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Encyclopedia > Black Sea
Map of the Black Sea
Map of the Black Sea
Illustration of the Black Sea
Illustration of the Black Sea

The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and various straits. The Bosporus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and then the long island-bound strait of the Dardanelles connects it to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate eastern Europe and western Asia. The Black Sea also connects to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km² (168,495 sq mi),[1] and a maximum depth of 2,200 m (7,200 ft).)[2]Like the Mediterranean Sea, there is a net inflow of seawater through the Bosporus into the oceanic region[clarify] of some 200 cubic kilometers (48 cu mi) per year, that is lost to evaporation or into geologic faults and so gradually raises the salinity. Freshwater flows in from the surrounding areas, especially central and middle-eastern Europe, 320 km3 (76.8 cu mi) per year. The most important river entering the Black Sea is the Danube.[3] Black Sea may refer to: The Black Sea, an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor Black Sea (region), a region in Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x916, 476 KB) A map showing the location of the Black Sea and some of the large or prominent ports around it. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x916, 476 KB) A map showing the location of the Black Sea and some of the large or prominent ports around it. ... NASA satelite picture http://earthobservatory. ... NASA satelite picture http://earthobservatory. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kerch Strait. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... A cubic mile is an Imperial unit/U.S. customary unit (non-SI non-metric) of volume, used in the United States. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


Countries bordering the Black Sea are Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, and Georgia.[4] The Crimean peninsula is an autonomous republic of Ukraine. Russia leases a navy base in Sevastopol from Ukraine as a result of the partition of the Black Sea Fleet after the fall of the Soviet Union. The lease of the navy base by Russia in Sevastopol is set to expire in 2017, and is not scheduled for renewal. Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ...


Important cities along the coast include: Constanţa (306,000 with a metro of 550,000), Istanbul (11,372,613), Odessa (1,001,000), Mangalia (41,153), Burgas (229,250), Varna (357,752 with a metro of 416,000), Kherson (358,000), Sevastopol (379,200), Yalta (80,552), Kerch (158,165), Novorossiysk (281,400), Sochi (328,809), Sukhumi (43,700), Năvodari (34,669), Poti (47,149), Batumi (121,806), Trabzon (275,137), Samsun (439,000) Ordu (190,143) and Zonguldak (104,276). County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Location of Mangalia Coordinates: , Country County Status Municipality Government  - Mayor Paul Eduard (Independent) Area  - Municipality 62. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Novorossiysk (Russian Новороссийск) is a city in southern Russia, one of the main Russian ports on the Black Sea, in Krasnodar Krai. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... County ConstanÅ£a County Status Town Mayor Tudorel Calapod, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 41. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Statue of Atatürk who initiated the Turkish War of Independence in Samsun on May 19, 1919 Samsun is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 439,000 as of 2006. ... Ordu is a port city in Turkey. ... Zonguldak is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. ...

Contents

Name

Modern names of the Sea are equivalents of the English name, "Black Sea", including Greek Mavre Thalassa (Μαύρη Θάλασσα), Bulgarian Cherno more (Черно море), Georgian Shavi zghva (შავი ზღვა), Laz Ucha Zuğa, or simply Zuğa 'Sea', Romanian Marea Neagră, Russian Chyornoye more (Чёрное море), Turkish Karadeniz, Ukrainian Chorne more (Чорне море), Ubykh /ʃʷaʤa/. This name cannot be traced to an earlier date than the thirteenth century, but there are indications that it may be considerably older. The Laz language (lazuri, ლაზური or lazuri nena, ლაზური ნენა in Laz; ლაზური, lazuri, or ჭანური, chanuri, in Georgian) is spoken by the Laz people on the Southeast shore of the Black Sea. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Sunset on the Black Sea at Lapsi
Sunset on the Black Sea at Lapsi
Port Batumi, Georgia

