works, A Dying Colonialism and perhaps the most important work on decolonization yet written, The Wretched of the Earth. In it, Fanon lucidly analyses the role of class, race, national culture and violence in the struggle for national liberation. In this seminal work Fanon expounded his views on the liberating role of violence for the colonized, as well as the general necessity of violence in the anti-colonial struggle. Both books firmly established Fanon in the eyes of much of the Third World as the leading anti-colonial thinker of the 20th century. In 1959 he compiled his essays on Algeria in a book called L'An Cinq: De la Révolution Algérienne. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wars of national liberation were those conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Black Power

Black Power was a political movement expressing a new racial consciousness among blacks in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. Black Power represented both a conclusion to the decade's civil rights movement and an alternative means of combatting the racism that persisted despite the efforts of black activists during the early 1960s. The meaning of Black Power was debated vigorously while the movement was in progress. To some it represented African-Americans' insistence on racial dignity and self-reliance, which was usually interpreted as economic and political independence, as well as freedom from White authority. These themes had been advanced most forcefully in the early 1960s by Malcolm X. He argued that Blacks should focus on improving their own communities, rather than striving for complete integration, and that Blacks had a duty to retaliate against violent assaults. The publication of The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965) created further support for the idea of African-American self-determination and had a strong influence on the emerging leaders of the Black Power movement. Other interpreters of Black Power emphasized the cultural heritage of Blacks, especially the African roots of their identity. This view encouraged study and celebration of Black history and culture. In the late 1960s Black college students requested curricula in African-American studies that explored their distinctive culture and history. Still another view of Black Power called for a revolutionary political struggle to reject racism and economic exploitation in the United States and abroad, as well as colonialism. This interpretation encouraged the alliance of non-whites, including Latina/os & Chicana/os and Asians, to improve the quality of their lives. Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The Autobiography of Malcolm X cover The Autobiography of Malcolm X (ISBN 0-345-35068-5) was written by Alex Haley between 1964 and 1965, based on interviews conducted shortly before Malcolm Xs death (and with an epilogue for after it), and was published in 1965. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ...


Black Panther Party

The Black Panther Party or Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP) was a militant black political organization. It was founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in October 1966. The BPP combined elements of Maoism and Black Nationalism, insisting that if businesses and the government did not provide for full employment, the community should take over the means of production. It promoted the development of strong Black-controlled institutions, calling for Blacks to work together to protect their rights and to improve their economic and social conditions. This article is about the American political organization. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California[1] and the county seat of Alameda County. ... Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 - August 22, 1989) was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party, a militant African-American activist group. ... Bobby Seale Bobby Seale (born October 22, 1936) is an American civil rights activist, who along with Dr. Huey P. Newton co-founded the Black Panther Party For Self Defense in 1966. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Black Panther Party cultural nationalism as "black racism" and preferred the slogan "All Power To The People" over the "Black Power" chant. The BPP affirmed the right of blacks to use violence to defend themselves and thus became an alternative to more moderate civil rights groups. The BPP also emphasized racial unity, criticizing the Black middle class for acting against the interests of other, less fortunate Blacks. The BPP advocated Black self-defense and restructuring American society to make it more politically, economically, and socially equal. The BPP was influenced by the charismatic Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad and his disciple Malcolm X, who called on black people to defend themselves against racist attacks by "the white power structure". This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Elijah Muhammad Elijah Muhammad (October 7, 1897 - February 25, 1975) is notable for his leadership of the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...


Uhuru Movement

The Uhuru Movement is the largest contemporary black movement advocating Black nationalism. It was founded in the 1980's in St. Petersburg, Florida. Composed mainly of the African People's Socialist Party, the Uhuru Movement also includes other organizations based in both Africa and the United States. These organizations are in the process of establishing a broader organization called the African Socialist International. The Uhuru Movement is a group of organizations who are fighting for the Afro-American peoples rights. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... The African Socialist International (ASI) is the result of political conclusions reached by the African People’s Socialist Party that African people worldwide -- from South Africa to the Congo, the UK to the U.S. and throughout the Caribbean and South America -- must be united into a singular revolutionary organisation...


A critical view

Critics charge that Black nationalism is simply Black supremacism in disguise. Some critics may think that Black supremacist groups such as the New Black Panthers call themselves Black nationalists. Black supremacy is a racist[1] ideology which holds that black people are superior to other people and is most often thought of in connection with anti-white racism, anti-Semitism and bigotry towards non-black people. ... The New Black Panthers or New Black Panther Party (NBPP), whose formal name is the New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, is a U.S.-based black power organization founded in Dallas, Texas in 1989. ...


Also, many argue that the implication of inherent cultures or unity based on race (a central idea of Black nationalism) is itself racist.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
black nationalism (619 words)
Black nationalism in the United States was an old idea by the time Malcolm X arrived in Harlem in the early 1950s.
Black nationalism emerged as a response to the desire to escape from the confines of a racist society.
The views of fl nationalism expressed by both Dubois and Malcolm X are in contrast to the ideology of racial justice of Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Black Nationalist... Black History - Black Pride... Black Power! (1922 words)
Black Nationalism in the United States, the set of beliefs or political theory that African Americans should maintain social, economic, and political institutions separate and distinct from those of whites.
Black Nationalism, also known as fl separatism, is a complex set of beliefs emphasizing the need for the cultural, political, and economic separation of African Americans from white society.
Black Nationalism calls for fl pride and seeks a unity that is racially based rather than one grounded in a specific African culture or ethnicity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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