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Encyclopedia > Black Power
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Black Power is a movement among Black people throughout the world, especially those in the United States. Most prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the movement emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests, advance black values, and secure black autonomy. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... Reparations for slavery is a movement in the United States, which suggests that the government apologize to slave descendants for their hardships, and bestow on them reparations, whether it be in the form of money, land, or other goods. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... This is a list of museums about, or otherwise focused on African Americans. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African American Christian churches that minister to black communities in the United States. ... Black theology is theology from the perspective of the African diaspora - any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional homelands. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... For the Nas song called Black Republican, see Hip Hop Is Dead. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African-American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... Not to be confused with National Panhellenic Conference. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune, child of slave parents, distinguished educator and government consultant. ... Part of the History of baseball in the United States series. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Notable African-Americans or Black Americans // List of African American writers List of African American nonfiction writers List of composers of African descent African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of civil rights leaders List of African American abolitionists List... African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... This is a list of articles that are related to African and black people. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ...


The earliest known usage of the term came from a 1954 book by - an unknown author which viewers appear to be changing the name of this author daily - titled "Black Power." [1] The first use of the term in a political sense may have been by Robert F. Williams, an NAACP chapter president, writer, and publisher of the 1950s and 1960s.[citation needed] New York politician Adam Clayton Powell used the term on May 29, 1966 during a baccalaureate address at the Howard University: "To demand these God-given rights is to seek black power." [2] May, 1961 Robert Franklin Williams (February 26, 1925 – October 15, 1996) was a civil rights leader, author, and the president of the Monroe, North Carolina NAACP chapter in the 1950s and early 1960s. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Adam Clayton Powell (left) with Martin Luther King: both were prominent civil rights leaders. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Howard University (HU) is a private, coeducational, nonsectarian university located in Washington, D.C., United States. ...


The first official use of the term "Black Power" as a social and political slogan was by Kwame Ture (then known as Stokely Carmichael) and Mukasa Dada (then known as Willie Ricks), both organizers and spokespersons for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). On June 16, 1966, after the shooting of James Meredith during the March Against Fear, Stokely Carmichael said: Stokely Carmichael Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 - November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was an American Black activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Meredith walking to class accompanied by U.S. marshals James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... On June 5, 1966, James Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear for 220 miles from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, to protest against racism. ... Stokely Standiford Churchill Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. ...

"This is the twenty-seventh time I have been arrested and I ain't going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin' us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin' now is Black Power!"

Some, though not all, Black Power adherents believed in racial separation, black nationalism, and the necessity to use violence as a means of achieving their aims. Such positions were for the most part in direct conflict with those of leaders of the mainstream Civil Rights Movement, and thus the two movements have often been viewed as inherently antagonistic. However certain groups and individuals participated in both civil rights and black power activism. Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ...


Internationalist offshoots of black power include African Internationalism, pan-Africanism, black nationalism and black supremacy. Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black Supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that black people are superior to other races and is sometimes manifested in bigotry towards persons not of African ancestry, particularly white and Jewish people. ...

Contents

Background

See also: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

The movement for Black Power in the U.S. came during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. Many members of SNCC, among them Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael), were becoming critical of the nonviolent approach to racism and inequality articulated and practiced by King, the NAACP and other moderates, and rejected desegregation as a primary objective. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Stokely Carmichael Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 - November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was an American Black activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. ...


SNCC's membership was generally younger than that of the other "Big Five"[3] civil rights organizations and became increasingly more militant and outspoken over time. SNCC also saw racists had no qualms about the use of violence against blacks in the U.S. who would not "stay in their place," and that "accommodationist" civil rights strategies had failed to secure sufficient concessions for blacks. As a result, as the Civil Rights Movement progressed, increasingly radical, more militant voices came to the fore to aggressively challenge white hegemony. Increasing numbers of black youth, particularly, had come to reject the moderate path of cooperation, integration and assimilation of their elders. They rejected the notion of appealing to the public's conscience and religious creeds and took the tack articulated by another black activist more than a century before. Abolitionist Frederick Douglass wrote: Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... In politics, a concession is the act of a candidate yielding to the other condidate. ... This article is about slavery. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ...

Those who profess to favor freedom, and yet depreciate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground. They want rain without thunder and lightning. They want the ocean without the awful roar of its many waters. ...Power concedes nothing without demand. It never did and it never will.[4]

Civil Rights leaders also believed in agitation, but most did not believe in physically violent retaliation.


Over the remainder of the march, there was a division between those aligned with Martin Luther King, Jr. and those aligned with Carmichael, marked by their respective slogans, "Freedom Now" and "Black Power".[5] Martin Luther King redirects here. ...