Strabo's Geography (1.2.10) reports that in antiquity, the Black Sea was often just called "the Sea" (ho pontos). For the most part, Graeco-Roman tradition refers to the Black Sea as the 'Hospitable sea', Euxeinos Pontos (Εὔξεινος Πόντος). This is a euphemism replacing an earlier 'Inhospitable Sea', Pontos Axeinos, first attested in Pindar (early fifth century BCE,~475 BC). Strabo (7.3.6) thinks that the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes; and that the name was changed to "hospitable" after the Milesians had colonized, making it part of Greek civilization. It is also possible that the name Axeinos arose by popular etymology from a Scythian Iranic axšaina- 'unlit,' 'dark'; the designation "Black Sea" may thus date from Antiquity. The reason for the name may be an ancient assignment of colours to the direction of the compass — black referring to the north, and red referring to the south. Herodotus on one occasion uses Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably.[5] A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener;[1] or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... The Milesians of Hellenic (Greek) civilization were the inhabitants of Miletus, a city in the Anatolia province of modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Iranian may refer to: Citizens of Iran Of or relating to Iran, a country in West Asia Iranian peoples Iranian languages Iranian cuisine Category: ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Another possible explanation comes from the colour of the Black Sea's deep waters. Being further north than the Mediterranean Sea and much less saline, the microalgae concentration is much richer, causing the dark colour. Visibility in the Black Sea is on average approximately five meters (5.5 yd), as compared to up to thirty-five meters (38 yd) in the Mediterranean. Mediterranean redirects here. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


One Bulgarian understanding of the name is that the sea used to be quite stormy. Some sources stipulate that it goes back to the time of Noah's Ark. The Black Sea deluge theory is based on that idea. This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ...


In naval science, the Black Sea is thought to have received its name because of its hydrogen sulfide layer that begins about 200 meters below the surface, and supports a unique microbial population which produces black sediments probably due to Anaerobic Methane oxidation. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


Geology and bathymetry

Bay of Sudak.
Bay of Sudak.

The Black Sea forms an enclosed basin, located between south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. The basin was formed during the Miocene orogenies which uplifted the mountain ranges and divided the ancient Tethys Ocean into several brackish basins, including the Sarmatic Sea. The Caspian, Azov, Aral and Black Seas are the remnants of this evaporated basin. Image File history File links Sudak_vlasenko. ... Image File history File links Sudak_vlasenko. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ...


The basin is divided into two sub-basins by a convexity extending south from the Crimean peninsula. The north-west of the basin is characterized by a relatively large shelf up to 190 km (120 mi) wide, which has a relatively shallow apron with gradients between 1:40 and 1:1000. The southern edge around Turkey and the eastern edge around Georgia, however, are typified by a shelf that rarely exceeds 20 km (12 mi) in width and an apron that is typically 1:40 gradient with numerous submarine canyons and channel extensions. The Euxine abyssal plain in the centre of the Black Sea reaches a maximum depth of 2,206 m (7,240 ft) just south of Yalta on the Crimean peninsula. The basin is connected to the Mediterranean Sea via the Turkish Straits System (TSS) in the south-west, which includes the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and the Sea of Marmara. The Black Sea is connected to the Sea of Azov in the north-east via the Kerch straits. Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ...


The littoral zone of the Black Sea is often referred to as the Pontic littoral. A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ...


Hydrology and hydrochemistry

Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS.
Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS.

The Black Sea is the world’s largest meromictic basin where the deep waters do not mix with the upper layers of water that receive oxygen from the atmosphere. As a result, over 90% of the deeper Black Sea volume is anoxic water. The current hydrochemical configuration is primarily controlled by basin topography and fluvial inputs, which result in a strongly stratified vertical structure and a positive water balance. The upper layers are generally cooler, less dense and less salty than the deeper waters, as they are fed by large fluvial systems, whereas the deep waters originate from the warm, salty waters of the Mediterranean. This influx of dense water from Mediterranean is balanced by an outflow of fresher Black Sea surface-water into the Marmara Sea, maintaining the stratification and salinity levels. For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite. ... A meromictic lake has layers of water which do not intermix. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Anoxic sea water refers to water depleted of oxygen. ... The word fluvial is used in geography and earth science to refer to all topics related to flowing water. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


The surface water has an average salinity of 18 to 18.5 parts per thousand (compared to 30 to 40 for the oceans) and contains oxygen and other nutrients required to sustain biotic activity. These waters circulate in a basin-wide cyclonic shelfbreak gyre known as the Rim Current which transports water round the perimeter of the Black Sea. Within this feature, two smaller cyclonic gyres operate, occupying the eastern and western sectors of the basin. Outside the Rim Current, numerous quasi-permanent coastal eddies are formed due to upwelling around the coastal apron and ‘wind curl’ mechanisms. The intra-annual strength of these features is controlled by seasonal atmospheric and fluvial variations. Sea Surface Temperature of the surface waters varies seasonally from 8 °C (46 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F). Parts-per notation is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Directly beneath the surface waters the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is found. This layer is composed of cool, salty surface waters, which are the result of localised atmospheric cooling and decreased fluvial input during the winter months. The production of this water is focussed in the centre of the major gyres and on the NW shelf and as the water is not dense enough to penetrate the deep waters, isopycnal advection occurs, dispersing the water across the entire basin. The base of the CIL is marked by a major thermocline, halocline and pycnocline at ~100-200 m and this density disparity is the major cause of deep water isolating. An isopycnal is a surface of constant water density. ... Advection is the transport of a conserved scalar quantity that is transported in a vector field. ... The thermocline is a layer within a body of water where the temperature changes rapidly with depth. ... A Halocline is a salinity gradient, a change in the concentration of salt dissolved in water. ... A pycnocline is a layer of rapid change in water density with depth. ...


Below the pycnocline, salinity increases to 22 to 22.5 ppt and temperatures rise to around 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). The hydrochemical environment shifts from oxygenated to anoxic, as bacterial decomposition of sunken biomass utilises all of the free oxygen. Certain species of extremophile bacteria are capable of using sulfate (SO42−) in the oxidation of organic material, which leads to the creation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This enables the precipitation of sulfides such as iron-sulphides like pyrite, greigite and iron-monosulphide as well as the dissolution of carbonate matter such as Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) found in shells. Organic matter, including anthropogenic artefacts such as boat hulls, are well preserved. During periods of high surface productivity, short-lived algal blooms cause organic rich layer known as sapropels to occur. Scientists have reported an annual phytoplankton bloom that can be seen in many NASA images of the region.[6] An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions that would exceed optimal conditions for growth and reproduction in the majority of mesophilic terrestrial organisms. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Greigite is an iron sulfide mineral with formula:Fe2+Fe3+2S4. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... The word sapropel is a contraction of the ancient greek words sapros and pelos, meaning putrefaction and mud, respectively. ...


Another danger to people posed by the anoxic layer could come from a small asteroid's impact into the Black Sea. Recently modelling shows there is a significant threat to life for people living on the sea's shore.[7]


Fauna

Mediterranean connection during the Holocene

The Bosporus, taken from the ISS.
The Bosporus, taken from the ISS.
Map of the Dardanelles.
Map of the Dardanelles.

While it is agreed that the Black Sea has been a freshwater lake (at least in upper layers) with a considerably lower level during the last glaciation, its post glacial development into a marine sea is still a subject of intensive study and debate. There are catastrophic scenarios such as put forward by William Ryan (geologist) and Walter Pitman as well as models emphasizing a more gradual transition to saline conditions and transgression in the Black Sea. The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1163, 1721 KB) Istanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia Astronaut photograph ISS008-E-21752 was taken April 16, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 200-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1163, 1721 KB) Istanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia Astronaut photograph ISS008-E-21752 was taken April 16, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 200-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory... ISS redirects here. ... Image File history File links Dardanelles_map2. ... Image File history File links Dardanelles_map2. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... William Fitts Ryan (1922-1972) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Walter Clarkson Pitman, III is a geophysicist and a professor emeritus at Columbia University. ...


They are based on different theories about the level the freshwater lake had reached by the time the Mediterranean Sea was high enough to flow over the Dardanelles and the Bosporus. On the other hand, a study of the sea floor on the Aegean side shows that in the 8th millennium BC there was a large flow of fresh water out of the Black Sea.[8] The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ...


In a series of expeditions, a team of marine archaeologists led by Robert Ballard identified what appeared to be ancient shorelines, freshwater snail shells, drowned river valleys, tool-worked timbers, and man-made structures in roughly 300 feet (91 m) of water off the Black Sea coast of modern Turkey. Radiocarbon dating of freshwater mollusc remains indicated an age of about seven thousand years. Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ...


Deluge theory

In 1997, William Ryan and Walter Pitman from Columbia University published a theory that a massive flood through the Bosporus occurred in ancient times. They claim that the Black and Caspian Seas were vast freshwater lakes, but then about 5600 BC, the Mediterranean spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosporus, creating the current communication between the Black and Mediterranean Seas. Subsequent work has been done both to support and to discredit this theory, and archaeologists still debate it. This has led some to associate this catastrophe with prehistoric flood myths. The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about great floods. ...


History

Medieval map of the Black Sea
Medieval map of the Black Sea
Ivan Aivazovsky. Black Sea Fleet in the Bay of Theodosia, just before the Crimean War.
Ivan Aivazovsky. Black Sea Fleet in the Bay of Theodosia, just before the Crimean War.