While King never endorsed the slogan, his rhetoric sometimes came close to it. In his 1967 book Where Do We Go From Here?, King wrote that "power is not the white man's birthright; it will not be legislated for us and delivered in neat government packages."[6]


Impact

Although the concept remained imprecise and contested and included people ranging from businesspeople who used it to push black capitalism to revolutionaries who sought an end to capitalism, Black Power exerted a significant influence. It helped organize scores of community self-help groups and institutions that did not depend on whites. It was used to establish black studies programs at colleges, to mobilizes black voters to elect black candidates, and to encourage greater racial pride and self-esteem. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ...


Black is beautiful

Main article: Black is beautiful

Black is beautiful is a cultural movement in the United States of America beginning in the 1960s that aims to dispel the widespread notion that black people's natural features such as skin color, facial features and hair are inherently ugly.[7] John Sweat Rock was the first to coin the famous phrase "Black is Beautiful." The movement asked that men and women stop straightening their hair and attempting to lighten or bleach their skin[8]. The prevailing idea in American culture was that black features were less attractive or desirable than white features. The movement is largely responsible for the popularity of the Afro. Most importantly, it gave a generation of African Americans the courage to feel good about who they are and how they look. ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... John Rock (1825-1866) was one of the first African Americans with a medical degree. ... Skin whitening is a term covering a variety of cosmetic methods used to whiten the skin, in parts of East Asia, the Americas, the Middle East,[1] and Africa. ... This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... Woman with an afro at the Tribeca Film Festival For the Italian painter known as Afro, see Afro Basaldella. ...


Black Arts Movement

Main article: Black Arts Movement

The Black Arts Movement or BAM is the artistic branch of the Black Power movement founded in Harlem by writer and activist Amiri Baraka (born Everett LeRoy Jones).[9] This movement inspired blacks to establish ownership of publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. Other well-known writers that were involved with this movement included Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Maya Angelou, and Rosa Grey. Although not strictly involved with the Movement, other notable African American writers such as novelists Ishmael Reed and Toni Morrison can be considered to share some of its artistic and thematic concerns. // The Black Arts Movement is commonly known as the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. ... Amiri Baraka was born Everett LeRoi Jones on October 7, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey. ... Yolande Cornelia Nikki Giovanni (born June 7, 1943 in Knoxville, Tennessee) is a Grammy-nominated American poet, activist and author. ... Sonia Sanchez is an African American poet most often associated with the Black Arts Movement. ... Maya Angelou (IPA: [1]), born Marguerite Ann Johnson, April 4, 1928 in St. ... Ishmael Scott Reed (b. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ...


Ishmael Reed, who is considered neither a movement apologist nor advocate said "I wasn't invited to participate because I was considered an integrationist" but he went on to explain the positive aspects of the Black Arts Movement and the Black Power movement:

I think what Black Arts did was inspire a whole lot of Black people to write. Moreover, there would be no multiculturalism movement without Black Arts. Latinos, Asian Americans, and others all say they began writing as a result of the example of the 1960s. Blacks gave the example that you don't have to assimilate. You could do your own thing, get into your own background, your own history, your own tradition and your own culture. I think the challenge is for cultural sovereignty and Black Arts struck a blow for that.[10] Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...

Criticism

Bayard Rustin, an elder statesman of the Civil Rights Movement, was a harsh critic of Black Power in its earliest days. Writing in 1966, shortly after the March Against Fear, Rustin said that Black Power “not only lacks any real value for the civil rights movement, but that its propagation is positively harmful. It diverts the movement from a meaningful debate over strategy and tactics, it isolates the Negro community, and it encourages the growth of anti-Negro forces.” He particularly criticized the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and SNCC for their turn toward Black Power, arguing that these two organizations once “awakened the country, but now they emerge isolated and demoralized, shouting a slogan that may afford a momentary satisfaction but that is calculated to destroy them and their movement.”[11] Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... On June 5, 1966, James Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear for 220 miles from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, to protest against racism. ... “CORE” redirects here. ...