The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the West, the Eurasian steppes to the north, Caucasus and Central Asia to the East, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the south-west. The oldest processed gold in the world, arguably left by Old Europeans, was found in Varna, and the Black Sea was supposedly sailed by the Argonauts. The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis, (now Georgia), marked for the Greeks an edge of the known world. The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland (Urheimat) of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language, (PIE) the progenitor of the Indo-European language family, by some scholars (see Kurgan; others move the heartland further east towards the Caspian Sea, yet others to Anatolia). Numerous ancient ports line Black Sea's coasts, some older than the pyramids [1]. Image File history File links Aivaz_theodosia. ... Image File history File links Aivaz_theodosia. ... Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Russian: , Armenian: - Hovhannes Aivazovsky July 29, 1817 - May 5, 1900) was a Russian painter of Armenian descent, most famous for his seascapes, which constitute more than half of his paintings. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Ancient trade routes in the region are currently being extensively studied by American, Bulgarian, and other scientists. It is widely believed that the Black Sea is packed with archaeology to be found. Perhaps the most promising areas in deepwater archaeology are the quest for submerged prehistoric settlements in the continental shelf and for ancient shipwrecks in the anoxic zone, which are expected to be exceptionally well preserved due to the absence of oxygen.


The Black Sea has witnessed the rivalries of Hittites, Carians, Thracians, Greeks, Persians, Scythians, Romans, Byzantines, Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Slavs, Varangians, Crusaders, Venetians, Genovese, Tatars, Ottomans, and Russians. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... The Carians (Greek Καρες Kares, or Καρικοι Karikoi) were the eponymous inhabitants of Caria. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... Venice is known for its waterways and gondolas Gondola. ... Genovese may refer to: The Genovese family, the New York Mafia Family once ruled by Vito Genovese. ... This article is about the people. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...


The Black Sea was a significant naval theatre of World War I and saw both naval and land battles of the World War II. British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli Naval combat in World War I was mainly characterized by the efforts of the Allied Powers, with their larger fleets and surrounding position, to blockade the Central Powers by sea, and the efforts of the... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...

Holiday resorts and spas

Photo of the Black Sea near Gagra, taken in 1915.
Photo of the Black Sea near Gagra, taken in 1915.
Cities of the Black Sea.
Cities of the Black Sea.

In the years following the end of the Cold War, the popularity of the Black Sea as a tourist destination has been steadily increasing, particularly in Bulgaria. Overall, tourism at Black Sea resorts has become one of the region's growth industries.[9] The following is a list of well-known Black Sea resorts: Image File history File links Sochi_edited. ... Image File history File links Sochi_edited. ... Image File history File links Cities_of_the_Black_Sea. ... Image File history File links Cities_of_the_Black_Sea. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Tourist redirects here. ... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ...

1 Abkhazia has been a de facto independent republic since 1992, although remains a de jure autonomous republic of Georgia. 2 Mai (IPA: ) is a village in the Limanu commune, ConstanÅ£a County, Romania, and a small resort on the shore of the Black Sea, between Mangalia and Vama Veche. ... County ConstanÅ£a County Status Commune Mayor Ion Ioniţă, since 2004 Area 47. ... Akhtopol (Bulgarian Ахтопол) is a town in Southeastern Bulgaria. ... Anapa (Russian: ) is a seaport town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. ... View of Albena and the sea Albena (Албена) is a popular Black Sea resort in northeastern Bulgaria, situated 12 km from Balchik and 30 km from Varna. ... Alupka (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine, situated 17 km to the west of Yalta. ... Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ... Balchik (Bulgarian Балчик, Romanian Balcic) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Southern Dobruja area of northeastern Bulgaria. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Byala (Bulgarian Бяла, white) is a town in Northeastern Bulgaria. ... St. ... County ConstanÅ£a County Status Commune Mayor Marian GălbinaÅŸu, since 2004 Area 117. ... CostineÅŸti is a village in Romania on the shore of the Black Sea a popular summer destination for young people and students. ... Eforie (population: 9,294) is a town and a holiday resort on the Black Sea shore, in the Constanţa county, Romania. ... Eforie (population: 9,294) is a town and a holiday resort on the Black Sea shore, in the Constanţa county, Romania. ... Emona is a village in South-East Bulgaria, situated in Obshtina Nessebar in the Burgas region. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ... Feodosiya (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... Giresun (Greek: Κερασούντα ) is a town on the Black Sea of northeastern Turkey, about 110 miles (175 km) west of the city of Trabzon. ... Gagra, View from the Black Sea Gagra is a city in the Abkhazia region of western Georgia, sprawling for 5 km on the northeast coast of the Black Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. ... Gelendzhik (Russian: ) is a resort town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the Black Sea coast some 89 km from Krasnodar. ... Kempinski Hotel Grand Hermitage A beach at Holiday Club Riviera Beach Golden Sands (Bulgarian: Златни пясъци, Zlatni pyasatsi; German: Goldstrand, Russian: Золотые пески, Zolotyye peski; Romanian: Nisipurile de aur; Polish: ZÅ‚ote piaski; Czech: Zlaté Písky; Finnish: Kultahietikko; French:Sables dor is a resort town on the northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast... Remains of a bath house in the fortress. ... Gurzuf (Russian:Гурзу́ф) is a settlement on the Crimea peninsula in Ukraine, on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Jupiter is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 4 km (2. ... The Kamchiya (also Kamchia and Kamčija, Bulgarian: Камчия) is a 244. ... Kavarna (Bulgarian: Каварна) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Dobruja region of northeastern Bulgaria. ... Kiten (Bulgarian: Китен, meaning lovely, pretty) is a resort town on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, part of Burgas Province. ... Kobuleti is a town in Georgias southwestern region of Ajaria. ... Koktebel, also known as Planerskoye, is one of the most popular resort townlets in the Crimea, situated on the shore of the Black Sea about halfway between Feodosiya and Sudak. ... Lozenets (Bulgarian: ; also Lozenec or Lozenetz) may refer to: Lozenets, Burgas Province, a village in Bulgaria Lozenets, Dobrich Province, a village in Bulgaria Lozenets, Yambol Province, a village in Bulgaria Lozenets, Sofia, a municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria Category: ... Mamaia is the biggest resort on the Romanian Black Sea shore. ... Location of Mangalia Coordinates: , Country County Status Municipality Government  - Mayor Paul Eduard (Independent) Area  - Municipality 62. ... Neptun is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 6 km (3. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Novorossiysk (Russian Новороссийск) is a city in southern Russia, one of the main Russian ports on the Black Sea, in Krasnodar Krai. ... Ordu is a port city in Turkey. ... Obzor is a town in Bulgaria on the Black Sea coast. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Olimp is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 7 km (4. ... The view of Caucasus mountains from Pitsunda cape. ... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... Primorsko (Приморско) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, part of Burgas Province. ... For other uses, see Rize (disambiguation). ... Rusalka (Bulgarian: , mermaid; also Russalka and Roussalka) is a seaside resort on the northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast located in Dobrich Province, northeastern Bulgaria (the historical region of Southern Dobruja). ... Statue of Atatürk who initiated the Turkish War of Independence in Samsun on May 19, 1919 Samsun is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 439,000 as of 2006. ... Saturn is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 1 km (0. ... Sinop (from Hittite: Sinuwa, in Greek: Σινώπη/Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on Ä°nce Burun (Ä°nceburun, Cape Ince), by its Cape Sinop (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu [1]) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of Black Sea coast, in... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... Sozopol Architectural heritage of Sozopol Fishermens boats in Sozopol Ancient remains Old wooden houses in the town Fortress Beach located in the old quarter The peninsula of the old city quarter Sozopol (Bulgarian: ) is a small ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas on the southern Bulgarian Black... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Part of the Sunny Beach beach strip The resort has experienced plenty of large-scale construction in recent years Sunny Beach panorama Sunny Beach (Bulgarian: , SlÇŽnchev bryag, German: , Russian: , Dutch: ) is a resort on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located approximately 35 km north of Burgas in Nesebar... Åžile bay Åžile is a small town just outside the city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... Sveti Vlas (Bulgarian: , Saint Blaise) is a resort town on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Tuapse (Russian: , Adyghe: ТIуапсэ) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shores of the Black Sea. ... Vama Veche is a commune in Romania on the Black Sea coast, near the border with Bulgaria. ... Venus is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 3 km (1. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Regional organizations

Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      members      observers
Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      members      observers
Community of Democratic Choice (CDC)      members      observers
Community of Democratic Choice (CDC)      members      observers
Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue (BSF)      members      observers
Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue (BSF)      members      observers

See also the Balkans Regional organizations and Post-Soviet Regional organizations Image File history File links BSEC_members. ... Image File history File links BSEC_members. ... On 25 June 1992, the Heads of State and Government of eleven countries signed in Istanbul the Summit Declaration and the Bosphorus Statement giving birth to the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). ... Image File history File links GUAM_members. ... Image File history File links GUAM_members. ... GUAM redirects here. ... Image File history File links CDC_members. ... Image File history File links CDC_members. ... Community of Democratic Choice The Community of Democratic Choice is an international organization established on December 2, 2005 by nine states of Eastern Europe in Kiev. ... Image File history File links BSF_members. ... Image File history File links BSF_members. ... Black Sea Forum member states  members  observers The inaugural session of the Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue (BSF) was held on June 4-6, 2006 in Bucharest. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...