See also

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Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Woman with an afro at the Tribeca Film Festival For the Italian painter known as Afro, see Afro Basaldella. ... Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. ... // The Black Arts Movement is commonly known as the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary Black nationalist organization in the United States that formed in the late 1960s and grew to national prominence before falling apart due to factional rivalries stirred up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Stokely Carmichael Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 - November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was an American Black activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... New Black Panther`s Logo The New Black Panthers or New Black Panther Party (NBPP), whose formal name is the New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, is a U.S.-based black supremacist organization founded in Dallas, Texas in 1989 The NBPP attracted many breakaway members of the Nation... Tommie Smith (center) and John Carlos (right) showing the Black Power salute in the 1968 Summer Olympics while Silver medalist Peter Norman (left) wears an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge to show his support for the two Americans. ... Huey Newton Dr. Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, a black internationalist/racial equality organization that began in October 1966. ... The Republic of New Africa flag is that first used by Marcus Garvey. ... Robert George (Bobby) Seale (born October 22, 1936 in Dallas, Texas), is an American civil rights activist, who along with Dr. Huey P. Newton, co-founded the Black Panther Party For Self Defense in 1966. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The protests of 1968 consisted of a worldwide series of protests, largely led by students and workers. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Black Power is a prominent gang in New Zealand. ... AZAPO emblem The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960’s out of the political vacuum created by the decimation of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership, by jailing and banning, after the Sharpeville... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nationalist anarchism. ... White Power is a white nationalist political slogan, and a name for the associated ideology. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Black Supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that black people are superior to other races and is sometimes manifested in bigotry towards persons not of African ancestry, particularly white and Jewish people. ... White Aryan Resistance member wearing a white pride t-shirt White pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States (though its usage has spread internationally) to promote the glorification of the heritage of persons of White-European racial identity[1]—though generally to the exclusion of homosexuals and... Black pride is a slogan used interchangeably to depict both the movement of and concept within politically active black communities, especially African Americans in the United States and secluding White communities. ... White Nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of white national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... White separatism is a political movement that promotes a separate homeland for white people. ... Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks a separate homeland for black people, particularly African-Americans. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale University Press, edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  2. ^ "Yale Book of Quotations" (2006), edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  3. ^ In addition to SNCC, the other "Big Five" organizations of the civil rights movement were the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Urban League, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Congress on Racial Equality.
  4. ^ Organizing For Social Change: A Mandate For Activity In The 1990s. Douglass, Frederick. Letter to an abolitionist associate (1857). In Organizing for Social Change: A Mandate For Activity In The 1990s. Bobo, K.; Randall, J.; and Max, S., eds. Cabin John, Maryland: Seven Locks Press (1991).
  5. ^ Scott Saul, "On the Lower Frequencies: Rethinking the Black Power movement" p.92-98 in Harper's, December 2006. p. 94
  6. ^ Cited in Scott Saul, "On the Lower Frequencies", p.95
  7. ^ Some notes on the BLACK CULTURAL MOVEMENT
  8. ^ Jamaica Says Black Is Beautiful
  9. ^ The Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School
  10. ^ Black Arts Movement
  11. ^ Rustin, Bayard (1965). "Black Power" and Coalition Politics. Commentary. PBS.

Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League is a non-profit, nonpartisan, civil rights and community-based movement that advocates on behalf of Black Americans and against racial discrimination. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...

Further reading

  • Carmichael, Stokely/ Hamilton, Charles V.: Black Power. The Politics of Liberation in America, Vintage, New York, 1967.
  • Breitman, George. In Defense of Black Power. International Socialist Review Jan-Feb 1967, from Tamiment Library microfilm archives. Transcribed & marked up by Andrew Pollack for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line. Retrieved May 2, 2005.
  • Salas, Mario Marcel. Masters Thesis: Patterns of Persistence: Paternal Colonialist Structures and the Radical Opposition in the African American Community in San Antonio, 1937-2001, University of Texas at San Antonio.
  • Brown, Scot, Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism, NYU Press, New York, 2003.
  • Ogbar, Jeffrey O. G. Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004.

External links

An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... Reparations for slavery is a movement in the United States, which suggests that the government apologize to slave descendants for their hardships, and bestow on them reparations, whether it be in the form of money, land, or other goods. ... Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... This is a list of museums about, or otherwise focused on African Americans. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African American Christian churches that minister to black communities in the United States. ... Black theology is theology from the perspective of the African diaspora - any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional homelands. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... For the Nas song called Black Republican, see Hip Hop Is Dead. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African-American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... Not to be confused with National Panhellenic Conference. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune, child of slave parents, distinguished educator and government consultant. ... Part of the History of baseball in the United States series. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Notable African-Americans or Black Americans // List of African American writers List of African American nonfiction writers List of composers of African descent African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of civil rights leaders List of African American abolitionists List... African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture...

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Black Power - MSN Encarta (944 words)
Black Power was formed in the late 1960s by Māori youth in Whakatane, in response to the rival Mongrel Mob gang.
Black Power represented both a conclusion to the decade’s civil rights movement and a reaction against the racism that persisted despite the efforts of fl activists during the early 1960s.
Black Panthers battled with police departments in several major American cities between 1968 and 1970, and several of the group’s leaders were killed, imprisoned, or made fugitives from the police.
King Encyclopedia (450 words)
Although the term “Black Power” was used occasionally by African-American writers and politicians for years, the expression first gained national attention during the Meredith March against Fear in the summer of 1966.
The controversy over Black Power reflected and perpetuated a split in the civil rights movement between organizations that saw nonviolent methods as the only way to achieve civil rights goals and those organizations that were prepared to accept armed self-defense and fl nationalism.
Although King was hesitant to criticize Black Power openly, he told his staff on 14 November 1966, that Black Power “was born from the wombs of despair and disappointment.
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