See also

Download high resolution version (1734x401, 364 KB)i took this in bulgaria File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1734x401, 364 KB)i took this in bulgaria File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the whole eastern border of Bulgaria. ... Oceanic Anoxic Events occur when the Earths oceans become completely depleted of O2 below the surface levels. ... The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the whole eastern border of Bulgaria. ... The Romanian Black Sea Riviera stretches from Danube Delta in north down to the Bulgarian border in south, along 60 km of coastline. ... Ancomah (Antzomakh, Antzimah) is a mythological place which was first mentioned by Hasan Umur in the 1940s, approximately fifty meters inland near Trabzon, Turkey. ... Tourist redirects here. ...

References and bibliography

  1. ^ 436,400 km²—Black Sea Geography. University of Delaware College of Marine Studies (2003). Retrieved on December 2, 2006.
  2. ^ Unexpected changes in the oxic/anoxic interface in the Black Sea. Nature Publishing Group (30 March 1989). Retrieved on December 2, 2006.
  3. ^ The Danube Spills into the Black Sea NASA Visible Earth. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
  4. ^ Socio-economic indicators for the countries of the Black Sea basin. (2001). In UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Retrieved 2 December 2006 from http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/sosio_economic_indicators_for_the_countries_of_the_black_sea_basin_giwa.
  5. ^ Schmitt 1996
  6. ^ Black Sea Becomes Turquoise earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
  7. ^ R.D. Schuiling, R.B. Cathcart, V. Badescu, D. Isvoranu and E. Pelinovsky, "Asteroid impact in the Black Sea. Death by drowning or asphyxiation?", Natural Hazards (October 2006) DOI: 10.1007/s11069-006-0017-7
  8. ^ New Scientist, 4 May 2002, p.13.
  9. ^ Bulgarian Sea Resorts. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  • Charles King, The Black Sea: A History, 2004, ISBN 0-19-924161-9
  • William Ryan and Walter Pitman, Noah's Flood, 1999, ISBN 0-684-85920-3
  • Neal Ascherson, Black Sea (Vintage 1996), ISBN 0-09-959371-8
  • Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz: Ansiklopedik Sözlük (Black Sea: Encyclopedic Dictionary). 2 Cilt (2 Volumes). Heyamola Publishing. Istanbul.2005 ISBN 975-6121-00-9.
  • Rüdiger Schmitt, "Considerations on the Name of the Black Sea", in: Hellas und der griechische Osten (Saarbrücken 1996), pp. 219–224
  • West, Stephanie. "‘The Most Marvellous of All Seas’: the Greek Encounter with the Euxine", Greece & Rome, Vol. 50, Issue 2 (2003), pp. 151–167.

is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles King (1967-) is Ion Ratiu Associate Professor of Romanian Studies, Associate Professor of International Affairs, and Associate Professor of Government for the Nazi Party, where he also serves as Chairman of the Faculty of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service. ... Charles Neal Ascherson, commonly known as Neal Ascherson (born October 5, 1931), is a Scottish journalist. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Black Sea

Coordinates: 43.5° N 34.5° E This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
::: Black Sea ::: (1035 words)
Black Sea is surrounded by land, still it is not a lake since Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits connect it to the Mediterranean Sea.
Surface water of the Black Sea is less saline and less dense, its temperature is close to that of air: warm in the summer, and very cold in the winter.
Tiny marine plants of the Black Sea swarming in the water column are grazed on by microscopic marine animals, zooplankton: protozoans like infusoria and amoebas, small crustaceans, many other marine invertebrates and their larvae.
Black Sea - MSN Encarta (667 words)
It is connected with the Mediterranean (in the Aegean Sea) by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles.
The Black Sea has a length of about 1,200 km (750 mi) from east to west, a maximum width of 610 km (380 mi), and an area (excluding its northern arm, the Sea of Azov) of about 436,400 sq km (168,500 sq mi).
The Crimea projects into the Black Sea from the north, forming the shallow Sea of Azov on the east and the Karkinitskiy Gulf on the west.
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